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  1. hitOne of about 200 different sound stimuli the human vocal apparatus can produce. A subset of these is used in any given spoken language (approximately 40 in English).

          

  2. recollectionRemembering a past event, as well as specific associations and contextual details.

          

  3. associativityIn long-term potentiation, the enhancement of a weakly activated group of synapses when a nearby group is strongly activated.

          

  4. autobiographical memoryMemory of one's personal experience.

          

  5. Hebbian learningGradual improvement in the performance of a motor or cognitive task as a result of extensive experience and repeated practice.

          

  6. individual differenceThe degree of pleasantness of a stimulus.

          

  7. habituationThe feeling of having experienced an event at some point in the past, even though no specific associations or contextual detail come to mind.

          

  8. cortisolA steroid hormone released by the adrenal gland that is involved in the stress response. Called corticosterone in rodents.

          

  9. retrieval modeBrain processes that occur in the absence of active executive control; a pattern of brain activation reflecting a set of cognitive processes that are typically more engaged during passive experience.

          

  10. reticular activating systemA region in the brainstem containing a set of subregions (brainstem "nuclei") that mediate overall arousal and level of awareness.

          

  11. conditioned stimulus (CS)In classical conditioning, the novel stimulus that eventually comes to trigger the innate reflex by virtue of repeated association.

          

  12. sensitizationThe process by which a behavioral response to an otherwise benign stimulus increases in intensity, frequency, or duration when that stimulus is paired with an aversive stimulus.

          

  13. long-term depression (LTD)Memory test that measures memory for the occurrence of items independently of their contexts.

          

  14. phonemePertaining to a sound stimulus that, by virtue of its periodic repetition, produces the perception of a tone.

          

  15. binding problemThe generation of a novel response that is gradually elicited by repeated pairing of a novel stimulus (the conditioned stimulus) with a stimulus that normally elicits the response being studied (the unconditioned stimulus).

          

  16. social referencingThe use of emotions expressed by another individual to guide one's own behavior.

          

  17. error-related negativity (ERN)A slow, long-lasting negative-polarity ERP wave that is elicited during auditory selective attention, the amplitude of which reflects how well each stimulus matches an attentional "template."

          

  18. source-filter modelA generally accepted model for the production of speech sound stimuli that entails the vocal-fold vibrations as a source and the rest of the vocal tract as a dynamic filter.

          

  19. childhood amnesiaIn adults, the inability to remember the early years of childhood.

          

  20. awarenessA cognitive/perceptual state in which an individual both shows knowledge of an event or stimulus and can report the subjective experience of having that knowledge.

          

  21. flashbulb memoryDeclarative memory that refers to memory for personally experienced past events.

          

  22. thalamusThe degree of pleasantness of a stimulus.

          

  23. empathyProcesses by which information is encoded (learned), stored, and retrieved.

          

  24. complex emotionAn emotion that is learned, socially and culturally shaped, evolutionarily new, and typically expressed by a combination of the response patterns that characterize basic emotions.

          

  25. emotion regulationThe continuation of an emotional response to a stimulus after the emotional significance of the stimulus has changed and the response is no longer appropriate.

          

  26. spreading activationHypothetical mechanism whereby the activation of a node in the semantic network spreads to associated nodes.

          

  27. operant conditioningThe altered probability of a behavioral response engendered by associating responses with rewards (or punishments).

          

  28. cognitive map theoryA theory positing that the hippocampus mediates memory for spatial relations among objects in the environment.

          

  29. persistent vegetative stateA state that results from profound damage to the brain, perhaps by injury or disease, that is characterized by a lack of awareness. A patient with persistant vegetative state typically can still react to stimuli and exhibit degrees of wakefulness and quiescence.

          

  30. conjunction targetA target in a visual search task that is characterized by having a unique combination of two visual features. Because the time taken to find a conjunction target increases linearly with the number of distracters, its detection is thought to require serial focused attention to each item till the specified target is found.

          

  31. hippocampus (pl. hippocampi)A specialized cortical structure located in the medial portion of the temporal lobe; in humans, concerned with declarative memory, among many other functions.

          

  32. consolidationThe strengthening of memory traces following encoding.

          

  33. N2pc waveAn emotional reaction elicited in cats by electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus, characterized by hissing, growling, and attack behaviors directed randomly toward innocuous targets.

          

  34. multiple-trace theoryA theory, developed by William James and Carl Lange in the 1880's, positing that emotions are determined by the pattern of feedback from the body periphery to the cerebral cortex.

          

  35. mirror neuronThe long-term balance between emotional and attentional processing. When these processes become skewed, mood disorders such as depression can occur.

          

  36. sympathyHaving feelings of pity or concern for another individual's plight without experiencing the same feelings expressed by that individual.

          

  37. interoceptionThe sharing of a common focus of attention across at least two individuals.

          

  38. phoneThe basic perceptual unit that distinguishes one utterance from another in a given language.

          

  39. retrieval cueThe mental state of episodic retrieval (the retrieval of episodic memories), which is assumed to be qualitatively different from the mental states of other cognitive abilities.

          

  40. default modeBrain processes that occur in the absence of active executive control; a pattern of brain activation reflecting a set of cognitive processes that are typically more engaged during passive experience.

          

  41. feature similarity gain modelA model in which the attentional modulation of the amplitude (gain) of a sensory neuron's response depends on the similarity of the features of the currently relevant target and the feature preferences of that neuron.

          

  42. mentalizingThe ability to represent the internal mental states of other individuals.

          

  43. storageThe retention of information over time.

          

  44. declarative memoryTypically refers to artificial network of interconnected nodes whose connections change in strength as a means of solving problems. Can also be used as a synonym for a neuronal circuit.

          

  45. hypothalamusIn recognition memory test, incorrectly classifying a new item as "old."

          

  46. tonalPertaining to a sound stimulus that, by virtue of its periodic repetition, produces the perception of a tone.

          

  47. relational memory theoryA theory positing that the hippocampus is involved primarily in encoding and retrieving associations between items, including spatial associations but also other types of associations.

          

  48. prosodicPertaining to the inflection in speech, often associated with emotion.

          

  49. Wernicke's aphasiaA language deficit arising from damage to Wernicke's area in the posterior temporal lobe and characterized by an inability to link objects or ideas and the words that signify them and to subjectively comprehend this relationship.

          

  50. acquisition1. A global state of the brain (or the body) reflecting an overall level of responsiveness.

    2. The degree of intensity of an emotion.

          

  51. conceptual primingA form of direct priming in which the test cue and the target are semantically related.

          

  52. memory modulation hypothesisA model of attention postulating that the visual perceptual system is organized as a set of feature maps, each providing information about the location(s) in the visual field of a particular feature. The model also proposes that attention is required to integrate the feature information from these separate maps into a perceptual whole.

          

  53. source memory testAn explicit test of memory that asks participants to remember not merely what events happened in the past but where, when, or how they happened.

          

  54. cognitive reappraisalA form of emotion regulation in which individuals use cognitive resources to alter the meaning of a situation in order to reduce or change its emotional impact.

          

  55. processing negativityThe ability to adopt the viewpoint of another individual.

          

  56. domain-specific theoryIn long-term potentiation, only the synapses activated during stimulation show enhancement; other synapses, even on the same neuron, are not affected.

          

  57. engramThe physical basis of a stored memory.

          

  58. right-hemisphere hypothesisA theory positing that the hippocampus is involved primarily in encoding and retrieving associations between items, including spatial associations but also other types of associations.

          

  59. Cannon-Bard theoryTypically an unvoiced (atonal) element of speech that begins and/or ends syllables.

          

  60. behavioral LTPFollowing a stimulus or event, describing a process in which neural activity is fed back to the same brain region, typically a sensory area, that was activated earlier in the processing sequence.

          

  61. skin conductance response (SCR)A stimulus-induced increase in the electrical conductance of the skin due to increased hydration.

          

  62. sham rageThe system of rules implicit in a language.

          

  63. semantic primingA form of indirect priming in which the prime and the target are semantically related.

          

  64. intentional stanceThe assumption that others are agents motivated to behave in a way that is consistent with their current mental state.

          

  65. classical conditioningA form of classical conditioning in which the conditioned stimulus is still ongoing when the unconditioned stimulus starts, and they both terminate at the same time.

          

  66. auditory N1The first major negative ERP wave elicited by an auditory stimulus, arising mainly from secondary auditory cortex and peaking at about 100 milliseconds after the stimulus; can be strongly modulated by auditory spatial attention.

          

  67. guided searchA cognitive model positing that there are two basic components that determine the allocation of attention during visual search : a component driven by stimulus (bottom-up) information and one driven by top-down influences based on high-level factors and behavioral goals.

          

  68. dissociative identity disorderA clinical condition characterized by at least two distinct and relatively enduring personalities that alternately control a person's behavior.

          

  69. working memoryPriming theory which proposes that when a stimulus is repeated neurons that are not essential fire less, leading to a more efficient "sharpened" representation and a reduction in neural activity.

          

  70. primingOne of several frequencies that represent the natural resonances of different components of the vocal tract.

          

  71. semantic memoryA form of indirect priming in which the prime and the target are semantically related.

          

  72. Klüver-Bucy syndromeA rare behavioral syndrome following damage to the anterior temporal lobe that includes a lack of appreciation for the motivational significance of objects in the environment, hyperorality, and altered sexual behavior; named after Heinrich Kluver and Paul Bucy.

          

  73. multisensory integrationThe combining of sensory information from different sensory modalities, facilitating the linking of that information together into one perceptual object.

          

  74. missProcesses by which information is encoded (learned), stored, and retrieved.

          

  75. confabulationThe ability to represent the internal mental states of other individuals.

          

  76. illusory conjunctiona theory of attention that proposes that stimulus inputs compete in a mutually inhibitory fashion for neural processing priority and that a key role of attention is to bias the processing towards those items that are attended.

          

  77. transfer-appropriate processingThe hypothesis that memory performance depends on a match between the conditions surrounding the encoding and retrieval of a stimulus.

          

  78. perceptual primingThe idea, proposed by Donald Hebb in the late 1940s, that when presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons fire action potentials together, the strength of the synaptic connections between them is enhanced. Hebb's rule is often stated as "cells that fire together wire together."

          

  79. mismatch negativity (MMN)A negative ERP wave peaking at about 150 to 200 milliseconds following a deviant stimulus in a stream of otherwise identical stimuli (usually sound stimuli).

          

  80. unconditioned response (UR)In classical conditioning, the novel stimulus that eventually comes to trigger the innate reflex by virtue of repeated association.

          

  81. aprosodiaThe inability to inflect speech with the usual emotional color that the right hemisphere typically contributes to language. Characterized by a monotonic or "robotic" speech pattern.

          

  82. neural networkTypically refers to artificial network of interconnected nodes whose connections change in strength as a means of solving problems. Can also be used as a synonym for a neuronal circuit.

          

  83. dendritic spineThe process that evaluates the appropriateness of a given behavior for the current context; examples include evaluating the accuracy of answers generated during a memory test or the adequacy of a response rule in an executive function paradigm.

          

  84. retrievalDuring memory retrieval, the process of accessing stored memory traces.

          

  85. conditioningThe generation of a novel response that is gradually elicited by repeated pairing of a novel stimulus (the conditioned stimulus) with a stimulus that normally elicits the response being studied (the unconditioned stimulus).

          

  86. valencePertaining to a sound stimulus that, by virtue of its periodic repetition, produces the perception of a tone.

          

  87. temporoparietal junctionA region of the neocortex that includes the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus and the angular gyrus of the parietal lobe.

          

  88. covert attentionThe focusing of visual attention toward a location or item in the visual field without shifting the direction of gaze. Can apply to other sensory modalities or to attentional paradigms.

          

  89. circumplex modelA way to graphically represent the relationships among emotions by ordering them along the circumference of a circle formed by intersecting two orthogonal axes of valence and arousal at the circle's center.

          

  90. split-brain patientThe process by which a behavioral response to an otherwise benign stimulus increases in intensity, frequency, or duration when that stimulus is paired with an aversive stimulus.

          

  91. emotionThe ability to share the same feelings expressed by another individual.

          

  92. visual searchThe searching in a visual scene with multiple stimulus items for a particular type of item possessing one or more specific feature attributes.

          

  93. memory searchA process during memory retrieval that explores possible locations of a target memory.

          

  94. specificityIn long-term potentiation, only the synapses activated during stimulation show enhancement; other synapses, even on the same neuron, are not affected.

          

  95. attentional stream paradigmThe assumption that others are agents motivated to behave in a way that is consistent with their current mental state.

          

  96. learningThe combined effect of all encoding, storage, and retrieval in gradually enhancing the performance of a particular task.

          

  97. stress hormoneAny of several hormones, including cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, that are secreted by the adrenal gland when stimulated by its sympathetic innervation.

          

  98. default mode networkA network of the brain that includes the posterior cingulate cortex, the ventral anterior cingulate cortex, and the medial inferior prefrontal cortex and that has been proposed to be engaged when the brain is either "idling," not engaged in any specific cognitive task, or directing attention inwardly.

          

  99. valence hypothesisA hypothesis postulating that positive emotions are preferentially processed in the left hemisphere and negative emotions are preferentially processed in the right hemisphere.

          

  100. situation selectionA form of emotion regulation in which individuals select situations that minimize the likelihood of experiencing negative emotions.

          

  101. fear conditioningThe process that evaluates the appropriateness of a given behavior for the current context; examples include evaluating the accuracy of answers generated during a memory test or the adequacy of a response rule in an executive function paradigm.

          

  102. repetition suppressionA phenomenon observed in functional neuroimaging studies in which previously encountered stimuli evoke smaller hemodynamic responses than do novel stimuli.

          

  103. premotor theory of attentionA cognitive theory proposing that shifts of attention and preparation of goal-directed action are closely linked because they are controlled by shared sensory-motor mechanisms.

          

  104. memoryDuring memory retrieval, the process of accessing stored memory traces.

          

  105. perceptual loadA form of direct priming in which the test cue and the target are perceptually related.

          

  106. fear extinctionThe gradual disappearance of a conditioned response that is no longer being rewarded.

          

  107. consciousnessAn intriguing but puzzling concept that includes the ideas of wakefulness, awareness of the world, and awareness of the self as an actor in the world.

          

  108. encodingA set of physiological responses, action tendencies, and subjective feelings that adaptively engage humans and other animals to react to events of biological and/or individual significance.

          

  109. mood regulationThe long-term balance between emotional and attentional processing. When these processes become skewed, mood disorders such as depression can occur.

          

  110. sensory/functional theoryA target in a visual search task that is characterized by having a unique combination of two visual features. Because the time taken to find a conjunction target increases linearly with the number of distracters, its detection is thought to require serial focused attention to each item till the specified target is found.

          

  111. biased competitiona theory of attention that proposes that stimulus inputs compete in a mutually inhibitory fashion for neural processing priority and that a key role of attention is to bias the processing towards those items that are attended.

          

  112. long-term potentiation (LTP)The focusing of attention (typically visual) by voluntarily shifting gaze.

          

  113. endogenous attentionAlso called reflexive attention. A form of attention in which processing resources are directed to specific aspects of the environment in response to a sudden stimulus change, such as a loud noise or sudden movement, that attracts attention automatically.

          

  114. aphasiaA language deficit that arises from damage to one of the cortical language areas, typically in the left hemisphere.

          

  115. monitoringThe process that evaluates the appropriateness of a given behavior for the current context; examples include evaluating the accuracy of answers generated during a memory test or the adequacy of a response rule in an executive function paradigm.

          

  116. levels of processingDeclarative memory encoding is usually better when information is processed at a semantic (deep) level rather than at a perceptual (shallow) level.

          

  117. P20-50 attention effectThe focusing of visual attention toward a location or item in the visual field without shifting the direction of gaze. Can apply to other sensory modalities or to attentional paradigms.

          

  118. selection negativityThe voluntary or involuntary deployment of resources to gain control over emotional responses.

          

  119. perspective takingThe facilitation of recall in which the prime and the target are identical or have the same name.

          

  120. standard consolidation theoryA theory positing that the hippocampus rapidly encodes an integrated representation of an event or concept, which is then slowly transferred to the cortex and eventually becomes independent of the hippocampus.

          

  121. P300Also called P3. A large positive ERP wave elicited by stimuli that are surprising, are of an infrequent event type, or are task-relevant targets, usually when occurring within a stream of other sensory events; typically peaks between 300 and 500 milliseconds after the stimulus.

          

  122. recoveryDuring memory retrieval, the process of accessing stored memory traces.

          

  123. limbic system theoryA theory positing that the hippocampus mediates memory for spatial relations among objects in the environment.

          

  124. system consolidationMemory consolidation involving a reorganization of the brain regions that support the memory in question. In the case of declarative memory, refers to a decrease in the role of the hippocampus and an increase in the role of the cortex over time.

          

  125. semantic dementiaA form of indirect priming in which the prime and the target are semantically related.

          

  126. sharpening theoryA theory, developed by William James and Carl Lange in the 1880's, positing that emotions are determined by the pattern of feedback from the body periphery to the cerebral cortex.

          

  127. synaptic consolidationMemory consolidation involving changes in synapses that presumably allow the persistence of some forms of memory traces at the cellular level.

          

  128. syntaxThe subjective sense of existing as an individual.

          

  129. self-awarenessAn awareness of oneself as a separate actor in the world.

          

  130. amygdalaThe physical basis of a stored memory.

          

  131. familiarityThe feeling of having experienced an event at some point in the past, even though no specific associations or contextual detail come to mind.

          

  132. feature integration theoryA theory positing that episodic memories, consolidated or otherwise, always depend on the hippocampus.

          

  133. retrograde amnesiaThe mental state of episodic retrieval (the retrieval of episodic memories), which is assumed to be qualitatively different from the mental states of other cognitive abilities.

          

  134. anhedoniaReduced experience of positive affect; often accompanies depression.

          

  135. Urbach-Wiethe syndromeA rare, congenital dermatological disease that occasionally produces calcifications in temporal lobe structures.

          

  136. repetition enhancementThe creation of new representations and the increase in activity that result from the repetition of stimuli during priming; associated with priming for novel stimuli.

          

  137. exogenous attentionThe focusing of attention (typically visual) by voluntarily shifting gaze.

          

  138. connectionistIn patients with memory disorders, the generation of false memories for complex autobiographical events.

          

  139. nondeclarative memoryMemory expressed through performance; assumed to operate unconsciously.

          

  140. correct rejectionIn recognition memory test, correctly classifying a new item as "new."

          

  141. formantOne of several frequencies that represent the natural resonances of different components of the vocal tract.

          

  142. trace conditioningA form of classical conditioning in which there is a brief time interval between the end of the conditioned stimulus and the start of the unconditioned stimulus.

          

  143. episodic memoryDeclarative memory that refers to general knowledge about the world, including knowledge of language, facts, and the properties of objects.

          

  144. vowelTypically a voiced (tonal) element of speech that forms the nucleus of syllables.

          

  145. locus coeruleusA steroid hormone released by the adrenal gland that is involved in the stress response. Called corticosterone in rodents.

          

  146. recall testMemory test that requires generating the target information.

          

  147. embodimentA sense of physical location of the self within one's own body.

          

  148. blindsightThe ability of people who are blind, usually because of damage to portions of their visual cortex, to identify the properties of simple visual stimuli when forced to guess.

          

  149. vector modelA way to graphically represent the relationships among emotions by ordering them along two orthogonal axes of positive and negative valence.

          

  150. Broca's areaAn area of cortex in the superior and posterior region of the left temporal lobe that helps mediate language comprehension; named after the nineteenth-century neurologist and psychiatrist Carl Wernicke.

          

  151. item recognition testMemory test that measures memory for the occurrence of items independently of their contexts.

          

  152. consonantTypically an unvoiced (atonal) element of speech that begins and/or ends syllables.

          

  153. fusiform face area (FFA)An area in the ventral posterior region of the left frontal lobe that helps mediate language expression; named after the nineteenth-century anatomist and neurologist Paul Broca.

          

  154. skill learningGradual improvement in the performance of a motor or cognitive task as a result of extensive experience and repeated practice.

          

  155. selfIn recognition memory test, incorrectly classifying an old item as "new."

          

  156. reentrant processFollowing a stimulus or event, a process in which neural activity is fed back to the same brain region activated earlier in the processing sequence.

          

  157. amnesiaThe pathological inability to remember or to establish memories.

          

  158. arousal1. A global state of the brain (or the body) reflecting an overall level of responsiveness.

    2. The degree of intensity of an emotion.

          

  159. voicedPertaining to a speech sound stimulus characterized by laryngeal harmonics—typically a vowel sound.

          

  160. overt attentionThe focusing of visual attention toward a location or item in the visual field without shifting the direction of gaze. Can apply to other sensory modalities or to attentional paradigms.

          

  161. conditioned response (CR)In classical conditioning, the stimulus that naturally triggers the innate reflex.

          

  162. emotional perseverationThe continuation of an emotional response to a stimulus after the emotional significance of the stimulus has changed and the response is no longer appropriate.

          

  163. epinephrineThe physical basis of a stored memory.

          

  164. brainstem evoked response (BER)Also called auditory brainstem response (ABR). A series of small electrical brain waves that are elicited during the first 10 milliseconds after onset of a brief auditory stimulus and that can be detected at the scalp. BERs reflect activity in the auditory brainstem nuclei as the sound stimulus information reaches them in sequence via the auditory afferent pathways.

          

  165. James-Lange theoryA theory, developed by William James and Carl Lange in the 1880's, positing that emotions are determined by the pattern of feedback from the body periphery to the cerebral cortex.

          

  166. power motivationAn enduring preference for having impact on other people or the world at large.

          

  167. joint attentionThe marshalling of cognitive processing resources on a particular aspect of the external or internal environment, or on internal processes such as thoughts or memories.

          

  168. grammarThe system of rules implicit in a language.

          

  169. unconditioned stimulus (US)In classical conditioning, the stimulus that naturally triggers the innate reflex.

          

  170. prosodyPertaining to the inflection in speech, often associated with emotion.

          

  171. attentionThe gradual disappearance of a conditioned response that is no longer being rewarded.

          

  172. propranololAn antagonist of the beta-adrenergic system.

          

  173. eyeblink conditioningThe altered probability of a behavioral response engendered by associating responses with rewards (or punishments).

          

  174. vertical integration modelA model of emotion that integrates cortical, subcortical, and visceral processes.

          

  175. early selectionIn recognition memory test, correctly classifying a new item as "new."

          

  176. inhibition of returnThe strengthening of memory traces following encoding.

          

  177. basic emotionAn emotion that is innate, pan-cultural, evolutionarily old, shared with other species, and expressed by a particular physiological pattern and facial configuration.

          

  178. visual spatial attentionAttention directed to a location in visual space.

          

  179. Skinner boxThe ability of people who are blind, usually because of damage to portions of their visual cortex, to identify the properties of simple visual stimuli when forced to guess.

          

  180. norepinephrineFollowing a stimulus or event, describing a process in which neural activity is fed back to the same brain region, typically a sensory area, that was activated earlier in the processing sequence.

          

  181. anterograde amnesiaReduced experience of positive affect; often accompanies depression.

          

  182. Bailint's SyndromeA language deficit arising from damage to Broca's area in the frontal lobe and characterized by difficulty in the production of speech.

          

  183. raphe nucleiBrainstem nuclei involved in the control of the sleep-wake cycle, among other functions related to arousal.

          

  184. temperamentA disposition to react to emotional situations either positively or negatively.

          

  185. saliency mapThe pathological inability to remember or to establish memories.

          

  186. self-reflexive thoughtThe ability to consider one's own being as an object of thought.

          

  187. supramodal attentionA form of attention in which processing resources are directed voluntarily to specific aspects of the environment; typically prompted by experimental instructions or, more normally, by an individual's goals, expectations, and/or knowledge.

          

  188. pop-out stimulusAn item in a visual scene or visual array that differs from all of the other items in the scene (distracters) in one featural dimension (such as color, orientation, texture, shape, size). Because the time taken to find a pop-out stimulus is mostly independent of the number of distracter items, its detection is thought to be accomplished by the processing of all the items across the visual field in parallel.

          

  189. subsequent memory effect (SME)The misperception of speech sounds due to conflicting visual stimuli.

          

  190. comaA pathological state of profound and persistent unconsciousness.

          

  191. wakefulnessThe combined effect of all encoding, storage, and retrieval in gradually enhancing the performance of a particular task.

          

  192. delay conditioningA paradigm in which a puff of air is repeatedly paired with a tone until the tone by itself elicits blinking.

          

  193. Wernicke's areaAny information that leads to the retrieval of memories, such as the hits provided by memory tests.

          

  194. direct primingThe facilitation of recall in which the prime and the target are identical or have the same name.

          

  195. McGurk effectA process during memory retrieval that explores possible locations of a target memory.

          

  196. episodic memory theoryA theory positing that the hippocampus is critical for episodic memory but not for semantic memory.

          

  197. larynxThe combined effect of all encoding, storage, and retrieval in gradually enhancing the performance of a particular task.

          

  198. binocular rivalryIn long-term potentiation, the enhancement of a weakly activated group of synapses when a nearby group is strongly activated.

          

  199. indirect primingThe facilitation of recall by an item (the prime) that is not directly related to that item. For example, the word winter may indirectly prime both summer and snow.

          

  200. contextual fear conditioningA form of emotional learning in which fear responses are acquired in response to environments that predict the presence of an aversive stimulus.

          

  201. false alarmThe pathological inability to remember or to establish memories.

          

  202. late selectionIn conditioning, the gradual learning of a conditioned response.

          

  203. fugue stateThe retention of information over time.

          

  204. extinctionThe process by which a behavioral response to the same stimulus decreases in intensity, frequency, or duration when that stimulus is repeated over and over.

          

  205. reentrantTypically an unvoiced (atonal) element of speech that begins and/or ends syllables.

          

  206. Broca's aphasiaAn area in the ventral posterior region of the left frontal lobe that helps mediate language expression; named after the nineteenth-century anatomist and neurologist Paul Broca.