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  1. Groups of neural circuits that combine to form larger systems for processing information.neural system


  2. A configuration that mau be described at multiple levels, from global features to lcoal features; the finer components are embedded within the higher level components.hierarchical structure


  3. Non-corresponding areas of the brain between hemispheres.heterotopic areas


  4. At least 30,000 years ago, humans started painting their hand outlines on the walls of caves, alongside sophisticated depictions of animals. The caves were often deep and difficult to get to. What might this indicate about the state of humanity 30,000 years ago?angiography


  5. A physiological procedure in which an array of electrodes is inserted in the brain such that the activity of many cells can be recorded simultaneously.cerebral vascular accident


  6. _____ contrast imaging is a method used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to observe different areas of the brain or other organs, which are found to be active at any given time.angiography


  7. A portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary glandparietal lobe


  8. You are a respected neurologist. Congratulations! Your latest patient, however, has you stumped. They appear to have had a small stroke, but the location has not yet been identified. They show difficulty controlling eye movement, facial expression, posture, and have extremely fragmented sleep. This broad collection of symptoms points to dysfunction in thePons - the relay center between cerebellum and cerebrum (literally means "bridge"


  9. A specialized processing unit of the nervous system.tract


  10. The region of the nervous system that contains groups of motor and sensory nuclei, nuclei of widespread modulatory neurotransmitter systems, and white matter tracts of ascending sensory information and descending motor signals.neocortex


  11. The structure extending away from a neuron down which action potentials travel. The terminals of ___ contact other neurons at synapses.homotopic areas


  12. You signed up for an experiment to earn some extra cash. During intake, you complete something called the Stroop Task. Afterward, the researcher explains that the Stroop is used tobehaviorism


  13. a neuroimaging method that utilizes MRI to track blood flow changes in the brain that are thought to be correlated with local changes in neuronal activity.functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)


  14. Phrenologists believed that the contour of the skull could provide valuable information about an individual's cognitive capacities and personality traits. This approach was based on the assumption thatinsula


  15. the study of the physical shape of the human head, based on the belief that variations in the skull's surface can reveal specific intellectual and personality traits.cognitive neuroscience


  16. You continue playing with your new super expensive toy, focusing on the myelination process in the central nervous system. What should you look for now?lateral geniculate nucleus (visual relay pathway in the thalamus, responsible for communicating visual information with the primary visual cortex).


  17. A test that uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy to make pictures of organs and structures inside the body. Usually measure variations in the density of hydrogen ions in the tissure being scanned.magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)


  18. Differences in the functions that each hemisphere subserves.functional asymmetry


  19. A neuroimaging method that measures metabolic activity or blood flow changes in the brain by monitoring the distribution of a radioactive tracer. The scanner measures the photons produced during the decay of a tracer.positron emission tomography (PET)


  20. What are the two subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system?sympathetic and parasympathetic


  21. An imaging method used to evaluate the circulatory system in the braintranscortical


  22. A clinical procedure in which a barbiturate is injected to temporarily disrupt function in one of the cerebral hemispheres. This procedure is used to identify the source of epileptic seizures.Wada test


  23. A location at which myelin is interrupted between successive patches of axon, and where an action potential can be generated.node of Ranvier


  24. A rapid loss of brain function due to a compromise of int he blood supply of the brain secondary to arterial occlusion or hemorrhage.cerebral vascular accident


  25. The layered sheets of neurons that overlies the forebrain. The largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. Is divided into four sections, called "lobes": the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe.cerebral cortex


  26. A visual model of the connections within some part of the nervous system.tract


  27. A 3-dimensional coordinate system of the human brain, which is used to map the location of brain structures independent from individual differences in the size and overall shape of the brain.Talairach coordinate


  28. The posterior area of the corpus callosum that interconnects the occipital lobe.cognitive neuroscience


  29. A physical barrier formed by the end feet of astrocytes between the blood vessels in the brain and the tissues of the brain. The _____ limits which materials in the blood can gain access to neurons in the nervous system.thalamus


  30. An experimental technique by which two areas of neocortex are functionally dissociated by two behavioral tests, each test being affected by a lesion in one zone and not the other.pharmacological studies


  31. The brain and spinal cordIt is important because it controls relay circuits for integrating sensory functions such as vision and audition.


  32. Radiography in which a three-dimensional image of a body structure is constructed by computer from a series of plane cross-sectional images made along an axis.transcortical


  33. Created by Wilder Penfield and Herbert Jasper, a procedure to treat epilepsy in which the neurons that produce seizures were surgically destroyedion pump


  34. Different nerve cells have different characteristic structures, and similar structures tend to cluster together to form distinct areas. Duh, you already knew that. This idea is known as _______________ and supports a _____________ view of mammalian brain organization.cytoarchitectonics; localized


  35. The ____ ____ is involved in motor control and learning. Reciprocal neuronal loops project from the cortical areas to the ____ ____ and back to the cortex.basal ganglia


  36. The fiber system composed of axons that allows communication between the two hemispheres of the brain. It is responsible for transmitting neural messages between both the right and left hemispheres.heterotopic areas


  37. The surface area of the temporal lobe that includes Wernicke's area.planum temporale


  38. The body system that regulates heart rate, breathing, and glandular secretions and may become activated during emotional arousal, initiating a "flight or fight" response to a stimulus.autonomic nervous system


  39. This got you wondering... how exactly does an oligodendrocyte create myelin on its host neuron?It wraps its own cell membrane in concentric circles around the axon of the neuron during neuronal development. The wrapping movement eventually squeezes out the oligodendrocyte's own cytoplasm, leaving a concentrated lipid layer behind.


  40. A radioactive compound that is used as a tracer in PET scans to label beta-amyloid, a substance associated with Alzheimer's disease.axon collateral


  41. A MRI-based neuroimaging technique which makes it possible to visualize the location, orientation, and anisotropy of the brain's white matter tracts.diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)


  42. Congratulations! You just bought a two photon-laser scanning microscope. You focus in on the vasculature of the brain, just for kicks. As you dial that puppy up you see large neural cells in direct contact with a series of blood vessels. What are these cells called?aggregate field theory


  43. You just heard about a viral video in which an individual with paraplegia can control a robotic arm simply by thinking about it. Your friends think it is science fiction, but you know that brain-machine interface is possible thanks toadvances in single neuron recording and control via detailed systems mapping.


  44. A nonsurgical treatment to reduce tremor and to block involuntary movements in patients with motion disorders. Small electric shocks are delivered to the thalamus or the globus pallidus, rendering these parts of the brain inactive without surgically destroying them.syncytium


  45. the idea that all knowledge comes from sensory experienceepiricism


  46. The visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex.aggregate field theory


  47. There are two amygdalae per person normally, with one amygdala on each side of the brain. They are thought to be a part of the limbic system within the brain, which is responsible for emotions, survival instincts, and memory.sympathetic and parasympathetic


  48. List three anatomical or physiological differences between the cerebral hemispheres?cytoarchitectonics


  49. A change in the membrane potential in which the electrical current inside the cell becomes less negative.depolarization


  50. A bundle of axons in the central nervous system.tract


  51. The area of external space within which a stimulus must be presented in order to activate a cell.aggregate field theory


  52. A deep fissure of the lateral aspect of each cerebral hemisphere that divides the temporal from the frontal cortex.Sylvian (lateral) fissure


  53. The propagation of action potentials along myelinated axons from one node of Ranvier to the next node, increasing the conduction velocity of action potentials.saltatory conduction


  54. The ____ receives information from the sensory systems, the spinal cord, and other parts of the brain and then regulates motor movements. It coordinates voluntary movements such as posture, balance, coordination, and speech, resulting in smooth and balanced muscular activity.glial cell


  55. The mapping of visual input from the retina to neurons, particularly those neurons within the visual stream.retinotopic


  56. A data processing technique that provides a more robust measure by performing a weighted average of the signal from the observed location with its spatial neighbor.functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)


  57. A technique used to observe the activity of individual neurons. The procedure involves positioning a small recording electrode either inside a cell or near the outer membrane of a neuron.single-cell recording


  58. the study of how the brain enables the mindcentral nervous system (CNS)


  59. A noninvasive method used to stimulate neurons in the brain. During a procedure, a strong electrical current is rapidly generated in a coil and placed over the targeted region. It is used in clinical setting to evaluate motor function by direct stimulation of the motor cortex, creating brief reversible lesions.transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)


  60. The scientific study of mind and mental function, including learning, memory, attention, perception, reasoning, language, conceptual development, and decision making.cognitive psychology


  61. A passageway in the cell membrane, formed by a transmembrane protein that creates a pore, through which ions of sodium, potassium, and chloride might pass into or out of the cell.ion channel


  62. One of two cell types in the nervous system, responsible for processing sensory, motor, cognitive, and affective information.insula


  63. Several structures that form a layer around the brain stem. A complex system of nerves and networks in the brain, involving several areas near the edge of the cortex concerned with instinct and mood. It controls the basic emotions (fear, pleasure, anger) and drives (hunger, sex, dominance, care of offspring).tract


  64. The concept proposed by the great Spanish neuroanatomist Santiago Ramon y Cajal in the 19th century that the neuron is the fundamental units of the nervous system is composed of billions of these units (neurons) connected to process informationneuron doctrine


  65. A part of the brain located at the front of the frontal lobe. It is implicated in a variety of complex behaviors, including planning, and greatly contributes to personality development.pituitary gland


  66. the active or regenerative electrical signal hat is required for synaptic communication. They are propagated along the axon and result in the release of neurotransmitter.cerebral specialization


  67. The voltage (charge) difference across the cell membrane when the cell is at rest.splenium


  68. Proteins in the cell membrane of neurons that are capable of transporting ions against their concentration gradient.ion pump


  69. A left-brain system that seeks explanations for internal and external events in order to produce appropriate response behaviors.autonomic nervous system


  70. The ____ contains neurons that participate in visuomotor functions, auditory relays, and the mesencephalic tegmental nuclei involved in motor coordination.midbrain


  71. You fell while attempting a 720 Gazelle Flip in the skate park. You were wearing a helmet (always wear a helmet), but you still hit your head hard. The doctor at the ER thinks you may have fractured your skull, so she orders a ____________ scan to make sure.CT (computed tomography)


  72. the volume of the neocortex that is not strictly sensory or motor, but receives inputs from multiple sensorimotor modalities.association cortex


  73. Regions of the nervous system that contain primarily neuronal cell bodies. Includes the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and the nuclei of the thalamus.interpreter


  74. Referring to the neuron located after the synapse with respect to information flow.postsynaptic


  75. a period immediately following an action potential during which the neuron may not be able to generate action potentials.refractory period


  76. the theory that the aggregation of a person's experience determines the course of mental developmentbehaviorism


  77. Signal processing technique for analyzing the content of a stimulus and how that content changes over time.peripheral nervous system (PNS)


  78. Wow. Those were some tough questions! Your neurons handled all that good thought while the glia supported them, because glia play no direct roll in neural communication, right or wrong?synaptogenesis


  79. A structure in the middle of the brain. It is located between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain. It works to correlate several important processes, including consciousness, sleep, and sensory interpretation.blood-brain barrier (BBB)


  80. The portion of the cortex that contains six main cortical layers and has a high degree of specialization of neuronal organization. It is involved in higher functions such as sensory perception, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning, conscious thought, and in humans, language.neocortex


  81. A barbiturate used to produce rapid and brief anesthesiaamobarbital


  82. Large tree-like processes of neurons that receive inputs from other neurons at synapses.dendrite


  83. The following images were briefly shown (about 200 ms) to a group of healthy 18 - 22 year olds. (A. man smiling on the left and neutral on the right. B. man is neutral on the left and smiling on the right).They were then asked to identify which man, A or B was more emotionally expressive. Almost everyone answeredA, because emotion (his smile) is being presented to the right hemisphere in which emotional processing occurs.


  84. An invaginated region that appears as a line or crease of the surface of the cerebral cortex.voltage-gated ion channel


  85. The smallest unit of three- dimensional data that can be represented in a MRI.planum temporale


  86. Referring to the neuron located before the synapse with respect to information flow.neural circut


  87. Structural damage to the white or gray matter of the brain. They can result from many causes; including tumor, stroke, and degenerative disorders.brain lesion


  88. A cortical lobe that contains a variety of neurons, including the somatosensory cortex, gustatory cortex, and parietal association cortex, which includes regions involved in visuomotor orienting, attention, and representation of space.multiunit recording


  89. A courier network that delivers information to the central nervous system and the conducts the motor commands of the CNS to control muscles of the body; anything outside the brain and spinal cord.tract


  90. The measured brain response that is the direct result of a specific sensory, cognitive, or motor event. More formally, it is any stereotyped electrophysiological response to a stimulus.association cortex


  91. Experimental procedure in which the independent variable involves the administration of a chemical agent or drug.tract


  92. Broca and Wernicke were advocates of the localization viewpoint in brain function. Why?sympathetic and parasympathetic


  93. List the collection of five subcortial nuclei that comprise the basal ganglia.cognitive neuroscience


  94. The membrane potential in which a given ion has no net flux across the membrane; meaning as many of the ions move outward as move inward across the membrane.equilibrium potential


  95. Dense layers of collagenous fibers that surround the brain and spinal cord. It surrounds and supports the dural sinuses and carries blood from the brain toward the heart.central nervous system (CNS)


  96. The location, at the juncture of the soma and the axon of a neuron, where currents from synaptic inputs on the soma and distant dendrites are summed and where voltage-gated Na+ channels are located that can be triggered to generate action potentials that can propagate down the axon.brainstem


  97. is a type of electrophysiological monitoring that uses electrodes placed directly on the exposed surface of the brain to record electrical activity from the cerebral cortex.multiunit recording


  98. A pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus, to which it is attached via nerve fibers. It is part of the endocrine system and produces critical hormones, which are chemical substances that control various bodily functions.transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)


  99. The point-for-point correspondence of an area of the body to a specific point on the central nervous system. Typically, the area of the body corresponds to a point on the primary somatosensory cortex (postcentral gyrus).somatotopy


  100. The more numerous cell type found in the nervous system. The four main functions of these cells are: to surround neurons and hold them in place, to supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons, to insulate one neuron from another, and to destroy and remove the carcasses of dead neurons.cerebellum


  101. A biological technique which involves the use of light to control cells in living tissue, typically neurons, that have been genetically modified to express light-sensitive ion channels.optogenetics


  102. the way in which cells differ between brain regionssynaptic cleft


  103. Branches off and axon that can transmit signals to more than one cellaxon collateral


  104. Carries interhemispheric fibers that contribute to the papillary light reflex.posterior commisure


  105. You have discovered a disease in which damaged cells aren't being properly cleared from the brain. To treat it, you focus on preserving the function of _________.microglial cells


  106. The cell body of a neuronsoma


  107. A change in the membrane potential in which the electrical current inside the cell becomes more negative.equilibrium potential


  108. A little knob attached by a small neck to the surface of a dendrite. Synapses are located on ___.spine


  109. Communication between locations in the cortex.transcortical


  110. A paradigm used in fMRI studies in which the BOLD response can be time-locked to particular stimuli and responses. Such designs require using delays or temporal variation in order to isolate the response to these events.event-related design


  111. The distribution of the brain's blood supply which can be measured. In PET scanning, ___ is used as a measure of metabolic changes following increased neural activity in restricted regions of the brain.regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)


  112. Passive current flow through neurons that accompanies activated electrical currents.electronic conduction


  113. The gap between neurons at synapses.synaptic cleft


  114. You wake up one morning unable to see. Oh no! At the doctor, a thorough examination reveals that there is no damage to your eyes or your optic nerves. MRI indicates no damage to your parietal lobe or primary visual cortex. Thanks to your extensive CNS knowledge, you as the doctor to check yourprefrontal cortex


  115. The study of the physiological processes of the nervous system.module


  116. ____ ____ is composed of bundles of myelinated axons, which connect various grey matter areas (the locations of nerve cell bodies) of the brain to each other, and carry nerve impulses between neurons.cerebellum


  117. You hypothesize that sleep loss impacts executive function and mood control by depriving the brain of energy via dysregulation of specialized glucose receptors in the brain. Hey, me too! Cool. Of the following options, which imaging technique would help us to best test this hypothesis?aggregate field theory


  118. This section of the brain is a part of the limbic system responsible for integration of emotional processing into learning and memory.cingulate gyrus


  119. A technique for creating a genetically altered version of species in order to study behavioral changes occurring in animal that have developed without the targeted gene.knockout procedure


  120. The formation of synapses between neurons in the nervous system.synaptic cleft


  121. A fatty substance that surrounds the axons of many neurons and increases the effective membrane resistance, helping to speed the conduction of action potentials.neurotransmitter


  122. Front part of the brain; containing two principal regions; the motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex. Involved in planning, organizing, problem solving, selective attention, personality and a variety of "higher cognitive functions" including behavior and emotions.cingulate gyrus


  123. A small organ located within the brain's medial temporal lobe and forms an important part of the limbic system, the region that regulates emotions. It is associated mainly with memory, in particular long-term memory. The organ also plays an important role in spatial navigation.receptive field


  124. A region of the brain deep in the cerebral cortex, known to process gustatory information.cingulate gyrus


  125. the belief that the whole brain participates in behavoircytoarchitectonics


  126. A junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.transcortical


  127. You asked a patient who had had her corpus callosum surgically severed to draw figures (different line shapes), each simultaneously with a different hand. Compared to neurologically intact control participants, your patient...was better at producing movements simultaneously with both hands, even when they differed in direction.


  128. An experiment in which the recorded neural activity is integrated over a "block" of time during which the participant is either presented with a stimulus or preforms task. The recorded activity pattern is then compared to other blocks that have been recorded while doing the same task or stimulus, a different one, or nothing.block design experiment


  129. A chemical substance that transmits the signal between neurons at a chemical synapse.neurotransmitter


  130. The nerve bundle connecting the left and right cerebral hemispheres, locating anterior to the corpus callosum.anterior commisure


  131. the theory that environment and learning are the primary factors in mental development, and that people should be studied by outside observationaxon


  132. Adjacent areas in the superior, posterior, and lateral parts of the temporal lobes are involved in high-level auditory processing. The temporal lobe is involved in primary auditory perception, such as hearing, and holds the primary auditory cortex.central sulcus


  133. The idea that, through right thinking and rejection of unsupportable or superstitious beliefs, true beliefs can be discovered.epiricism


  134. Corresponding areas of the brain between hemispheres.cognitive neuroscience


  135. A functional neuroimaging technique for mapping brain activity by recording magnetic fields produced by electrical currents occurring naturally in the brain.occipital lobe


  136. After all that science-ing during the day, you spend the night dreaming of glia. In your dream you fly through the nervous system, taking detailed notes while drinking a Yoo-hoo (hey, its your dream). You notice a bunch of glial cells to your left, scavenging and eating the remnants of damaged cells. Who are those guys?Microglial cells


  137. A transmembrane ion channel that changes molecular conformation when the membrane potential changes, changing the conductance of the channel for specific ions such as sodium. potassium, or chloride.syncytium


  138. A common organizational cluster of neurons in the central nervous system.synaptogenesis


  139. Why is the thalamus important?It is important because it controls relay circuits for integrating sensory functions such as vision and audition.


  140. An experimental technique in which subjects listen to a different message in each ear and try to report one or both messages and which ear they came from.pharmacological studies


  141. a continuous mass of tissue that shares a common cytoplasmsyncytium


  142. The __ contains nuclei that relay signals from the forebrain to the cerebellum, along with nuclei that deal primarily with sleep, respiration, swallowing, bladder control, hearing, equilibrium, taste, eye movement, facial expressions, facial sensation, and posture.pons


  143. A noninvasive method in which a low voltage current is created across the brain by attaching two electrodes on the scalp.transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)


  144. The adaptation of the activity in a particular brain region to subserve a given cognitive function or behavior.cerebral specialization


  145. You are the newest MI-6 agent, 009. Someone just slipped some ouabain into your drink. It is a toxin that works by permanently inhibiting the activity of sodium-potassium pumps embedded in neuronal membranes. As you run to get the antidote, you think about what the poison is actually doing to you. How would this dastardly deed affect the resting potential of your neurons?CT (computed tomography)


  146. Groups of interconnected neurons that process specific kinds of information.neural circut


  147. You have invented the Incredible Shrinking Ship of Science. Well done. On your first journey into the nervous system you decide to ride along a neural impulse as it traverses a nerve cell. As you note the structures passing by, you see thatYou've flowed from a dendritic spine into a cell body, massed with other signals at the axon hillock, been fired down the axon and out into the synaptic cleft.


  148. a part of the cell body of a neuron where membrane potentials are summated before being transmitted down the axonaxon hillock


  149. The _____ helps regulate breathing, heart and blood vessel function, digestion, sneezing, and swallowing. This part of the brain is a center for respiration and circulation. Sensory and motor neurons (nerve cells) from the forebrain and midbrain travel through the ______.anterior commisure


  150. White matter tracts that cross from the left to the right side, or vice versa, of the CNS. It also interconnects the amygdalas and temporal lobes, contributing to the role of memory, emotion, speech and hearing. It also is involved in olfaction, instinct, and sexual behavior.commissure


  151. The deep fold or fissure between the frontal and parietal cortex that separates the primary motor cortex from the primary somatosensory cortex.Sylvian (lateral) fissure


  152. You are an ER doctor with a specialization in the pathology of strokes. A patient has just presented with damage to their medial temporal lobe and neighboring subcortical structures. Of the options here, which function is the LEAST likely to be affected by this stroke?They discovered evidence for specialized functions of speech production and language comprehension, respectively.


  153. Name two prominent basal ganglia disordersParkingsons disease and Hungtingtion's disease