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177 True/False questions

  1. Demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis disrupt normal neural communications by ___________causing deterioration of the fatty substances that normally coat and insulate the axons


  2. Decision making can be thought of as the weighing of ________ and _________ factors, which become integrated and weighed with the potential outcomesexternal; internal


  3. Which lobe of the brain is primarily responsible for executive function, cognition, and personality?Frontal


  4. Parkinson's disease results from cell death in the _______, which is a part of the ______substantia nigra; basal ganglia


  5. The primary interaction of muscles and the nervous system involves the alpha motor neurons, which originate in the ________, exit through the ______, and terminate in the musclesspinal cord; ventral root


  6. A patient's symptoms include poor spoken and written comprehension but fluent and reasonably grammatical speech output. What is the most probable diagnosis?protein


  7. (T/F) Selective attention and divided attention are the same conceptNa


  8. Lesions of the lateral PFC disrupt _______ memory but not ______ memorypriming; episodic memory


  9. (T/F) Lesions to the hippocampus typically do not result in profound memory problems unless the lesions also encompass the amygdalafalse


  10. Cognitive control is often associated with:superior temporal lobe


  11. _________ refers to the ability to choose certain sensory inputs for further information processing while ignoring othersGABA


  12. When attention is controlled consciously, it is calledgoal-orientated behavior, cognitive flexibility, decision making


  13. (T/F) The visual system relays through the medial geniculate nucleusfalse


  14. If you were interested in studying the function of the hippocampus, which method would you use:fMRI


  15. Employing subliminal perception by quickly flashing an angry face before an image of someone could
    a. improve the participant's attitude about the person
    b. not change the participant's attitude about the person
    c. worsen the participant's attitude about the person
    d. remove the participant's attiude about the person
    C. Worsen the participant's attitude about the person


  16. This is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter of the brain:glutamate


  17. Why is the inclusion of brain scan results in court cases problematic for explaining behavior?
    a. the set of active brain regions can vary across multiple assessments
    b. brain activity is not influenced by substances, such as drugs
    c. Most people do not find brain images credible
    d. the temporal resolution of imaging techniques is not sufficient
    a. the set of active brain regions can vary across multiple assessments


  18. (T/F) The basal ganglia is primarily responsible for the initiation and cessation of motor movementstrue


  19. Which structure is responsible for extended consciousness?
    a. Thalamus
    b. cerebral cortex
    c. brainstem
    d. cerebellum
    B. cerebral cortex


  20. Which lobe in the brain is primarily responsible for sensory integration?Frontal


  21. __________ is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter of the brainGABA


  22. (T/F) Most forms of classical conditioning can be considered declarative memoryfalse


  23. Psychological ____________ is the concept that once you start something, you will most likely finish itinertia


  24. Coarse coding is the idea thatNeuron cell bodies


  25. The strength of a stimulus is determined by which properties of the action potential?cannot recognize objects despite having normal perceptual representations


  26. (T/F) The primary olfactory cortex is located in the parietal lobe.superior temporal lobe


  27. What imaging technique would be best for visualizing a skill fracture?CT (computed tomography)


  28. _____________ are signals that are more likely to cause an action potentialGABA


  29. (T/F) The term akinetopsia refers to unusual sensory unions—either between two senses, such as perceiving tastes for words, or within a single sense, such as perceiving colors for letters.cannot recognize objects despite having normal perceptual representations


  30. Before entering the brain, each optic nerve splits into two branches so that information from the ______ half of each retina crosses to the opposite side of the brainnasal (media)


  31. (T/F) Different parts of the body are represented in the primary somatosensory cortex in proportion to their sizearteries


  32. Three main subdivision of the PFC are thelateral PFC, frontal pole, and Medial frontal cortex


  33. Action potentials originate at the _________synapse


  34. (T/F) Knowledge about where you heard information is called recency memoryakinetopsia


  35. Anatomical outputs from the occipital lobe follow two major axon bundles that terminate in the ________ and _______false


  36. Research using _______ models sometimes involves "lesioning" the model to see if it adequately stimulates the behavioral deficits observed in neurological patientsneural network


  37. (T/F) The fusiform face area is part of the dorsal stream.false


  38. Our vision is projected back to the brain in a _______ fashionRetinotopic


  39. The technique known as __________ can be used to induce virtual lesions in humans.TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation)


  40. The basic taste umami is experienced when eating foods rich inlateral PFC, frontal pole, and Medial frontal cortex


  41. _______________ and cognitive control are terms describing the same set of related abilitiesEPSP


  42. What are the parts of the basal ganglia?parabelt, core, belt


  43. Information about what sense does not pass through the thalamus on the way to the cortex?false


  44. (T/F) The fovea has a large number of rodsfalse


  45. Sound localization relies on....test lateralization effects, confirm lesion method, induce a seizure


  46. If you were interested in looking at the structural connectivity between two regions in the brain, which method would you use?DTI


  47. This neurotransmitter system is brainstem based and controls most of our mood, arousal, sexual behavior, pain, memory, and regulatory processes such as eating and sleeping.olfaction


  48. The term associative agnosia is reserved for patients whocannot recognize objects despite having normal perceptual representations


  49. (T/F) The direct route of the basal ganglia suppresses unwanted movementsfalse


  50. The process of directing one's attention to a specific external stimulus is calledFovea


  51. The encoding of information to be stored involves two stages: ________, in which inputs in sensory buffers and sensory analysis stages are registered, and then ______, in which a stronger representation for storage is created.neural network


  52. When deciding whether or not to turn left in front of oncoming cards at a stoplight, our brains rely on ___________ to help determine depth perceptionBinocular disparity


  53. Left-handed individuals have _________ lateralization in their brain than right-handed individualsNa


  54. (T/F) The cerebellum contributes to the timing of muscle activationtrue


  55. The primary auditory cortex is located in thegoal-orientated behavior, cognitive flexibility, decision making


  56. Philosophers have adopted two dichotomous perspectives of the mind/brain problem. They are:
    a. sentience and qualia
    b. dualism and materialism
    c. descartes and watson
    d. alpha and omega
    superior temporal lobe


  57. In the auditory system, the basilar membrane is located within thecochlea


  58. Transcortical motor aphasia results from disruptions between:Broca's area and the concept center


  59. Which ion allows synaptic vesicles to fuse with the membrane and release their contents into the synapse?Ca


  60. Deficits in memory as a function of brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma are collectively known asfalse


  61. In the auditory system, the conversion of sound waves into action potentials occurs in thecannot recognize objects despite having normal perceptual representations


  62. (T/F) During memory retrieval, cortical regions that were important during encoding are reactivatedfalse


  63. Pain is signaled byNociceptors


  64. If you had a spinal cord injury to the sacral part of your spine, what areas of the body would likely be affected?bar of light that moves across the cell's receptive field


  65. Simple reflexive motor responses to external stimuli rely primarily on the function of the ________, whereas motor behaviors that are only minimally dependent on such external cues rely primarily on the function of the ________true


  66. A person with conduction aphasia is most likely to have difficulty inBroca's area and the concept center


  67. (T/F) Category-specific deficits may be an emergent property of the fact that different kinds of information are needed to recognize living and nonliving objectsglutamate


  68. What ion causes a depolarization if it enters the cell?amygdala, cingulate cortex, hippocampus


  69. Neuroimaging studies of the left and right hemispheres in memory function indicate thatencoding and retrieval processes in long-term memory may be lateralized to different hemispheres


  70. Which of the following is true about the PFC?
    a. The PFC seems to play a role in working memory but not in long term storage of information
    b. The PFC seems to play a role in long-term storage of information but not in working memory
    c. The PFC is important for both working memory and long-term storage of information
    d. The PFC is not essential for either working memory or long-term storage of information
    B. They can still learn new skills, such as the serial reaction time task, after the injury


  71. (T/F) The lateral pathway linking the brain to the muscles control the trunk and proximal musclestrue


  72. Which nucleus of the thalamus is involved in attention?Global


  73. These areas of the brain helps with orientating to important stimuli in our environment:Inferior and Superior colliculus


  74. What part of the brain does an angiogram allow you to visualize?arteries


  75. Sentience refers to the
    a. out of body experience
    b. subjective experience
    c. subconscious experience
    d. dualistic experience
    b. subjective experiences


  76. The speech of people with Broca's aphasia is usually slow and effortful and consists of primarily concrete words, while words that serve grammatical functions are omitted. This type of speech output is calledtelegraphic speech


  77. An experiment that requires participants to respond based on one goal, such as naming digits, on some trials and another goal, such as naming letters, on other trials is an example of a(n) _______ paradigmputamen, caudate, and globus pallidus


  78. (T/F) The primary motor cortex is responsible for force directional components of motor movement.true


  79. Both early and late selection models of attention share the idea thatthe human information processing system cannot fully process every piece of information it receives


  80. The orbitofrontal cortex is an integration area for what two senses?retina->optic nerve->optic chiasm->thalamus->occipital lobe


  81. The term _______ refers to a limited-capacity store that not only retains information over the short term (maintenance) but also permits the performance of mental operations with the contents of this store (manipulation)working memory


  82. _______ is the process of acquiring new information, whereas __________ is the trace that results from this process and can be revealed at a later timelearning; memory


  83. This neuroimaging technique combines X-ray pictures taken from many different angles into a compressed two-dimensional representation of the brainCT (computed tomography)


  84. Simple cells in a primary visual cortex selectively respond to visual stimuli based onstimulus orientation


  85. Working memory has been called the _____ of the mindblackboard


  86. John is unable to carry on the most rudimentary conversations. Whenever someone changes the subject he persists on the same topic for several minutes. Eventually, people simply leave him alone talking to himself. John is exhibiting ____________parabelt, core, belt


  87. Which area of the body has the greatest amount of representation in the human primary somatosensory cortex?Hands


  88. Which brain structure is located in the medial temporal lobe and is of particular importance in the formation of new long-term memories?Smell


  89. Gray matter in the brain is primarily:Neuron cell bodies


  90. Which of the following is not part of the dopaminergic system?
    a. Nigrostriatal
    b. Mesolimbic
    c. Mesocortical
    d. Nigrotegmental


  91. What are the parts of the auditory cortex?parabelt, core, belt


  92. Hemispheric specialization occurs, but we are not 100% certain as to how it develops. What does the direct access theory suggest?Na


  93. (T/F) Arousal and alertness are important components of attentionpulvinar


  94. The part of our eye with the highest acuity is thesuperior temporal lobe


  95. Simple cells in the primary visual cortex selectively respond to visual stimuli based onfalse


  96. Multiple resource theory is a theory regardingputamen, caudate, and globus pallidus


  97. (T/F) The lateral PFC is important for working memory taskstrue


  98. Alien limb syndrome is an example of a ___________ movement disordercortical


  99. Due to a defect in one type of photoreceptor, Susan has poor vision at night, when light levels are relatively low. Which type of photoreceptor is defective?akinetopsia


  100. Split-brain research is associated with which surgical procedure?Areas in corresponding locations in the two cerebral hemispheres


  101. (T/F) Semantic memory is a kind of declarative memory that concerns events we recall from our own livesfalse


  102. (T/F) The majority of our vision neurons follow the geniculostriate pathwaylateral PFC, frontal pole, and Medial frontal cortex


  103. During a particularly boring lecture, you carefully note the time on a clock that is mounted on the side wall of the classroom while keeping your eyes fixated on the professor's face. This is an example ofdetects when an action is erroneous


  104. Which aphasia is worst?interaural time differences and interaural intensity differences


  105. The pyramidal tract is also called the _______ tractlateral


  106. (T/F) The striatum and V1 are the same region of the braintrue


  107. Why might a person's recalled information change during an interview?
    a. The person tells their story without interruption
    b. Misinformation is included in a question
    c. the person is a determinist
    d. The situation is subject to multiple realizability


  108. Which of the following statements is true of the kind of amnesia demonstrated by people with bilateral hippocampal damage (like H.M. and R.B) or people with diencephalon injury (like people with Korsakoff's syndrome)?
    a. They forget their dates of birth
    b. They can still learn new skills, such as the serial reaction time task, after the injury
    c. They remember meeting new people after the injury
    d. They have good memory for learning facts after the injury but fail to show priming effects
    B. They can still learn new skills, such as the serial reaction time task, after the injury


  109. The involuntary failure to attend to sensory stimuli presented on the side of space opposite to the site of brain injury (in the absence of sensory problems) is called _________ syndromedichotic presentation


  110. When assigning a hypothetical punishment, most people request information in a way that is consistent with a _________ perspective.
    a. retributive
    b. restorative
    c. utilitarian
    d. consequentialist
    cannot recognize objects despite having normal perceptual representations


  111. During movement, the anterior cingulate does what?is performed with an MRI scanner but measures the density and motion of water contained in axons


  112. Nondeclarative memory is another term for ________ memorylateral


  113. Within a neuron, the transmission of information is usually __________. Between neurons, the transmission of information is usually __________.false


  114. ________ specifically refers to the variations in the pitch of a speaker's voice that convey emotion and emphasis in speech.Prosody


  115. Which of the following cells produce myelin in the peripheral nervous system?Schwann cells


  116. ___________ refers to the processing of incoming information to be storedakinetopsia


  117. __________ law described a temporal gradient by which events surrounding an injury that causes memory loss are most likely to be forgotten than events further away from the date of the event.Ribot's


  118. Classical conditioning is an example of a specific type of _______ memorynondeclarative


  119. The term _________ refers to the operations involved when we select for further processing a limited subset of information from the total information available to us from our sensory systems and stored mental representationsAttention


  120. (T/F) The hippocampus is important for the storage of long term memoriestrue


  121. What are the parts of the limbic system?neurons fire to a range of stimuli, but have preferences


  122. (T/F) The supplementary motor area (SMA) is particularly active during externally guided movementsfalse


  123. Transcortical sensory aphasia results from disruptions between:Broca's area and the concept center


  124. Implicit memory is to _______ as explicit memory is to __________priming; episodic memory


  125. A selective loss of motion perception is calledputamen, caudate, and globus pallidus


  126. If I present auditory tones to one ear, and then present them to the other ear, what technique am I using?priming; episodic memory


  127. For which disorder have patients benefited from deep-brain stimulation of the basal ganglia?Parkinson's disease


  128. Which of these is not part of the three subsystem theory of attention?
    a. Alerting
    c. Vigilance
    d. executive attention


  129. Which of the following is not an area of cortex in the medial temporal lobe that interacts with the hippocampus in formation of new long-term memories?
    a. cingulate
    c. Entorhinal
    d. Perirhinal
    a. cingulate


  130. If you were to conduct a single-cell recording from a neuron in the MT region of the extrastriate visual cortex, you would probably find that the cell fires most vigorously to abar of light that moves across the cell's receptive field


  131. (T/F) Single axons of the corticospinal tract can extend for more than one metertrue


  132. Vigilance ismaintaining alertness continuously over time


  133. (T/F) The best neuroimaging method for visualizing the white and gray matter is computed tomography (CT)MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)


  134. Neurons from the spinal cord going to the motor cortex cross over in this structure of the brainMedulla


  135. Language errors in which a person substitutes words that are related in meaning for one another are calledsemantic paraphasias.


  136. In the delayed nonmatching to sample task, animals are taught in a single trial that a specific object is associated with a food reward. When this object is shown again in a subsequent trial in the presence of a new object, the animalmust select the new item to receive a food reward


  137. Bottom-up visual attention is partially controlled bydivided attention


  138. Which of the following is not a form of unconscious processing?
    a. autonomic responses
    b. language processing
    c. motor control
    d. short-term memory
    Schwann cells


  139. (T/F) Patient H.M. had severe retrograde amnesiaamygdala, cingulate cortex, hippocampus


  140. In the nervous system, these cells provide structural support and insulation for neuronshair cells


  141. _________ theories describe what people ought to do whereas _________ theories describe what people actually doimplicit


  142. The absolute refractory period for an action potential starts when:sodium channels open


  143. Two main types of projections extend from the cell body of a neuron. _____________ receive inputs from other neurons, while _________ send information to other neurons.dendrites; axons


  144. The highest density of _______ or color-sensitive photoreceptors, can be found in the ______ of the retinacones; fovea


  145. (T/F) Activity in the premotor cortex reflects not only the trajectory of a movement but also the context in which the movement occurs.b. fluent aphasia


  146. The ventral root of the spinal cord is primarily responsible for:Parietal


  147. One property of the central executive mechanism proposed by Baddeley and Hitch is thatit is not linked to a single modality


  148. After suffering a severe head injury, a patient demonstrates a dense anterograde amnesia. Sheretina->optic nerve->optic chiasm->thalamus->occipital lobe


  149. The main deficit in Balint's syndrom is that patients can focus attention on onlyolfaction and gustation


  150. What neuroimaging technique involves manipulating the orientation of hydrogen atoms?MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)


  151. Visual information that is presented briefly to the ________ visual field is processed first by the left half of each retina and then by the ________ hemisphere of the brain.implicit


  152. With regard to the two main output pathways from the occipital lobe, ________ is to ________ as dorsal is to ventralsynapse


  153. (T/F) Odorants from the mouth can travel back up into the nasal cavity.false


  154. The prefrontal cortex can be divided into three regions. Which region is responsible for memory and attentional processing?Fovea


  155. The orbitofrontal cortex is considered a secondary cortical area for what sense?olfaction and gustation


  156. ________ is the process by which short term memories become long term memories. It relies on _________true


  157. Imagine that you are very fearful of snakes. You are camping and notice that a snake is about 2 feet away from you. Which area of your brain is likely to be activated?Amygdala


  158. People with Broca's aphasia may have subtle deficits in their ability to comprehend language based on its grammatical structure. This symptom is calledagrammatism.


  159. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)test lateralization effects, confirm lesion method, induce a seizure


  160. Which phrase best describes retributive justice?
    a. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush
    b. You cannot have your cake and eat it too
    c. An eye for an eye
    d. We have nothing to fear but fear itself


  161. __________ does NOT affect behavior consciouslyNociceptors


  162. Focal injuries of the prefrontal cortex generally produce all of the following cognitive changes or symptoms except:
    a. deficits in planning complex behaviors
    b. fluent aphasia
    c. perseveration in responding
    d. disruption of working memory


  163. ________ is the idea that a stimulus does not have to be completely analyzed before it can be either selected for further processing or rejected as irrelevantEncoding


  164. Which neuroimaging technique involves injecting an isotope of oxygen into the bloodstream and using it to measure regional cerebral blood flow?superior temporal lobe


  165. The _____________ loop helps to encode verbal working memory.phonological


  166. Your favorite cartoon character has been struck over the head and can no longer remember his name or where he lives. This is an example ofputamen, caudate, and globus pallidus


  167. What method measures the BOLD signal?fMRI


  168. (T/F) During audition, sound vibrations are encoded as neural signals in the basilar membrane of the cochleafalse


  169. The primary visual pathway is best described assuperior colliculus


  170. Most axons in the visual pathway go through this nucleus of the thalamus:Lateral geniculate nucleus


  171. Qualia are
    a. sentient experiences
    b. out of body experiences
    c. unconscious experiences
    d. none of the above
    a. sentient experiences


  172. What are homotopic brain areas?neurons fire to a range of stimuli, but have preferences


  173. Which portion of HM's hippocampus was not removed?posterior


  174. (T/F) Muscles that control fine motor movements are generally innervated by motor neurons that synapse onto lots of muscle fibersfalse


  175. Which term is used to describe an idiosyncratic union between or within sensory modalities, such as experiencing the color red whenever seeing the letter A?C. An eye for an eye


  176. Which sense relies on glomeruli for transduction?Areas in corresponding locations in the two cerebral hemispheres


  177. TMS can be used to:test lateralization effects, confirm lesion method, induce a seizure