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164 True/False questions

  1. what are second order beliefs?eye's test related to the theory of mind

          

  2. immediate emotionsemotions experienced at the time a decision is being made
    (2 types integral and incidental)

          

  3. consequentin a conditional syllogism, the term q
    (if p then q)

          

  4. restructuringthe process of changing a problem's representation (gestalt, key mechanism to problem solving)

          

  5. what lesions are associated with sarcasm?beliefs about the world
    ex) lady in the other room doesn't know what is actually happening because she just hears the ping pong bouncing, but they are really hooking up and just bouncing the paddle

          

  6. example of how syntax affects prosodyThe queen said the knight was singing VERSUS the queen, said the knight, was singing

          

  7. what was characteristic when comparing ToM vs. Mechanical inference?saw that at first the LH was activated, and then later on the RH was activated when they were getting more of the appreciation

          

  8. what were the regions for humor appreciated (linked to amygdala activation) in the RH?cerebellum, temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus

          

  9. theory of mind definitionusing knowledge of other people's beliefs and feelings to predict and understand their behavior

          

  10. falsification principleto test a rule, you must look for situations that falsify the rule

          

  11. prosody is key in what language?it is an imaging technique that has great temporal resolution like an EEG that tell millisecond to millisecond what is going on, although the localizing is not as good as an fMRI

          

  12. lexical ambiguityall of a sudden realizing a problems solution

          

  13. what is the region of the brain that's responsible for tracking reality?people normally use emotions to guide decisions, esp if decisions are complex and involve conflicting emotion

          

  14. fixationin problem solving, people's tendency to focus on a specific characteristic of the problem that keeps them from arriving at a solution

          

  15. what is the Bihrle et al 1986 paper about?4 decks of cards, subject starts with $2000 play money, have to make a decision on each trial which deck to draw from and after each draw subject is given some money, after some draws they are asked to pay a penalty however, goal: max. profits

          

  16. what was the Hoyte et al paper about?incongruity and resolution

          

  17. what are the two key elements of jokes?incongruity and resolution

          

  18. what is characteristic of the left hemisphere and functional prosody?syntax, word meaning, phonology

          

  19. in the Greene experiment, which scenario was most acceptable? why?the section with no direct involvement/physical contact was most acceptable

          

  20. which psychologist is associated with the moral reasoning/trolley question?Tversky and Kahneman

          

  21. what did the fMRI show with the Baron-Cohen's eyes testSTG, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex showed increased activation when using social intelligence in normal subjects (amygdala not activated in autistic patients)

          

  22. T/F: prosody is used to convey emotionemphasis on different parts of the word change meaning (ENtrance vs. enTRANCE)

          

  23. initial statein problem solving, the conditions at the beginning of a problem

          

  24. which hemisphere has deficits with Theory of Mind items of ignorance and deception?there was significant increase in activation over fixation

          

  25. timingvolume (energy put into it)

          

  26. intermediate statesproblem solving, various conditions that exist along the pathways between the initial and goal states

          

  27. conditional syllogisma series of 3 statements (2 premises followed by a conclusion), conclusion follows from premise based on rules of logic

          

  28. Tower of Hanoi problemproblem involving moving discs from one set of pegs to another, used to illustrate means-end analysis

          

  29. irony and sarcasmpreconceived notion about how to approach a problem, which is determine by a person's experience or what has worked in the past

          

  30. what is the Iowa Gambling task?it is an imaging technique that has great temporal resolution like an EEG that tell millisecond to millisecond what is going on, although the localizing is not as good as an fMRI

          

  31. how is prosody used for word identification?using knowledge of other people's beliefs and feelings to predict and understand their behavior

          

  32. aprosodiamelody of speech

          

  33. how is analogical problem solving facilitated?when hints are given regarding the relevance of the source problem, when source and target problems have similar surface features, and twhen strucutral features are made more obvious

          

  34. causal inferenceinferences about tools or methods (infer what we know abut the context, like time period, etc.)

          

  35. justificationex) of test and vacation package: if told of the outcome, both take the package, if not told about the test, people hold off on the package even though in the end both justify themselves taking the trip

          

  36. suprasegmentalperson can't properly convey or interpret emotional prosody (usually damage to non-dominant hemisphere)

          

  37. what is represented in the fact that 72% chose Progam A (200 people will be saved) and 22% chose Program C (400 people will die)?framing effect

          

  38. when does analogical problem solving occur?working memory capacity

          

  39. source problem(or story) problem that is analogous to the target problem and therefore provides info that can lead to a solution to the target problem

          

  40. what did Baron-Cohen do?it is an imaging technique that has great temporal resolution like an EEG that tell millisecond to millisecond what is going on, although the localizing is not as good as an fMRI

          

  41. funny correct endingin a conditional syllogism, the term q
    (if p then q)

          

  42. what are the regions of the Bartolo task that showed the cartoon was funny more than not in the RIGHT H?RHD: deficit in both tasks, but esp impaired in emotional discrimination task
    LHD: ok at emotional task, bad a syntactic task (meaning)
    NC: good on both obviously

          

  43. what is one thing that the Wason experiment taught us about conditional reasoning?expected emotions
    -tendency to believe that a loss will have a greater impact than a gain of the same size (Tversky/Kahneman)

          

  44. incidental immediate emotionsemotions unrelated to the decision

          

  45. what are the major results of the false photograph story?patients w/RHD were slowed down a lot when timing information was removed. RHD patients were relying on timing to help them understand the sentences. RHD patients don't rely on pitch (fundamental frequency) because they are not good with pitch--one effect of RHD is to limit a patient's ability to use pitch in prosody

          

  46. Water-jug problemproblem that illustrates how mental set can influence the strategies that people use to solve a problem

          

  47. do people tend to be more risk-averse or risk-taking?risk-averse

          

  48. what is the Wason Four-Card Problem experiment?MEG, subjects viewed sentences followed by punchlines and rated them as funny or not funny with 3 stimulus types (funny, congruous, incongruous)

          

  49. risk aversiontendency to avoid taking risks

          

  50. what parts of the brain are associated with humor detection according to imaging studies?L postmiddle temporal gyrus, L inferior frontal gyrus

          

  51. pitch for a statement?vocal effect that extends over more than one sound segment (pitch, stress, vowel length, tone, etc.)

          

  52. goal statein problem solving, the condition that occurs when a problem has been solved

          

  53. in the experiment with Tversky and Kahnemen, was is represented in picking program D (1/3 probability no one will die, 2/3 probability 600 will die) over program C (400 people will die)risk-taking strategy: the certain death of 400 people is less acceptable than a 2/3 chance that 600 people will die

          

  54. convergent thinkingin a conditional syllogism, the term q
    (if p then q)

          

  55. syntax first approachinferences that the events described in one clause/sentence were caused by events that occurred in a previous sentence

          

  56. what was Elliott Ross involved with?aprosodia

          

  57. is creative problem solving associated with convergent or divergent thinking?risk-averse

          

  58. surface featuresin problem solving, the underlying principle of a problem

          

  59. what is the Shamay-Tsoory et al paper about?used the lesion approach
    mean sarcasm error scores in prefrontal cortex
    lesion size did not affect sarcasm errors
    RHD more affected/more sarcasm errors

          

  60. permission schemapragmatic reasoning schema that states that if a person satisfies condition A, then they get to carry out action B (Wason four card problem)

          

  61. in the Shamay-Tsoory et al, what was discovered about the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex?worse in face recognition in the prosody recognition test

          

  62. congruous stimulusin problem solving, the condition that occurs when a problem has been solved

          

  63. what experiment did Tversky and Kahneman run?Wason 4 Card Problem

          

  64. pitch for a question?F0 declines at end of sentence

          

  65. social exchange theoryability for 2 people to cooperate so that it is beneficial for both ppl, detecting cheating
    (Wason 4-card problem)

          

  66. Tanenhaus thought?all of a sudden realizing a problems solution

          

  67. what were the results of the Hoyte et al paper?patients w/RHD were slowed down a lot when timing information was removed. RHD patients were relying on timing to help them understand the sentences. RHD patients don't rely on pitch (fundamental frequency) because they are not good with pitch--one effect of RHD is to limit a patient's ability to use pitch in prosody

          

  68. what were the regions for humor appreciation (linked to amygdala activation) in the LH?cerebellum, temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus

          

  69. when is humor appreciation detection measured?from right temporal region to L and R frontal region

          

  70. what happens when there are R lesions in the frontal lobes (Stuss)?there is a major role in temporal parietal junction (no activation with false photo, only false beliefs, so needs to be specific to beliefs which is selective)

          

  71. pitchfundamental frequency (band of energy that is most dominant)

          

  72. what was the Wildgruber et. al paper about? results?fMRI testing, RH decreases with higher frequency of clicks (passive listening), LH is opposite
    frontal regions in both hemispheres involved judgements based on prosodic info with emotion?

          

  73. what guys have to do with functional fixedness?Duncker and Maier

          

  74. what was different about the Shammi and Stuss study compared to the Bihrle paper?there was a bigger range of patients because there was more than stroke patients, they had tumors and other kinds of lesions (better localization of lesions), also prefrontal lesions were the main focus

          

  75. why do damaged or not developed ventromedial prefrontal regions impair decision making?expected emotions
    -tendency to believe that a loss will have a greater impact than a gain of the same size (Tversky/Kahneman)

          

  76. opt-in procedurebalance of energy at different pitches (tone, harmonics), why clarinet is different from saxophone

          

  77. mental setpreconceived notion about how to approach a problem, which is determine by a person's experience or what has worked in the past

          

  78. what is characteristic about the right hemisphere and functional prosody?emotion (distinguishing bw angry and sad), melody in songs

          

  79. what affects mathematics problem solving performance?working memory capacity

          

  80. Tannenhaus main contribution?using knowledge of other people's beliefs and feelings to predict and understand their behavior

          

  81. what did the Marinkovic et. al study involve?removed, one at a time, different components of prosody: timing, amplitude, pitch (fundamental frequency). The graphs show how much subjects' reaction times were affected by the loss of a kind of information

          

  82. what are the regions of the Bartolo task that showed the cartoon was funny more than not in the LEFT H?LH: cerebellum, temporal gyrus, occipital lobe, fusiform gyrus

          

  83. what is one of the determinants of risk aversion? why?expected emotions
    -tendency to believe that a loss will have a greater impact than a gain of the same size (Tversky/Kahneman)

          

  84. amplitudemelody of speech

          

  85. how is pitch measured?pragmatic reasoning schema that states that if a person satisfies condition A, then they get to carry out action B (Wason four card problem)

          

  86. in vivo problem solving researchobserving people to determine how they solve problems in real world situations

          

  87. who developed the techniques of thinking aloud protocols?patient EVR (damaged VM prefrontal) chose the bad choice decks (A, B with big wins but big penalties)
    -normal and other lesions picked the good decks

          

  88. what was important about the eye's test by Baron?LHD performed better than RHD (despite aphasia with LHD)

          

  89. what is an MEG?preconceived notion about how to approach a problem, which is determine by a person's experience or what has worked in the past

          

  90. who did the experiment involving expected emotions and actual emotions with coin tosses?Deborah Kermer

          

  91. what were the results of the Iowa Gambling task?patient EVR (damaged VM prefrontal) chose the bad choice decks (A, B with big wins but big penalties)
    -normal and other lesions picked the good decks

          

  92. why do EVR and those patients choose high immediate reward with severe delayed punishment?subjects are unresponsive to future consequences, and are more controlled by immediate prospects

          

  93. what other populations don't have aphasia but have problems with non literal language like sarcasm?RHD: exhibit problems understanding sarcasm (and conversations, stories, jokes, metaphor, indirect requests)
    social and communication deficits, NOT APHASIC (like LHD)

          

  94. ill-defined problemproblem involving moving discs from one set of pegs to another, used to illustrate means-end analysis

          

  95. what are first order beliefs?problem that illustrates how mental set can influence the strategies that people use to solve a problem

          

  96. prosodyvolume (energy put into it)

          

  97. radiation problemproblem (posed by Duncker) that involves finding a way to destroy a tumor by radiation without damaging other organs in the body

          

  98. two-string problemproblem where a person is given the task of attaching two strings together that are too far apart to be reached at the same time, illustrate operation of functional fixedness

          

  99. who was associated with the framing effect?Tversky and Kahneman

          

  100. information-processing approachsemantics are activated only AFTER syntax has determined the initial parsing

          

  101. what was wrong with Ross' patient?beliefs about the world
    ex) thinks gun is being held to his back in the pic when it is actually a guitar

          

  102. what are the 3 processing stages during recognition of emotional prosody?1-extraction of supra-segmental acoustic info by R regions
    2-suprasegmental acoustic sequences in posterior of R temporal sulcus
    3-explicit evaluation of emotional prosody in frontal cortex

          

  103. in Kanwisher and Saxe's experiment 1, when comparing activation in the brain bw mechanical story and ToM story, what part of the brain was differentially active?yes: attending to different things, distinguished between thinking and reasoning and ToM

    increase in activation in ToM

          

  104. why does Stuss think that these deficits occur because of the right frontal regions?the context within which conditional reasoning occurs makes a bing difference, stating the 4-card prob in terms of familiar situations can often generate better reasoning than abstract statements

          

  105. anaphoric inferenceinferences that connect an object/person in one sentence to an object or person in another sentence

          

  106. deductive reasoningpremises are based on observation of one or more specific cases, and we generalize from these cases to a more general conclusion

          

  107. syllogismvolume (energy put into it)

          

  108. in the Greene experiment, which scenario was the least acceptable? why?the section with no direct involvement/physical contact was most acceptable

          

  109. is sarcasm an example of literal or nonliteral language?Comprehension of affective and nonaffective prosody, filtered out the words so that they were unintelligible but the tone was still there, and had to distinguish bw questions, statements, commands, and emotions

          

  110. confirmation biastendency to selectively look for info that conforms to our hypothesis and overlook info that argues against it

          

  111. what were Kanwisher and Saxe trying to find with their studies?patients w/RHD were slowed down a lot when timing information was removed. RHD patients were relying on timing to help them understand the sentences. RHD patients don't rely on pitch (fundamental frequency) because they are not good with pitch--one effect of RHD is to limit a patient's ability to use pitch in prosody

          

  112. think-aloud protocolprocedure where participants are asked to say out loud what they are thinking while doing a problem, used to help determine thought processes as they are solving a problem

          

  113. structural featuresin problem solving, the underlying principle of a problem

          

  114. what idea did the Gestalt psychologist introduce about problem solving?idea that restructuring is associated with insight

          

  115. availability heuristicbasing judgements of the frequency of events on what events come to mind

          

  116. how is prosody used to determine whether sentence is a statement, question, or command?pitch

          

  117. integral immediate emotionsassociated with the act of making a decision

          

  118. instrument inferenceinferences about tools or methods (infer what we know abut the context, like time period, etc.)

          

  119. who did early research on the role of the R hemisphere in humor, metaphor, etc.?patients w/RHD were slowed down a lot when timing information was removed. RHD patients were relying on timing to help them understand the sentences. RHD patients don't rely on pitch (fundamental frequency) because they are not good with pitch--one effect of RHD is to limit a patient's ability to use pitch in prosody

          

  120. interactionist approachsemantics are activated only AFTER syntax has determined the initial parsing

          

  121. in the experiment with Tversky and Kahneman, what kind of strategy is represented in picking Program A (200 ppl saved) over Program B (1/3 probability that 600 people will be saved, but 2/3 that NO ONE will be saved)risk-taking strategy: the certain death of 400 people is less acceptable than a 2/3 chance that 600 people will die

          

  122. what was the Heilman et. al 1984 paper about?removed, one at a time, different components of prosody: timing, amplitude, pitch (fundamental frequency). The graphs show how much subjects' reaction times were affected by the loss of a kind of information

          

  123. insightall of a sudden realizing a problems solution

          

  124. straightforward completion of situationhow the story would conclude if it was a straightforward story, not funny

          

  125. what experiment demonstrates the confirmation bias?which program was preferred based on the wording of each

          

  126. word frequencymelody of speech

          

  127. categorical syllogismsyllogism where the premises and conclusion describe the relationship bw the two categories using states that begin with all, no, or some

          

  128. timbreaka rhythm, gaps in sentences, etc.

          

  129. how can coherence be created?Hz (cycles/second)

          

  130. is there a difference in activation of the extrastriate body area in terms of ToM and bodies and objects?yes!

          

  131. did Kanwisher and Saxe discover a difference in the temporal parietal junction when using ToM and showing bodies and objects?there is a basic difference in how participants feel they are progressing toward a solution as tehy are working on a problem (not good at predicting when insight)

          

  132. what kind of patients usually don't do well on the eyes test?people normally use emotions to guide decisions, esp if decisions are complex and involve conflicting emotion

          

  133. what is Antonio Demasio's somatic marker hypothesis?people normally use emotions to guide decisions, esp if decisions are complex and involve conflicting emotion

          

  134. what were the results of the Marinkovic et al study?R frontal and bifrontal most impaired, R posterior and L frontal impaired ONLY on 4-alternative selection task, L posterior not impaired on any humor task

          

  135. given-new contractthe speaker should construct sentences so that they include 2 kinds of info:
    1-given info (info the listener already knows)
    2-new info (info the listener is hearing for the first time)

          

  136. how does theory of mind relate to conversations in general?using knowledge of other people's beliefs and feelings to predict and understand their behavior

          

  137. denying the antecedenta conditional syllogism of the following form: if p, then q
    not p
    therefore not q
    (invalid form of conditional)

          

  138. what were the results of the Bihrle et al paper?LHD performed better than RHD (despite aphasia with LHD)

          

  139. what is characteristic of the left hemisphere and perceptual (acoustic) prosody?rapid transitions and precise TIMING within a phoneme (syllable)

          

  140. incongruous stimulusnot funny but surprising (what do they call big African cats? lions)

          

  141. what were the results of the Heilman experiment in normal brains, LHD, and RHD?RHD: deficit in both tasks, but esp impaired in emotional discrimination task
    LHD: ok at emotional task, bad a syntactic task (meaning)
    NC: good on both obviously

          

  142. what did metcalfe and Wiebe discover about insight and noninsight problems?Wason 4 Card Problem

          

  143. when is humor detection measured?Hz (cycles/second)

          

  144. framing effectpreconceived notion about how to approach a problem, which is determine by a person's experience or what has worked in the past

          

  145. how is syntax affected by prosody?gaps determine sentence meaning

          

  146. reverse acrobat problemproblem that illustrates how mental set can influence the strategies that people use to solve a problem

          

  147. inductive reasoningpremises are based on observation of one or more specific cases, and we generalize from these cases to a more general conclusion

          

  148. what is characteristic about the right hemisphere and perceptual prosody?saw that at first the LH was activated, and then later on the RH was activated when they were getting more of the appreciation

          

  149. what are the requirements for a region to be selectively involved in theory of mind?Wason 4 Card Problem

          

  150. flow in prosody processing in general?observing people to determine how they solve problems in real world situations

          

  151. attribution theoryin problem solving, people's tendency to focus on a specific characteristic of the problem that keeps them from arriving at a solution

          

  152. what did the Gestalt psychologists focus on about problem solving?how people represent a problem in their mind

          

  153. what is that Shammi and Stuss paper about?replication of Bihrle with better localization of function

          

  154. what parts of the brain are associated with humor appreciation?L and R amygdala
    bilateral regions of insular cortex

          

  155. what occurs in the left frontal hemisphere, and is why lesions don't produce the same deficits?semantic retrieval, episodic encoding

          

  156. opt-out procedureeveryone is a potential organ donor unless he/she requests to be

          

  157. mutilated checkerboard problemmodification of the acrobat problem that is used to show how the way a problem is stated can influence its difficulty

          

  158. humorous nonsequiturslapstick
    funny image but is not a continuation of the joke storyline

          

  159. what were the results of the Shammi and Stuss paper?R frontal and bifrontal most impaired, R posterior and L frontal impaired ONLY on 4-alternative selection task, L posterior not impaired on any humor task

          

  160. what is the accuracy of people's predictions about emotional response to winning and losing?the predicted emotion that subjects stated ended up being more extreme than the actual felt emotion

          

  161. means-end analysisa problem solving strategy that seeks to reduce the difference between the initial and goal states, achieved by creating subgoals/intermediate states

          

  162. where was the lesion in Ross' patientright hemisphere

          

  163. why does Stuss think that these deficits occur because of the frontal lobes?Newell and Simon

          

  164. coherencethe representation of the text in a person's mind so that the info in one part of the text is related to info in another part of the text