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265 Multiple choice questions

  1. the production of language / the perception of language
  2. true
  3. true
  4. cortical lesions in area V4
  5. This person will experience more Stroop interference than neurologically intact participants.
  6. true
  7. The magnocellular nucleus
  8. The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex
  9. content-based / the type of information
  10. TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation)
  11. It is selective for stimulus velocity
  12. blood-brain barrier
  13. Early selection
  14. stimulus orientation
  15. The amygdala plays a role in the expression of fear responses, regardless of whether the initial learning was implicit or explicit
  16. Microglia
  17. H.M. has a deficit limited to long-term memory, whereas K.F. and E.E. have deficits limited to short-term memory.
  18. false
  19. bar of light that moves across the cell's receptive field
  20. true
  21. insula and operculum
  22. The orbitofrontal cortex
  23. false
  24. frontal / temporal
  25. anterior cingulate cortex / a response (perceiving color) that competes with a strong habitual response (reading)
  26. prefrontal cortex and more posterior brain areas involved in perception and mental representation.
  27. meningioma
  28. coup de main
  29. lateral nucleus / central nucleus
  30. false
  31. Modulation of hippocampus-based learning by arousal occurs after the initial encoding of the task, during retention
  32. The person has isolated retrograde amnesia
  33. priming / episodic memory
  34. The IAT is designed to reflect declarative memories
  35. The orbitofrontal cortex
  36. voltage-gated sodium channels are inactivated
  37. false
  38. Olfaction and gustation
  39. Brodmann
  40. amino acids
  41. The right temporoparietal junction
  42. arousing stimuli decay less quickly than nonarousing stimuli do
  43. mental representations of possible responses.
  44. it is not modality specific
  45. one can access consciously
  46. our ability to make inferences about the mental states of other people.
  47. Each eye can now carry only information from half of the visual field
  48. The membrane potential would become depolarized relative to the resting potential
  49. The processing of tactile information by blind people in cortical regions that process visual information in sighted people
  50. number of ions found on opposite sides of the cell membrane
  51. Epilepsy
  52. The anterior cingulate cortex
  53. temporal / frontal
  54. neglect
  55. presented as part of a word
  56. After looking up the phone number of a local pizza place, you walk across the room to the telephone and begin dialing it.
  57. the human information processing system cannot fully process every piece of information it receives.
  58. neuron B is less likely to release neurotransmitter molecules from its own axon terminal
  59. nondeclarative
  60. amnesia
  61. false
  62. information processed in relation to the self is enhanced in memory.
  63. Whereas schizophrenia is associated with hypometabolism in the prefrontal cortex, depression is associated with hypermetabolism in the prefrontal cortex.
  64. Syncytium
  65. vision
  66. Sally will look in the location in which Anne has put the marble
  67. visual stimulus presented to her contralesional visual field if another stimulus is simultane- ously presented to her ipsilesional visual field.
  68. White participants who show greater amygdala activity during the presentation of black faces tend to have stronger racial bias as measured by an implicit behavioral task
  69. are associated with emotion and autonomic sensations that influence whether we choose to engage in that behavior again.
  70. do not always make decisions that maximize rewards and minimize losses.
  71. The anterior cingulate gyrus
  72. decreases less
  73. true
  74. A drug that prevents the activity of an enzyme that breaks down serotonin molecules in the synaptic cleft
  75. true
  76. fusiform gyrus / prefrontal cortex
  77. neural circuits are made of distinct cells / the input and output of a neuron are handled by different specialized parts
  78. Locke and Hume / Descartes and Kant
  79. true
  80. true
  81. cones / fovea
  82. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task
  83. Pain
  84. were larger for attended versus unattended signals
  85. Anterograde memory
  86. developed a staining technique that permitted full visualization of individual neurons
  87. one object at a time.
  88. olfaction
  89. There are extensive projections to and from the prefrontal cortex to all other lobes of the brain
  90. decreased reaction time to detect the target.
  91. a transmembrane channel that connects the cytoplasm of two cells at an electrical synapse
  92. Rod
  93. trigger enzymatic cascades involving G proteins and second messengers
  94. nasal (medial)
  95. transmitting information rapidly / transmit inhibitory signals
  96. false
  97. Conjunction search
  98. The left perisylvian cortex
  99. direction of attention to the spatial location of a visually presented object.
  100. accurately recalled only the content of the signal presented to the shadowed ear.
  101. serotonin agonists
  102. ligand
  103. The amount of LTP would increase
  104. the task involves well-learned or automatic responses.
  105. encoding and retrieval processes in long-term memory may be lateralized to different hemispheres
  106. sensory memory
  107. antisocial
  108. animal work can be truly experimental, whereas with humans we are limited to correlational inferences
  109. classical conditioning
  110. must select the new item to receive a food reward
  111. similar regions of the medial prefrontal cortex are activated when we answer questions about the self and about others, if they are close.
  112. words, we cannot help but activate word representations even when they are irrelevant to the task
  113. voxels
  114. Reading a book aloud
  115. dopamine antagonists
  116. false
  117. The superior colliculus
  118. olfactory
  119. profound amnesia is associated only with bilateral medial temporal lobe removal
  120. Edward Thorndike
  121. Presence of amyloid plaques during postmortem examination of the brain
  122. permeability
  123. this stimulus is presented at the same time as a stimulus on the ipsilesional side of the visual field.
  124. better / medial prefrontal
  125. smaller than
  126. cannot disengage attention from information in the ipsilesional side of space.
  127. Fear
  128. They can still learn new skills such as the serial reaction time task after the injury
  129. The amygdala
  130. autism
  131. a systematic relationship between the portion of cortex stimulated and specific movements
  132. a cell stain developed by Golgi
  133. carry out different functions from one another
  134. the direction of your eye gaze.
  135. Schwann cells
  136. MT
  137. Seven plus or minus two
  138. false
  139. The ability to engage visual attention at a particular location in the visual field
  140. valid / invalid
  141. base (thicker end) / apex (thinner end)
  142. the focus of attention can be moved separately from eye fixation.
  143. orbitofrontal cortex
  144. inappropriate social behavior
  145. others / memories of specific behaviors
  146. Encoding
  147. the nasal passage in one nostril is larger than the other nostril, and this switches back and forth every few hours.
  148. Source memory
  149. The participants with frontal lobe injuries recalled the same number of facts as the control participants did, but they had poorer source memory for the facts
  150. They have two processes, one axon, and one dendrite
  151. true
  152. stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA)
  153. retrograde amnesia
  154. Orbitofrontal damage
  155. true
  156. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
  157. glutamate
  158. the primary olfactory cortex is related to sniffing and smell, whereas the orbitofrontal cortex is related to smell but not sniffing.
  159. she survived an attempted hanging
  160. hair cells.
  161. false
  162. amygdala / indirect or implicit
  163. false
  164. Artificial intelligence
  165. true
  166. facilitate conduction of action potentials in axons
  167. equally fast / are not
  168. Learning / memory
  169. inter aural time and inter aural intensity
  170. All of the above are true
  171. stated that a behavior that is followed by a reward is likely to occur again
  172. Broca
  173. Patients with frontal lobe injuries
  174. this technique can generate explicit, testable theories of natural cognition
  175. true
  176. CT (computed tomography)
  177. 10 seconds
  178. late-selection models argue that human information processing has limited capacity, whereas early-selection models argue that capacity is unlimited.
  179. superior temporal lobe
  180. approach / withdraw
  181. inhibition of return
  182. a taxi that Michael Gazzaniga and George Miller shared in the 1970s
  183. she had an explicit expectation that the shock would occur after seeing the blue square but did not demonstrate any implicit fear-conditioning SCR response
  184. More than five
  185. alleviate severe chronic epilepsy
  186. Flourens
  187. Huntington's disease
  188. With MEG, the magnetic fields are not distorted by the skull.
  189. retina → optic nerve → optic chiasm → thalamus → occipital lobe.
  190. true
  191. chunking
  192. false
  193. parietal-occipital cortex
  194. Cingulate
  195. acquisition / consolidation
  196. NMDA receptors are critical to inducing LTP but not to maintaining LTP
  197. true
  198. patterns of activity among groups of neurons may describe the function of a brain area better
  199. depth perception incorporates multiple types of visual information
  200. the olfactory cortex has direct connectivity to the limbic cortex.
  201. neurons and glial cells
  202. true
  203. a philosophical shift in the field toward empiricism and associationism
  204. The prefrontal cortex seems to play a role in working memory but not in long-term storage of information
  205. true
  206. iconic memory / echoic memory
  207. orbitofrontal cortex / amygdala
  208. attention
  209. skull protrusions are caused by disproportionate development of the brain areas beneath them, which are responsible for different specific functions
  210. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
  211. false
  212. the patients also neglected the contralesional side of their own mental images.
  213. true
  214. false
  215. must be deduced and justified through reason
  216. recency memory
  217. auditory echo lasts longer than the visual icon
  218. Ischemia
  219. he could perceive letters located within the focus of his attention better than letters outside, even when his eyes remained at the center of the screen.
  220. false
  221. accurate velocity discrimination
  222. The monkey will remember the correct response and choose stimulus card 1 to earn a food reward.
  223. true
  224. many processes are engaged "at rest," including self-referential processes.
  225. this allows us to filter out sensory information before it has received much processing by the brain.
  226. is part of a special genetic strain that lacks or no longer expresses certain genes
  227. Voltage-gated channels in the cell membrane open and permit ion flow through the membrane
  228. PET
  229. the frequency of action potential generation
  230. true
  231. coincidence detectors / relative rate of firing
  232. electrical / chemical
  233. percepts are best understood in relation to a stimulus's emergent properties
  234. The anterior temporal lobes
  235. innate / learned
  236. fluent aphasia
  237. medial temporal lobes / diencephalon
  238. The amygdala performs a modulatory role in declarative memory
  239. emotional expression / physical features
  240. internal mental processes can be measured in rigorous and reproducible ways
  241. recollection / familiarity
  242. cognitive psychology
  243. blackboard
  244. orienting.
  245. CT (computed tomography)
  246. both vision and audition involve an early-selection mechanism.
  247. They are synthesized in the axon terminals of the presynaptic neuron
  248. one must also use a structural neuroimaging technique to isolate the source of attentional activation to a specific brain structure.
  249. Perseveration
  250. both maintenance and manipulation.
  251. the amygdala responds most strongly to fearful faces, but it also shows some response to other expressions
  252. valence / arousal
  253. their structure at the cellular level
  254. An explosion while laying a Vermont railway that sent a tamping iron through his head
  255. Endogenous cuing
  256. "quick and dirty" / direct signal from the thalamus to the amygdala
  257. Dendrites / axons
  258. semantic / episodic
  259. true
  260. tissue staining / cytoarchitectonics
  261. false
  262. correctly select the left food well.
  263. Understanding a speech
  264. is performed with an MRI scanner but measures the density and motion of water contained in axons
  265. Hughlings Jackson