265 Multiple choice questions
- the production of language / the perception of language
- cortical lesions in area V4
- This person will experience more Stroop interference than neurologically intact participants.
- The magnocellular nucleus
- The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex
- content-based / the type of information
- TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation)
- It is selective for stimulus velocity
- blood-brain barrier
- Early selection
- stimulus orientation
amygdala plays a role in the expression of fear responses, regardless
of whether the initial learning was implicit or explicit
- H.M. has a deficit limited to long-term memory, whereas K.F. and E.E. have deficits limited to short-term memory.
- bar of light that moves across the cell's receptive field
- insula and operculum
- The orbitofrontal cortex
- frontal / temporal
- anterior cingulate cortex / a response (perceiving color) that competes with a strong habitual response (reading)
- prefrontal cortex and more posterior brain areas involved in perception and mental representation.
- coup de main
- lateral nucleus / central nucleus
- Modulation of hippocampus-based learning by arousal occurs after the initial encoding of the task, during retention
- The person has isolated retrograde amnesia
- priming / episodic memory
- The IAT is designed to reflect declarative memories
- The orbitofrontal cortex
- voltage-gated sodium channels are inactivated
- Olfaction and gustation
- amino acids
- The right temporoparietal junction
- arousing stimuli decay less quickly than nonarousing stimuli do
- mental representations of possible responses.
- it is not modality specific
- one can access consciously
- our ability to make inferences about the mental states of other people.
- Each eye can now carry only information from half of the visual field
- The membrane potential would become depolarized relative to the resting potential
- The processing of tactile information by blind people in cortical regions that process visual information in sighted people
- number of ions found on opposite sides of the cell membrane
- The anterior cingulate cortex
- temporal / frontal
- presented as part of a word
- After looking up the phone number of a local pizza place, you walk across the room to the telephone and begin dialing it.
- the human information processing system cannot fully process every piece of information it receives.
- neuron B is less likely to release neurotransmitter molecules from its own axon terminal
- information processed in relation to the self is enhanced in memory.
schizophrenia is associated with hypometabolism in the prefrontal
cortex, depression is associated with hypermetabolism in the prefrontal
- Sally will look in the location in which Anne has put the marble
stimulus presented to her contralesional visual field if another
stimulus is simultane- ously presented to her ipsilesional visual field.
participants who show greater amygdala activity during the presentation
of black faces tend to have stronger racial bias as measured by an
implicit behavioral task
- are associated with emotion and autonomic sensations that influence whether we choose to engage in that behavior again.
- do not always make decisions that maximize rewards and minimize losses.
- The anterior cingulate gyrus
- decreases less
- A drug that prevents the activity of an enzyme that breaks down serotonin molecules in the synaptic cleft
- fusiform gyrus / prefrontal cortex
- neural circuits are made of distinct cells / the input and output of a neuron are handled by different specialized parts
- Locke and Hume / Descartes and Kant
- cones / fovea
- The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task
- were larger for attended versus unattended signals
- Anterograde memory
- developed a staining technique that permitted full visualization of individual neurons
- one object at a time.
- There are extensive projections to and from the prefrontal cortex to all other lobes of the brain
- decreased reaction time to detect the target.
- a transmembrane channel that connects the cytoplasm of two cells at an electrical synapse
- trigger enzymatic cascades involving G proteins and second messengers
- nasal (medial)
- transmitting information rapidly / transmit inhibitory signals
- Conjunction search
- The left perisylvian cortex
- direction of attention to the spatial location of a visually presented object.
- accurately recalled only the content of the signal presented to the shadowed ear.
- serotonin agonists
- The amount of LTP would increase
- the task involves well-learned or automatic responses.
- encoding and retrieval processes in long-term memory may be lateralized to different hemispheres
- sensory memory
- animal work can be truly experimental, whereas with humans we are limited to correlational inferences
- classical conditioning
- must select the new item to receive a food reward
regions of the medial prefrontal cortex are activated when we answer
questions about the self and about others, if they are close.
- words, we cannot help but activate word representations even when they are irrelevant to the task
- Reading a book aloud
- dopamine antagonists
- The superior colliculus
- profound amnesia is associated only with bilateral medial temporal lobe removal
- Edward Thorndike
- Presence of amyloid plaques during postmortem examination of the brain
- this stimulus is presented at the same time as a stimulus on the ipsilesional side of the visual field.
- better / medial prefrontal
- smaller than
- cannot disengage attention from information in the ipsilesional side of space.
- They can still learn new skills such as the serial reaction time task after the injury
- The amygdala
- a systematic relationship between the portion of cortex stimulated and specific movements
- a cell stain developed by Golgi
- carry out different functions from one another
- the direction of your eye gaze.
- Schwann cells
- Seven plus or minus two
- The ability to engage visual attention at a particular location in the visual field
- valid / invalid
- base (thicker end) / apex (thinner end)
- the focus of attention can be moved separately from eye fixation.
- orbitofrontal cortex
- inappropriate social behavior
- others / memories of specific behaviors
- the nasal passage in one nostril is larger than the other nostril, and this switches back and forth every few hours.
- Source memory
participants with frontal lobe injuries recalled the same number of
facts as the control participants did, but they had poorer source memory
for the facts
- They have two processes, one axon, and one dendrite
- stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA)
- retrograde amnesia
- Orbitofrontal damage
- The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
primary olfactory cortex is related to sniffing and smell, whereas the
orbitofrontal cortex is related to smell but not sniffing.
- she survived an attempted hanging
- hair cells.
- amygdala / indirect or implicit
- Artificial intelligence
- facilitate conduction of action potentials in axons
- equally fast / are not
- Learning / memory
- inter aural time and inter aural intensity
- All of the above are true
- stated that a behavior that is followed by a reward is likely to occur again
- Patients with frontal lobe injuries
- this technique can generate explicit, testable theories of natural cognition
- CT (computed tomography)
- 10 seconds
models argue that human information processing has limited capacity,
whereas early-selection models argue that capacity is unlimited.
- superior temporal lobe
- approach / withdraw
- inhibition of return
- a taxi that Michael Gazzaniga and George Miller shared in the 1970s
had an explicit expectation that the shock would occur after seeing the
blue square but did not demonstrate any implicit fear-conditioning SCR
- More than five
- alleviate severe chronic epilepsy
- Huntington's disease
- With MEG, the magnetic fields are not distorted by the skull.
- retina → optic nerve → optic chiasm → thalamus → occipital lobe.
- parietal-occipital cortex
- acquisition / consolidation
- NMDA receptors are critical to inducing LTP but not to maintaining LTP
- patterns of activity among groups of neurons may describe the function of a brain area better
- depth perception incorporates multiple types of visual information
- the olfactory cortex has direct connectivity to the limbic cortex.
- neurons and glial cells
- a philosophical shift in the field toward empiricism and associationism
- The prefrontal cortex seems to play a role in working memory but not in long-term storage of information
- iconic memory / echoic memory
- orbitofrontal cortex / amygdala
protrusions are caused by disproportionate development of the brain
areas beneath them, which are responsible for different specific
- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
- the patients also neglected the contralesional side of their own mental images.
- must be deduced and justified through reason
- recency memory
- auditory echo lasts longer than the visual icon
could perceive letters located within the focus of his attention better
than letters outside, even when his eyes remained at the center of the
- accurate velocity discrimination
- The monkey will remember the correct response and choose stimulus card 1 to earn a food reward.
- many processes are engaged "at rest," including self-referential processes.
- this allows us to filter out sensory information before it has received much processing by the brain.
- is part of a special genetic strain that lacks or no longer expresses certain genes
- Voltage-gated channels in the cell membrane open and permit ion flow through the membrane
- the frequency of action potential generation
- coincidence detectors / relative rate of firing
- electrical / chemical
- percepts are best understood in relation to a stimulus's emergent properties
- The anterior temporal lobes
- innate / learned
- fluent aphasia
- medial temporal lobes / diencephalon
- The amygdala performs a modulatory role in declarative memory
- emotional expression / physical features
- internal mental processes can be measured in rigorous and reproducible ways
- recollection / familiarity
- cognitive psychology
- CT (computed tomography)
- both vision and audition involve an early-selection mechanism.
- They are synthesized in the axon terminals of the presynaptic neuron
must also use a structural neuroimaging technique to isolate the source
of attentional activation to a specific brain structure.
- both maintenance and manipulation.
- the amygdala responds most strongly to fearful faces, but it also shows some response to other expressions
- valence / arousal
- their structure at the cellular level
- An explosion while laying a Vermont railway that sent a tamping iron through his head
- Endogenous cuing
- "quick and dirty" / direct signal from the thalamus to the amygdala
- Dendrites / axons
- semantic / episodic
- tissue staining / cytoarchitectonics
- correctly select the left food well.
- Understanding a speech
- is performed with an MRI scanner but measures the density and motion of water contained in axons
- Hughlings Jackson