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  1. After a brain injury, a person is found to have isolated retrograde amnesia. Which of the following brain regions is probably damaged?

    - The medial temporal lobes
    - The anterior temporal lobes
    - The superior parietal lobes
    - The dorsolateral frontal lobes
  2. Which brain region is the most susceptible to coup-contra-coup injury?
  3. False-belief tasks require participants to direct their attention away from invalid information to answer questions about another person's mental states.
  4. Research on racial stereotypes conducted by Phelps and colleagues (2000) suggested that when European-American participants viewed pictures of unfamiliar African-American men, activity in the ________ of these participants was correlated with the results of ________ behavioral measures of racial beliefs and attitudes.
  5. Neuroimaging experiments have demonstrated that working memory engages the
  6. Damasio's (1994) somatic marker hypothesis argues that memories of responses we have made in the past
  7. ________ refers to the repetition of a response even when that type of response is no longer appropriate or correct.
  8. ________ is the process of acquiring new information, whereas ________ is the trace that results from this process and can be revealed at a later time.
  9. The Baddeley working memory model is ________, suggesting that ________ is more important in determining the brain regions that will be recruited.
  10. Klüver-Bucy syndrome is associated with damage to which brain structure or region?
  11. The supervisory attentional system is probably localized to this region of the brain.
  12. One major difference between the visual icon and the auditory echo is that the
  13. Indirectly coupled receptors in a cell membrane
  14. Konishi's model of spatial hearing in the barn owl posits that inter aural time is computed using ________, whereas interaural intensity differences are computed using ________.
  15. The antipsychotic drugs often given to people with schizophrenia are typically
  16. The primary functional problem that results from posterior parietal injury and that produces the neglect syndrome is that patients
  17. In an experiment by William Kelly and colleagues, participants judged personality
    adjectives in relation to either themselves or the U.S. president. The results suggested that memory for words processed in relation to the self was ________ than that for words processed in relation to the U.S. president, and that the former condition resulted in greater neural activity in the ________ cortex.
  18. The amygdala consists of several subnuclei. During fear conditioning, information converges on the ________ of the amygdala and from there projects to the ________.
  19. Which of the following is an advantage of MEG (magnetoencephalography) over EEG (electroencephalography)?
  20. Which of the following statements best describes the anatomical connectivity of the prefrontal lobes to the rest of the brain?

    - Most synapses in the prefrontal cortex originate from subcortical regions rather than from other cortical regions in the brain.
    - Almost all connections in this area carry inputs from other regions of the cortex rather than from subcortical regions.
    - Connections in this region tend to carry inputs from other parts of the prefrontal cortex rather than ions to and from the prefrontal cortex to all other lobes of the brain.
    - There are extensive projections to and from the prefrontal cortex to all other lobes of the brain.
  21. The information that you are currently thinking about, perceiving, or using to guide responding is held in this type of memory store.
  22. Which of the following is NOT an area of cortex in the medial temporal lobe that interacts with the hippocampus in the formation of new long-term memories?

    - Cingulate
    - Entorhinal
    - Parahippocampal
    - Perirhinal
  23. Long-term potentiation does NOT occur unless the neurotransmitter ________ is present in the synapse to bind to postsynaptic NMDA receptors.
  24. Of the following choices, the strongest evidence for a link between the sense of smell and the triggering of memories is the observation that

    - the olfactory cortex has direct connectivity to the limbic cortex.
    - the olfactory cortex has direct connectivity to area MT.
    - people with damage to the basal ganglia have compromised odor recognition.
    - people with damage to the cerebellum have compromised odor recognition.
  25. Which of the following cells devour and remove damaged brain cells?

    - Astrocytes
    - Microglia
    - Oligodendrocytes
    - Schwann cells
  26. The main deficit in Balint's syndrome is that patients can focus attention on only
  27. Which of the following statements is true of the kind of amnesia demonstrated by people with bilateral hippocampal damage (like Patients H.M. and R.B.) or people with diencephalon injury (like people with Korsakoff's syndrome)?

    - They forget their dates of birth.
    - They can still learn new skills such as the serial reaction time task after the injury.
    - They remember meeting new people after the injury.
    - They have good memory for learning facts after the injury but fail to show priming effects.
  28. The primary auditory cortex is located in the
  29. The neuroanatomist who described 52 distinct cortical areas based on cell structure and arrangement, and whose classification scheme is often used today, was
  30. Korbinian Brodmann used ________ techniques to document 52 regions of the brain that differed in ________.
  31. Which of the following is NOT always true of neurotransmitters?

    - They are synthesized in the axon terminals of the presynaptic neuron.
    - They are released by the presynaptic neuron when action potentials depolarize its axon terminal.
    - They bind to receptors on the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron.
    - Applying a neurotransmitter artificially to the postsynaptic neuron would lead to the same response as stimulating the presynaptic neuron.
  32. The term theory of mind refers to
  33. One of the experimental strengths of brain-lesion methods in animals, compared to human neuropsychology, is that
  34. Thorndike's Law of Effect
  35. Limiting the amount of conscious awareness that we have for our own information processing may have the advantage of all of the following EXCEPT

    - this allows us to filter out sensory information before it has received much processing by the brain.
    - this reduces the number of extra cognitive operations that accompany conscious processing.
    - this minimizes the amount of time for information processing to be completed.
    - this reduces the amount of metabolic resources that are used for information processing.
  36. Electrical synapses have the advantage of ________, but they are unable to ________.
  37. The ability to organize and segregate events in memory is called
  38. The supervisory attentional system, which seems to be localized to the ________ in the brain, becomes active during the Stroop task because this task requires ________.
  39. Empiricism is to ________ as rationalism is to ________.
  40. The building blocks of the ion channels in cell membranes are
  41. Which of the following best describes a real-life example of the delayed-response task?

    - After reading and studying on Sunday afternoon, you take a cognitive neuroscience exam on Monday morning.
    - After looking up the phone number of a local pizza place, you walk across the room to the telephone and begin dialing it.
    - After staring intently at bright streetlamp, you notice that there is an afterimage of the light even when you move your eyes to another location.
    - Every time you visit the doctor to receive a shot, she gives you a cherry lollipop. After several visits you find that the taste of cherry lollipops makes you anxious.
  42. The P1 ERP is associated most closely with the
  43. A blockage of the posterior cerebral arteries that resulted in brain damage would most likely causes a deficit in
  44. The n-back task differs from some other commonly used working memory tasks in that it involves
  45. _____________ refers to memory about the context (such as time or place) in which a fact was learned.
  46. Item memory tends to rely more strongly on ________ lobe function, whereas source memory relies more strongly on ________ lobe function.
  47. Which of the following things would have been the most difficult for the famous individual described by Carl Wernicke, compared to before his stroke?

    - Understanding a speech
    - Painting a picture
    - Singing a song
    - Riding a horse
  48. How many types of receptors are there in the olfactory epithelium?
  49. A patient has an injury to the optic nerves, such that the branches of each optic nerve that normally cross to the opposite side of the brain at the optic chiasm are severed. The remaining branches, which do not cross to the other side of the brain, are intact. Which of the following best describes the effect of this injury on his vision?

    - He can now see only by using his right eye; his left eye is functionally blind
    - Only information from the left visual field can enter his brain for processing
    - Each eye can now carry only information from half of the visual field
    - His brain now receives visual information only from the medial half of each retina.
  50. The orbitofrontal cortex is an integration area for which two senses?
  51. If you inserted a micropipette into a neuron without harming the cell, and pumped in a small quantity of calcium ions, each of which carried two positive charges, how would this affect the membrane potential?
  52. Your favorite cartoon character has been struck over the head and can no longer remember his name or where he lives. This is an example of
  53. Tasks involving thinking about mental states often engage which region of the brain, in comparison to thinking about social background or life events?
  54. Studies of the perception of the self and others have suggested that
  55. Neuroeconomic functional MRI studies have suggested that rational decision making is associated with the ________, and emotion-driven decision making is associated with the ________.
  56. The term ________ refers to the operations involved when we select for further processing a limited subset of information from the total information available to us from our sensory systems and stored mental representations.
  57. A knockout mouse
  58. Which of the following is true about the prefrontal cortex?

    - The prefrontal cortex seems to play a role in working memory but not in long-term storage of information.
    - The prefrontal cortex seems to play a role in long-term storage of information but not in working memory.
    - The prefrontal cortex is important for both working memory and long-term storage of information.
    - The prefrontal cortex is not essential for either working memory or long-term storage of information.
  59. A gap junction is
  60. Which of the following terms refers to the idea of a continuous mass of tissue that shares a common cytoplasm?

    - Synapse
    - Syncytium
    - Striatum
    - Claustrum
  61. Hedwig the owl is having difficulty localizing sounds in space. After performing a series of studies, you realize that she has trouble localizing sounds in the left-right dimension, but she seems to know whether they are coming from above or below. Of the following choices, which brain region is the most likely to be impaired?
  62. Schema control units are
  63. Focal injuries of the prefrontal cortex generally produce all of the following cognitive changes or symptoms EXCEPT

    - deficits in planning complex behaviors.
    - perseveration in responding.
    - fluent aphasia.
    - disruption of working memory.
  64. All of the following describe differences between early-selection and late-selection models of attention EXCEPT

    - early-selection models argue that selection occurs before semantic analysis of incoming stimuli.
    - late-selection models argue that human information processing has limited capacity, whereas early-selection models argue that capacity is unlimited.
    - early-selection models argue that all higher-level information processing requires the use of attention.
    - late-selection models argue that a stimulus may be categorized or even identified before selection.
  65. La reazione nera, or "the black reaction," refers to
  66. Most antidepressants are
  67. Barbara remembers that Madrid is the capital of Spain, but she has no idea when or where she acquired this knowledge. Her ________ memory is accurate, but her ________ memory is incomplete.
  68. ________ is the science of simulating natural cognitive processes on computers.
  69. The implicit association test (IAT) measures the degree to which social groups are automatically associated with positive and negative evaluations. Which of the following is FALSE regarding this test?

    - One variant of the test examines attitudes toward different racial groups.
    - The primary measures of this test are response latencies.
    - The IAT is designed to reflect declarative memories.
    - Part of this test involves categorizing words as good or bad.
  70. A 1957 study of patients who had undergone removal of the medial temporal lobe for the treatment of epilepsy suggested that
  71. Which of the following is the best example of cortical plasticity?

    - The processing of tactile information by blind people in cortical regions that process visual information in sighted people
    - The ability of the barn owl to localize objects in space based on auditory and not visual information
    - The integration of information about olfaction and gustation in the orbitofrontal cortex
    - The activation of the superior colliculus by visual information in patients exhibiting blindsight
  72. Fear conditioning is a more specific instance of
  73. Stanley Klein and colleagues found that after rating a personality adjective for self- descriptiveness, participants were ________ to recall a time in which they exhibited the characteristic, suggesting that self-characteristics ________ linked to recall of specific past behaviors.
  74. The observation that participants are actually slower to detect targets that appear at recent previously attended locations is called
  75. Cunningham and colleagues (2004) suggested that although the amygdala plays a role in the automatic evaluation of social groups, controlled processing may implicate which of the following brain regions?

    - The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
    - The parahippocampal cortex
    - The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex
    - The hippocampus
  76. A patient who had a stroke in her right parietal lobe has extinction as a result of her injury. This person will fail to report a
  77. Visual sensory memory is to ________ as auditory sensory memory is to ________.
  78. Injury to all of the following brain areas EXCEPT ________ will result in a scotoma., MT, V1, the LGN (lateral geniculate nucleus), Brodmann area 17
  79. Some theories of emotion employ a factor approach. In one conceptualization, the first factor is ________, or how pleasant or unpleasant the stimulus is, and the second factor is ________, or how intense the emotional response is.
  80. People with frontal lobe injuries and control participants learned a series of facts in the laboratory and returned about a week later to be tested for fact recall. Which of the following best describes the results of this study?

    - The participants with frontal lobe injuries recalled significantly fewer facts than the control participants did, but they had similar source memory for the facts.
    - The participants with frontal lobe injuries recalled the same number of facts as the control participants did, but they had poorer source memory for the facts.
    - The participants with frontal lobe injuries had both poorer recall and poorer source memory for the facts relative to the control participants.
    - The participants with frontal lobe injuries performed similarly to the control participants on fact recall and source memory.
  81. Which of the following is true regarding the amygdala and emotional learning?

    - The amygdala plays a role in the expression of fear responses, regardless of whether the initial learning was implicit or explicit.
    - The amygdala plays a role in the expression of fear responses only when the initial learning was implicit.
    - The amygdala plays a role in the expression of fear responses only when the initial learning was explicit.
    - The amygdala does not play a role in the expression of fear responses but does play a role in their acquisition.
  82. Lesions to the hippocampus typically do not result in profound memory problems unless the lesions also encompass the amygdala.
  83. The involuntary failure to attend to sensory stimuli presented in the side of space opposite to the site of brain injury (in the absence of sensory problems) is called the ________ syndrome.
  84. Which 19th-century scientist suggested that the frontal lobe contributes to language and speech production?

    - Flourens
    - Wernicke
    - Broca
    - Brodmann
  85. The encoding of information to be stored involves two stages ________, in which inputs in sensory buffers and sensory analysis stages are registered, and then ________, in which a stronger representation for storage is created.
  86. Many drugs produce their effects by facilitating or interfering with neurotransmitters at synapses. Which of the following drugs would most likely increase the effect of serotonin?
  87. Which of the following resulted in the significant personality changes observed in Phineas Gage?
  88. The Posner spatial cuing task (1980) showed that cuing participants to the location of an upcoming target
  89. Baron-Cohen has proposed that people with ________ have impaired theory-of-mind abilities, coining the term mindblindness.
  90. A brain tumor that originates as an abnormal growth of cells from the dura mater is a
  91. After modeling the quick habituation found in the olfactory system, Sobel's fMRI research suggested that
  92. Which neuroimaging technique involves injecting an isotope of oxygen into the bloodstream and using it to measure regional cerebral blood flow?

    - fMRI
    - PET
    - CT
    - EEG
  93. During electronic, or decremental, conduction, the distance covered by an ionic current will be affected by all of the following factors EXCEPT

    - the amplitude of the original current.
    - the resistance of the neuronal membrane.
    - the frequency of action potential generation.
    - the conductivity of the intracellular and extracellular fluid.
  94. Studies of the neural bases of autism have found that people with autism

    - have less activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus when performing theory of mind tasks.
    - have smaller amygdalae in comparison to non autistic people.
    - do not significantly deactivate the medial prefrontal cortex when performing non-self- referential tasks.
    - All of the above are true.
  95. Deficits in memory as a function of brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma are known collectively as
  96. The ________, which is comprised of astrocytes, protects the brain from chemical compounds circulating in the body that might otherwise interfere with neuronal activity.
  97. Which of the following phenomena is the most consciously mediated?

    - Inhibition of return
    - Reflexive attention
    - Exogenous cuing
    - Endogenous cuing
  98. Simple cells in the primary visual cortex selectively respond to visual stimuli based on
  99. Consider the synapse shown schematically here. If neuron A causes neuron B to become hyperpolarized relative to B's resting state,
  100. The field of ________ is based on the idea that perception and thought employ mental representations that undergo transformations as they are used.
  101. The axons of nociceptors conduct information about which sensation?
  102. Which patient group is most likely to be impaired on a task in which one must decide which of two pictures was seen most recently?
  103. High-frequency sounds primarily activate hair cells at the ________ of the cochlea, whereas low-frequency sounds primarily activate hair cells at the ________ of the cochlea.
  104. Working memory has been called the ________ of the mind.
  105. Before entering the brain, each optic nerve splits into two branches so that information from the ________ half of each retina crosses to the opposite side of the brain.
  106. Which brain area seems to be the most important for selectively attending to positive self- relevant information, as opposed to negative self-relevant information?
  107. Which of the following things would have been the most difficult for the famous individual studied by Paul Broca, compared to before his stroke?

    - Listening to a piano recital
    - Reading a book aloud
    - Appreciating a painting
    - Playing a game of cards
  108. The highest density of ________, or color-sensitive photoreceptors, can be found in the ________ of the retina.
  109. Which of the following neuroimaging techniques involves manipulating the orientation of hydrogen atoms?

    - MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
    - PET (positron emission tomography)
    - MEG (magnetoencephalography)
    - ERP (event-related potential)
  110. Two principles about neurons were defined by Ramón y Cajal. The principle of connectional specificity states that ________, whereas the principle of dynamic polarization states that ________.
  111. What were the circumstances under which Phineas Gage sustained his brain injury?
  112. The term used by cognitive psychologists to describe the interval of time between two events in an experimental paradigm is
  113. Information about which of the following senses does NOT pass through the thalamus on the way to the cortex?

    - Audition
    - Olfaction
    - Gustation
    - Somatosensation
  114. Which of the following is a documented asymmetry in the olfactory system?
    - The number of receptor types in the left olfactory epithelium is 10 times greater than in the right olfactory epithelium.
    - The cortical volume of the primary olfactory cortex is larger on the right side than on the left in right-handed people.
    - The nasal passage in one nostril is larger than the other nostril, and this switches back and forth every few hours.
    - Although the left nostril projects to both the left and right cerebral hemispheres, the right nostril projects only to the right hemisphere.
  115. Techniques such as EEG are particularly well suited to studies of attention. However, one difficulty in using these techniques is that
  116. Imagine that a new drug is discovered that acts by depleting the brain of free magnesium ions. How would this drug affect long-term potentiation (LTP)?
  117. Raine (2002) has argued that ________ people are likely to show evidence of reduced neural activity in the orbitofrontal cortex.
  118. As a first approximation, individuals with damage to the left inferior frontal lobe tend to have more difficulty with ________, whereas individuals with damage to the left posterior temporal lobe tend to have more difficulty with ________.
  119. The two main classes of cell in the nervous system are
  120. A monkey is taught that food is associated with a stimulus card that has a star on it. After training, the animal receives a lesion to the lateral prefrontal cortex. The monkey's memory for the food- stimulus card association is then tested by presenting the animal with the two stimulus cards diagrammed here. How will the monkey now respond?
  121. One of the two pathways of the amygdala is known as the "low road." This pathway can be characterized as ________ and involves a ________.
  122. Classical conditioning is an example of a specific type of ________ memory.
  123. The case of Anne Green was remarkable in that after being falsely convicted of murdering her newborn child,
  124. In attention experiments, cues that correctly predict the location of the target are called ________, whereas cues that predict other locations are called ________.
  125. We can trace the origins of the term cognitive neuroscience to
  126. George Miller and other investigators found that humans can hold about ________ items in short-term memory at a time.
  127. Declarative or explicit memory is knowledge that
  128. The technique known as ________ can be used to induce virtual lesions in humans.
  129. The memory performance of Patients K.F. and E.E., when compared to the memory performance of people with amnesia, such as Patient H.M, demonstrates a double dissociation between two types of memory. Which of the following statements best describes these results?

    - H.M. has a deficit limited to explicit memory, whereas K.F. and E.E. have deficits limited to implicit memory.
    - H.M. has a deficit limited to long-term memory, whereas K.F. and E.E. have deficits limited to short-term memory.
    - H.M. has anterograde amnesia, whereas K.F. and E.E. have retrograde amnesia.
    - H.M. has an injury to the medial temporal lobes, whereas K.F. and E.E. have injuries to the lateral temporal lobes.
  130. When deciding whether an adjective describes ________, we rely on ________.
  131. The mechanism through which the amygdala modulates hippocampus-based learning may be related to the observation that
  132. The primary olfactory cortex is located at the junction of the ________ and ________ lobes.
  133. In the delayed nonmatching to sample task, animals are taught in a single trial that a specific object is associated with a food reward. When this object is shown again in a subsequent trial in the presence of a new object, the animal
  134. Which of the following results best supports the notion that the amygdala modulates the consolidation of hippocampus-based memories?

    - Hippocampus-based learning occurs only if the learner is not experiencing stress or arousal.
    - Modulation of hippocampus-based learning occurs only if the learner is stressed or aroused.
    - Modulation of hippocampus-based learning by arousal occurs only if the arousal is initiated prior to learning.
    - Modulation of hippocampus-based learning by arousal occurs after the initial encoding of the task, during retention.
  135. With regard to the three-stage model of attention of Posner and his colleagues (1984), which component of attention is associated with the pulvinar?
  136. Rationalism is the philosophical position that knowledge
  137. The most important function of myelin in the nervous system is to
  138. The primary gustatory cortex is located in the
  139. Which of the following experimental tasks would be best for testing deficits in task
    switching?

    - The delayed response task
    - The semantic generation task
    - The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task
    - The Stroop task
  140. The self-referent effect refers to the phenomenon that
  141. A patient suffering from a progressive neurological disorder is brought to a neurologist for diagnosis. The neurologist notes that the patient's MRI reveals a great deal of cortical atrophy and suspects that the problem may be Alzheimer's disease. Which of the following symptoms, if also discovered, would confirm this diagnosis?
  142. Which of the following degenerative disorders is believed to have the strongest genetic component?
  143. Which of the following is true about the role of the amygdala in explicit emotional learning?

    - The amygdala performs a modulatory role in declarative memory.
    - The amygdala is thought to enhance explicit memory retrieval in the hippocampus.
    - The amygdala is thought to enhance the initial encoding of explicit memories.
    - None of the above: The amygdala is primarily involved in implicit, not explicit, emotional learning.
  144. Which of the following is true of the prefrontal cortex, schizophrenia, and depression?

    - Both schizophrenia and depression are associated with hyper metabolism in the prefrontal cortex.
    - Both schizophrenia and depression are associated with hypo metabolism in the prefrontal cortex.
    - Whereas schizophrenia is associated with hyper metabolism in the prefrontal cortex, depression is associated with hypometabolism in the prefrontal cortex.
    - Whereas schizophrenia is associated with hypometabolism in the prefrontal cortex, depression is associated with hypermetabolism in the prefrontal cortex.
  145. Whereas the ________ will be most active during the encoding of a face stimulus, the ________ will be active during the delay period.
  146. ________ was one of the first brain scientists to realize that specific cognitive functions can be localized to specific parts of the brain and that many different functional regions can take part in a given behavior.
  147. One property of the central executive mechanism proposed by Baddeley and Hitch is that
  148. Patients with extinction are unable to detect a visual stimulus presented on the contralesional side of space if
  149. One concern with interpreting fMRI studies employing a "resting state" for comparison with cognitive activities of interest is that
  150. Recent neuroimaging and neuropsychological work in memory has attempted to disentangle ________, which seems to implicate the hippocampus and the posterior parahippocampal cortex, from ________, which seems to implicate the entorhinal cortex.
  151. The receptive fields in the primary visual cortex are ________ the receptive fields in the visual association areas.
  152. A patient visits a neurologist and complains of memory problems like remembering telephone numbers. After a few tests, the neurologist determines that there is a large impairment in the digit span, but no impairment in remembering the past or in forming new memories. Which brain area is the most likely to be impaired?
  153. Which of the following individuals was NOT associated with a major histological discovery in neuroscience?

    - Edward Thorndike
    - Korbinian Brodmann
    - Camillo Golgi
    - Jan Evangelista Purkinje
  154. Hillyard and colleagues (1973) recorded event-related potentials (ERP) from participants while they performed a dichotic listening task. When comparing the ERPs collected when participants attended to a given signal to when they ignored this signal, the researchers found that auditory ERPs
  155. The Stroop effect demonstrates that when viewing
  156. The Gestalt psychologists argued that
  157. ________ is a condition characterized by excessive and abnormally patterned activity in the brain.
  158. Patient H.M. is to the ________ as patients with Korsakoff's syndrome are to the ________.
  159. Of the following choices, damage to the ________ is most likely to result in impairment to the visuospatial sketch pad, or visual working memory.

    - parietal-occipital cortex
    - medial temporal lobe
    - hippocampus
    - perisylvian region
  160. When Bisiach and Luzzatti (1978) asked patients with the neglect syndrome to describe their own mental images of the Italian city in which they lived, the researchers found that
  161. Which subcortical region is known to maintain multimodal maps of the environment and is involved in the control and orienting of movements?
  162. Which of the following imaging techniques would be best for visualizing a skull fracture?

    - CT (computed tomography)
    - PET (positron emission tomography)
    - fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging)
    - DTI (diffusion tensor imaging)
  163. Cytoarchitectonic maps distinguish different cortical regions by
  164. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the role of NMDA receptors in mediating LTP in the brain?

    - NMDA receptors are critical to inducing LTP but not to maintaining LTP.
    - NMDA receptors block LTP in the brain unless magnesium ions are present.
    - NMDA receptors are depolarized by the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
    - NMDA receptors create LTP by transporting magnesium ions from outside the cell into the cell.
  165. Achromatopsia is due to
  166. Noam Chomsky argued that the structure of human languages is ________, in contrast to B. F. Skinner's assertion that languages are ________.
  167. The two cues that barn owls use to localize sounds are
  168. The ease with which a cell membrane will permit ions to cross it is referred to as
  169. The primary reason why neurons are refractory for a short period after firing action potentials, and the reason underlying the absolute refractory period, is that the
  170. Research using the mismatch field (MMF), which is the magnetic equivalent of the mismatch negativity (MMN), has suggested that auditory sensory memory has a duration of about
  171. The view known as aggregate field theory, which stated that the whole brain participates in behavior, is most associated with
  172. You are looking for a friend who is supposed to meet you in a crowded lecture hall. You know that she is wearing a bright purple sweater and glasses. Which kind of visual search best describes this situation?
  173. Within a neuron, the transmission of information is usually ________. Between neurons, the transmission of information is usually ________.
  174. The most salient symptom in people who have suffered damage to the orbitofrontal cortex is
  175. One limitation of what we can learn through the single-cell recording technique is that
  176. In general, increased activity in the anterior cingulate cortex has been observed when participants perform tasks that have any of the following properties EXCEPT

    - the task requires planning and decision making.
    - the task involves well-learned or automatic responses.
    - the task is likely to require error correction.
    - the task requires a response that competes with another strong habitual response.
  177. The general term for a molecule that binds to a protein, such as an ion channel, is a(n)
  178. Neuroimaging of the perception of facial expression suggests that
  179. The ventromedial zone is also known as (the)
  180. A traumatic brain injury in which impact causes the brain to bounce against the back of the skull and then rebound is known as a ________ injury.
  181. Brodmann's area 46 corresponds to which of the following brain regions?

    - The superior temporal cortex
    - The pre central gyrus
    - The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
    - The anterior cingulate
  182. In the auditory system, the conversion of sound waves into action potentials occurs in the
  183. ________ is the idea that a stimulus does not have to be completely analyzed before it can be either selected for further processing or rejected as irrelevant.
  184. Studies using fMRI have found that neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex ________ when people make self-referential judgments compared to other judgments, suggesting that when we are "at rest" we are engaging in a number of self-referential processes.
  185. Based on what you know about the possible role of the prefrontal cortex in attention, which of the following do you think best predicts the performance of a patient with damage to this area on the Stroop task?
  186. Which of the following is true regarding the amygdala and indirect evaluations of racial bias?

    - White participants who show greater amygdala activity during the presentation of black faces tend to have stronger racial bias as measured by an implicit behavioral task.
    - People with bilateral amygdala damage do not show evidence of a racial bias on implicit behavioral tasks.
    - Choices a and b are both correct.
    - Neither a nor b is correct.
  187. A monkey that has previously received a lesion in the lateral prefrontal cortex is shown two food wells, each of which is covered by a marked stimulus card:



    As the monkey watches, a food reward is placed into the left well and then both wells are covered. If the monkey is now allowed to retrieve the food reward immediately, it will
  188. Which of the following is true of bipolar neurons?

    - They have two processes, one axon, and one dendrite.
    - Their dendrites and axons typically are fused together.
    - They have one axon and many dendrites.
    - Their dendrites and axons both stem from a single process extending from each cell body.
  189. The primary visual pathway is best described as
  190. ________ is a general term that refers to disruption of blood flow to the brain.
  191. Implicit memory is to ________ as explicit memory is to ________.
  192. Resecting or removing regions of cortex and cutting the corpus callosum are techniques that are usually used to
  193. Neuroimaging studies of the left and right hemispheres in memory function indicate that
  194. Two main types of projections extend from the cell body of a neuron. ________ receive inputs from other neurons, while ________ send information to other neurons.
  195. Following a case of encephalitis, a person has developed lesions in his anterior temporal lobes, but his medial temporal structures are intact. Which of the following is most likely to be true of this person?

    - The person has isolated anterograde amnesia.
    - The person has isolated retrograde amnesia.
    - The person has Korsakoff's syndrome.
    - The person has a specific deficit of implicit memory.
  196. If you were to conduct a single-cell recording from a neuron in the MT region of the extrastriate visual cortex, you would probably find that the cell fires most vigorously to a
  197. Using single-cell recording, you isolate a neuron in area MT that selectively responds to moving stimuli. What other response property would you expect from this cell?
  198. Both early- and late-selection models of attention share the idea that
  199. In one conceptualization of emotions (Davidson et al., 1990), some emotional states such as happiness and surprise create a tendency to ________, whereas other emotional states such as fear and disgust create a tendency to ________.
  200. In dichotic listening studies, Cherry (1953) presented competing speech stimuli to each ear and asked participants to verbally "shadow" (immediately report) the signal arriving at one ear while ignoring the other. He found that participants
  201. A patient who has a focal brain injury to the human analog of area MT would demonstrate all of the following for visually presented stimuli EXCEPT

    - accurate shape discrimination
    - accurate velocity discrimination
    - accurate hue discrimination
    - accurate object recognition.
  202. Generally, it has been found that different cortical regions that contain cells with different morphologies
  203. Organizing individual bits of information into higher-order units can increase the amount of information that can be held in short-term memory. This strategy is called
  204. The greatest advantage of incorporating computer modeling into the study of a cognitive phenomenon is that
  205. To engage in joint attention, a child will pay attention to
  206. Phrenologists believed that the contour of the skull could provide valuable information about an individual's cognitive capacities and personality traits. This approach was based on the assumption that
  207. Neuroeconomic studies have shown that humans
  208. One finding demonstrated by the Posner spatial cuing task (1980) is that
  209. All of the following are representative of the emergence of the field of cognitive science in the second half of the 20th century EXCEPT

    - new developments in computer technology and artificial intelligence.
    - a philosophical shift in the field toward empiricism and associationism.
    - Chomsky's work arguing that behaviorist theories cannot explain language acquisition.
    - Miller's work showing that internal processes like short-term memory can be quantified.
  210. Most children who are asked to sort a set of facial pictures will likely sort on the basis of ________, whereas autistic children will likely sort on the basis of ________.
  211. According to the modal model of memory, information that is currently held within short-term memory originates from
  212. The orbitofrontal cortex is considered a secondary cortical area for which of the following senses?

    - Proprioception
    - Vision
    - Olfaction
    - Audition
  213. ________ refers to the processing of incoming information to be stored.
  214. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)
  215. The primary contribution of Golgi to the field of cognitive neuroscience was that he
  216. The small regions in a three-dimensional grid, approximately 5 to 10 cubic millimeters in volume, that neuroimagers use to map the brain are known as
  217. The perception of which of these emotions is impaired following damage to the amygdala?
  218. Studies of attention employing the P1 waveform and the N1 waveform suggest that
  219. Which of the following cells produce myelin in the peripheral nervous system?

    - Astrocytes
    - Microglia
    - Oligodendrocytes
    - Schwann cells
  220. Researchers Fritsch and Hitzig found support for the idea that specific functions are localized to discrete parts of the cortex in an experiment using electrical stimulation of a dog's brain. More specifically, they found
  221. Patient S.P., who had bilateral damage to the amygdala, participated in a study involving the pairing of a blue square with an electric shock. S.P.'s skin conductance response (SCR) and verbal report indicated that
  222. Ebbinghaus, who is considered the father of modern memory research, was among the first to demonstrate that
  223. Autistic children are likely to report that ______ when performing the Sally-Anne Task.
  224. Due to a defect in one type of photoreceptor, Susan has poor vision at night, when light levels are relatively low. Which type of photoreceptor is defective?
  225. The term concentration gradient refers to a difference in the
  226. In one of the earliest studies of visual attention, Helmholtz (1894) constructed a screen on which letters were painted at various distances from the center. Following a brief illumination, he found that
  227. Which of the following statements best describes the immediate consequence of neurotransmitter molecules binding to postsynaptic receptors?

    - Voltage-gated channels in the cell membrane open and permit ion flow through the membrane.
    - The activity of the sodium-potassium pumps increases.
    - Calcium absorption into the axon terminal cell is triggered.
    - Neurotransmitter-containing vesicles bind to the inside of the axon terminal membrane.
  228. People are better at identifying a briefly presented letter on a computer screen if the letter is
  229. The process of directing one's attention to a specific external stimulus is called
  230. Unlike color and motion, there are as yet no unambiguous studies showing that depth perception is localized to a specific region of the visual system. This failure to localize visual depth perception is most likely due to the fact that
  1. a our ability to make inferences about the mental states of other people.
  2. b acquisition / consolidation
  3. c The anterior cingulate gyrus
  4. d More than five
  5. e neuron B is less likely to release neurotransmitter molecules from its own axon terminal
  6. f number of ions found on opposite sides of the cell membrane
  7. g smaller than
  8. h Hughlings Jackson
  9. i nondeclarative
  10. j true
  11. k accurately recalled only the content of the signal presented to the shadowed ear.
  12. l serotonin agonists
  13. m developed a staining technique that permitted full visualization of individual neurons
  14. n false
  15. o Understanding a speech
  16. p With MEG, the magnetic fields are not distorted by the skull.
  17. q the direction of your eye gaze.
  18. r autism
  19. s fusiform gyrus / prefrontal cortex
  20. t percepts are best understood in relation to a stimulus's emergent properties
  21. u dopamine antagonists
  22. v mental representations of possible responses.
  23. w this allows us to filter out sensory information before it has received much processing by the brain.
  24. x priming / episodic memory
  25. y the primary olfactory cortex is related to sniffing and smell, whereas the orbitofrontal cortex is related to smell but not sniffing.
  26. z the olfactory cortex has direct connectivity to the limbic cortex.
  27. aa transmitting information rapidly / transmit inhibitory signals
  28. ab one object at a time.
  29. ac amnesia
  30. ad They can still learn new skills such as the serial reaction time task after the injury
  31. ae olfaction
  32. af animal work can be truly experimental, whereas with humans we are limited to correlational inferences
  33. ag Learning / memory
  34. ah approach / withdraw
  35. ai The processing of tactile information by blind people in cortical regions that process visual information in sighted people
  36. aj hair cells.
  37. ak many processes are engaged "at rest," including self-referential processes.
  38. al The orbitofrontal cortex
  39. am facilitate conduction of action potentials in axons
  40. an electrical / chemical
  41. ao words, we cannot help but activate word representations even when they are irrelevant to the task
  42. ap prefrontal cortex and more posterior brain areas involved in perception and mental representation.
  43. aq the human information processing system cannot fully process every piece of information it receives.
  44. ar Orbitofrontal damage
  45. as Pain
  46. at base (thicker end) / apex (thinner end)
  47. au Epilepsy
  48. av a cell stain developed by Golgi
  49. aw Fear
  50. ax the nasal passage in one nostril is larger than the other nostril, and this switches back and forth every few hours.
  51. ay correctly select the left food well.
  52. az the task involves well-learned or automatic responses.
  53. ba she survived an attempted hanging
  54. bb The amygdala plays a role in the expression of fear responses, regardless of whether the initial learning was implicit or explicit
  55. bc Locke and Hume / Descartes and Kant
  56. bd The monkey will remember the correct response and choose stimulus card 1 to earn a food reward.
  57. be Whereas schizophrenia is associated with hypometabolism in the prefrontal cortex, depression is associated with hypermetabolism in the prefrontal cortex.
  58. bf the frequency of action potential generation
  59. bg voltage-gated sodium channels are inactivated
  60. bh Ischemia
  61. bi stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA)
  62. bj coup de main
  63. bk The amygdala
  64. bl TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation)
  65. bm Anterograde memory
  66. bn visual stimulus presented to her contralesional visual field if another stimulus is simultane- ously presented to her ipsilesional visual field.
  67. bo the production of language / the perception of language
  68. bp temporal / frontal
  69. bq Cingulate
  70. br Edward Thorndike
  71. bs one must also use a structural neuroimaging technique to isolate the source of attentional activation to a specific brain structure.
  72. bt Artificial intelligence
  73. bu NMDA receptors are critical to inducing LTP but not to maintaining LTP
  74. bv Seven plus or minus two
  75. bw he could perceive letters located within the focus of his attention better than letters outside, even when his eyes remained at the center of the screen.
  76. bx a philosophical shift in the field toward empiricism and associationism
  77. by neglect
  78. bz a taxi that Michael Gazzaniga and George Miller shared in the 1970s
  79. ca valence / arousal
  80. cb trigger enzymatic cascades involving G proteins and second messengers
  81. cc The superior colliculus
  82. cd nasal (medial)
  83. ce Source memory
  84. cf arousing stimuli decay less quickly than nonarousing stimuli do
  85. cg meningioma
  86. ch The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
  87. ci The amount of LTP would increase
  88. cj An explosion while laying a Vermont railway that sent a tamping iron through his head
  89. ck CT (computed tomography)
  90. cl cannot disengage attention from information in the ipsilesional side of space.
  91. cm cones / fovea
  92. cn accurate velocity discrimination
  93. co The participants with frontal lobe injuries recalled the same number of facts as the control participants did, but they had poorer source memory for the facts
  94. cp Reading a book aloud
  95. cq the focus of attention can be moved separately from eye fixation.
  96. cr their structure at the cellular level
  97. cs recency memory
  98. ct Presence of amyloid plaques during postmortem examination of the brain
  99. cu The membrane potential would become depolarized relative to the resting potential
  100. cv Microglia
  101. cw This person will experience more Stroop interference than neurologically intact participants.
  102. cx Flourens
  103. cy Schwann cells
  104. cz inhibition of return
  105. da content-based / the type of information
  106. db depth perception incorporates multiple types of visual information
  107. dc anterior cingulate cortex / a response (perceiving color) that competes with a strong habitual response (reading)
  108. dd blackboard
  109. de The prefrontal cortex seems to play a role in working memory but not in long-term storage of information
  110. df internal mental processes can be measured in rigorous and reproducible ways
  111. dg it is not modality specific
  112. dh They have two processes, one axon, and one dendrite
  113. di patterns of activity among groups of neurons may describe the function of a brain area better
  114. dj similar regions of the medial prefrontal cortex are activated when we answer questions about the self and about others, if they are close.
  115. dk Sally will look in the location in which Anne has put the marble
  116. dl others / memories of specific behaviors
  117. dm 10 seconds
  118. dn Early selection
  119. do neurons and glial cells
  120. dp It is selective for stimulus velocity
  121. dq Syncytium
  122. dr cognitive psychology
  123. ds Dendrites / axons
  124. dt this stimulus is presented at the same time as a stimulus on the ipsilesional side of the visual field.
  125. du The magnocellular nucleus
  126. dv emotional expression / physical features
  127. dw presented as part of a word
  128. dx permeability
  129. dy she had an explicit expectation that the shock would occur after seeing the blue square but did not demonstrate any implicit fear-conditioning SCR response
  130. dz were larger for attended versus unattended signals
  131. ea better / medial prefrontal
  132. eb glutamate
  133. ec The amygdala performs a modulatory role in declarative memory
  134. ed chunking
  135. ee cortical lesions in area V4
  136. ef The anterior cingulate cortex
  137. eg parietal-occipital cortex
  138. eh The left perisylvian cortex
  139. ei is performed with an MRI scanner but measures the density and motion of water contained in axons
  140. ej Encoding
  141. ek There are extensive projections to and from the prefrontal cortex to all other lobes of the brain
  142. el encoding and retrieval processes in long-term memory may be lateralized to different hemispheres
  143. em orbitofrontal cortex
  144. en carry out different functions from one another
  145. eo All of the above are true
  146. ep retina → optic nerve → optic chiasm → thalamus → occipital lobe.
  147. eq fluent aphasia
  148. er is part of a special genetic strain that lacks or no longer expresses certain genes
  149. es sensory memory
  150. et MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
  151. eu inter aural time and inter aural intensity
  152. ev The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex
  153. ew Rod
  154. ex inappropriate social behavior
  155. ey The IAT is designed to reflect declarative memories
  156. ez one can access consciously
  157. fa a systematic relationship between the portion of cortex stimulated and specific movements
  158. fb A drug that prevents the activity of an enzyme that breaks down serotonin molecules in the synaptic cleft
  159. fc innate / learned
  160. fd Patients with frontal lobe injuries
  161. fe equally fast / are not
  162. ff a transmembrane channel that connects the cytoplasm of two cells at an electrical synapse
  163. fg Brodmann
  164. fh information processed in relation to the self is enhanced in memory.
  165. fi profound amnesia is associated only with bilateral medial temporal lobe removal
  166. fj "quick and dirty" / direct signal from the thalamus to the amygdala
  167. fk skull protrusions are caused by disproportionate development of the brain areas beneath them, which are responsible for different specific functions
  168. fl Each eye can now carry only information from half of the visual field
  169. fm are associated with emotion and autonomic sensations that influence whether we choose to engage in that behavior again.
  170. fn tissue staining / cytoarchitectonics
  171. fo both maintenance and manipulation.
  172. fp auditory echo lasts longer than the visual icon
  173. fq coincidence detectors / relative rate of firing
  174. fr amygdala / indirect or implicit
  175. fs orienting.
  176. ft Huntington's disease
  177. fu must select the new item to receive a food reward
  178. fv H.M. has a deficit limited to long-term memory, whereas K.F. and E.E. have deficits limited to short-term memory.
  179. fw valid / invalid
  180. fx The anterior temporal lobes
  181. fy iconic memory / echoic memory
  182. fz antisocial
  183. ga PET
  184. gb lateral nucleus / central nucleus
  185. gc White participants who show greater amygdala activity during the presentation of black faces tend to have stronger racial bias as measured by an implicit behavioral task
  186. gd attention
  187. ge Conjunction search
  188. gf semantic / episodic
  189. gg They are synthesized in the axon terminals of the presynaptic neuron
  190. gh decreases less
  191. gi decreased reaction time to detect the target.
  192. gj this technique can generate explicit, testable theories of natural cognition
  193. gk ligand
  194. gl Perseveration
  195. gm classical conditioning
  196. gn alleviate severe chronic epilepsy
  197. go Endogenous cuing
  198. gp medial temporal lobes / diencephalon
  199. gq orbitofrontal cortex / amygdala
  200. gr bar of light that moves across the cell's receptive field
  201. gs Voltage-gated channels in the cell membrane open and permit ion flow through the membrane
  202. gt MT
  203. gu The ability to engage visual attention at a particular location in the visual field
  204. gv Broca
  205. gw olfactory
  206. gx voxels
  207. gy After looking up the phone number of a local pizza place, you walk across the room to the telephone and begin dialing it.
  208. gz retrograde amnesia
  209. ha both vision and audition involve an early-selection mechanism.
  210. hb amino acids
  211. hc the amygdala responds most strongly to fearful faces, but it also shows some response to other expressions
  212. hd stated that a behavior that is followed by a reward is likely to occur again
  213. he direction of attention to the spatial location of a visually presented object.
  214. hf recollection / familiarity
  215. hg Modulation of hippocampus-based learning by arousal occurs after the initial encoding of the task, during retention
  216. hh The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task
  217. hi The right temporoparietal junction
  218. hj frontal / temporal
  219. hk do not always make decisions that maximize rewards and minimize losses.
  220. hl superior temporal lobe
  221. hm must be deduced and justified through reason
  222. hn Olfaction and gustation
  223. ho stimulus orientation
  224. hp late-selection models argue that human information processing has limited capacity, whereas early-selection models argue that capacity is unlimited.
  225. hq insula and operculum
  226. hr vision
  227. hs neural circuits are made of distinct cells / the input and output of a neuron are handled by different specialized parts
  228. ht blood-brain barrier
  229. hu the patients also neglected the contralesional side of their own mental images.
  230. hv The person has isolated retrograde amnesia