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164 Multiple choice questions

  1. Wason 4 Card Problem
  2. emotions unrelated to the decision
  3. fundamental frequency (band of energy that is most dominant)
  4. there was a bigger range of patients because there was more than stroke patients, they had tumors and other kinds of lesions (better localization of lesions), also prefrontal lesions were the main focus
  5. Hz (cycles/second)
  6. requires the person to take an active step
  7. tied to laugh track
  8. replication of Bihrle with better localization of function
  9. problem (posed by Duncker) that involves finding a way to destroy a tumor by radiation without damaging other organs in the body
  10. removed, one at a time, different components of prosody: timing, amplitude, pitch (fundamental frequency). The graphs show how much subjects' reaction times were affected by the loss of a kind of information
  11. R frontal lesions causes changes in personality, addiction to telling jokes (inappropriate content and affect)
  12. cerebellum, temporal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, occipital gyrus, amygdala
  13. yes!
  14. cerebellum, temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus
  15. episodic retrieval of past personal events, personal relevance, integrating info, episodic memory, and self awareness all occur in RFH
  16. patient EVR (damaged VM prefrontal) chose the bad choice decks (A, B with big wins but big penalties)
    -normal and other lesions picked the good decks
  17. semantic retrieval, episodic encoding
  18. if ToM deficits are distinct from other cognitive abilities
    -if difficulty is related to executive functioning (prefrontal regions)
    -if difficulty related to language
  19. its is part of social cognition, reasoning about other people (critical for successful social relations, communication, deception, etc.)
  20. premises are based on observation of one or more specific cases, and we generalize from these cases to a more general conclusion
  21. emotion (distinguishing bw angry and sad), melody in songs
  22. syntax, word meaning, phonology
  23. modification of the acrobat problem that is used to show how the way a problem is stated can influence its difficulty
  24. The queen said the knight was singing VERSUS the queen, said the knight, was singing
  25. patients w/RHD were slowed down a lot when timing information was removed. RHD patients were relying on timing to help them understand the sentences. RHD patients don't rely on pitch (fundamental frequency) because they are not good with pitch--one effect of RHD is to limit a patient's ability to use pitch in prosody
  26. pragmatic reasoning schema that states that if a person satisfies condition A, then they get to carry out action B (Wason four card problem)
  27. the context within which conditional reasoning occurs makes a bing difference, stating the 4-card prob in terms of familiar situations can often generate better reasoning than abstract statements
  28. emotions experienced at the time a decision is being made
    (2 types integral and incidental)
  29. eye movements change when info suggests revision of interpretation is necessary, syntactic and semantic info used simultaneously
  30. L postmiddle temporal gyrus, L inferior frontal gyrus
  31. semantics are activated only AFTER syntax has determined the initial parsing
  32. people normally use emotions to guide decisions, esp if decisions are complex and involve conflicting emotion
  33. which program was preferred based on the wording of each
  34. pitch
  35. all of a sudden realizing a problems solution
  36. decisions are influenced by how the choices are stated or framed
    (emphasizes some features of the situation and deemphasize others)
  37. in problem solving, the condition that occurs when a problem has been solved
  38. risk aversion strategy: idea of saving 200 lives with certainty is more attractive than the risk that no one will be saved
  39. RHD: deficit in both tasks, but esp impaired in emotional discrimination task
    LHD: ok at emotional task, bad a syntactic task (meaning)
    NC: good on both obviously
  40. could understand that people were saying something that was angry/sad, but could not add emotion to her own words
  41. Newell and Simon
  42. emphasis on different parts of the word change meaning (ENtrance vs. enTRANCE)
  43. 4 decks of cards, subject starts with $2000 play money, have to make a decision on each trial which deck to draw from and after each draw subject is given some money, after some draws they are asked to pay a penalty however, goal: max. profits
  44. LHD performed better than RHD (despite aphasia with LHD)
  45. in a conditional syllogism, the term q
    (if p then q)
  46. words vary in the frequency with which they are used in particular language, high frequency word are read faster than low ones
  47. searching of a problem space to find the path between the statement of the problem and the solution, governed by operators and setting subgoals (Tower of Hanoi)
  48. inferences that the events described in one clause/sentence were caused by events that occurred in a previous sentence
  49. worse in face recognition in the prosody recognition test
  50. literally false utterance combined with an appreciation of listener knowledge, speaker INTENDS listener to see through falsehood
  51. problem that has been used to study how the statement of a prob influences a person's ability to solve it
  52. right hemisphere
  53. a series of 3 statements (2 premises followed by a conclusion), conclusion follows from premise based on rules of logic
  54. ex) of test and vacation package: if told of the outcome, both take the package, if not told about the test, people hold off on the package even though in the end both justify themselves taking the trip
  55. the representation of the text in a person's mind so that the info in one part of the text is related to info in another part of the text
  56. preconceived notion about how to approach a problem, which is determine by a person's experience or what has worked in the past
  57. there is a major role in temporal parietal junction (no activation with false photo, only false beliefs, so needs to be specific to beliefs which is selective)
  58. connections between frontal (ventral-medial, polar) to other affective and emotional areas
    frontal controls problem solving and working memory
  59. a conditional syllogism of the following form: if p, then q
    not p
    therefore not q
    (invalid form of conditional)
  60. problem that is dificult to specify a clear goal state or specific operators (many real life problems)
  61. using knowledge of other people's beliefs and feelings to predict and understand their behavior
  62. Howard Gardener
  63. incongruity and resolution
  64. how people represent a problem in their mind
  65. the section with personal force expelled, there was direct contact so it was least acceptable
  66. how the story would conclude if it was a straightforward story, not funny
  67. tendency to avoid taking risks
  68. problem where a person is given the task of attaching two strings together that are too far apart to be reached at the same time, illustrate operation of functional fixedness
  69. beliefs about the world
    ex) thinks gun is being held to his back in the pic when it is actually a guitar
  70. words can sometimes have more than one meaning, and when a word is used in a sentence multiple meanings are accessed rapidly but the content of the sentence determines the correct meaning
  71. MEG, subjects viewed sentences followed by punchlines and rated them as funny or not funny with 3 stimulus types (funny, congruous, incongruous)
  72. beliefs about the world
    ex) lady in the other room doesn't know what is actually happening because she just hears the ping pong bouncing, but they are really hooking up and just bouncing the paddle
  73. volume (energy put into it)
  74. expected emotions
    -tendency to believe that a loss will have a greater impact than a gain of the same size (Tversky/Kahneman)
  75. problem that illustrates how mental set can influence the strategies that people use to solve a problem
  76. 4 cards are shown, each with a letter on one side and number on the other. the task is to indicate which cards you would need to turn over to test the rule: if there is a vowel on one side, then there is an even number on the other side. Need to turn over the 7 as well as the E to falsify the rule/confirm it
  77. Deborah Kermer
  78. R frontal and bifrontal most impaired, R posterior and L frontal impaired ONLY on 4-alternative selection task, L posterior not impaired on any humor task
  79. the speaker should construct sentences so that they include 2 kinds of info:
    1-given info (info the listener already knows)
    2-new info (info the listener is hearing for the first time)
  80. think that works toward finding a solution to a specific problem that usually has a correct answer (vs. large number of potential solutions)
  81. a problem solving strategy that seeks to reduce the difference between the initial and goal states, achieved by creating subgoals/intermediate states
  82. 1-extraction of supra-segmental acoustic info by R regions
    2-suprasegmental acoustic sequences in posterior of R temporal sulcus
    3-explicit evaluation of emotional prosody in frontal cortex
  83. used middle cerebral artery stroke patients with RHD and LHD, had them do cartoon completion task with jokes and stories
  84. 2 seconds prior to laughter when watching a show
  85. risk-averse
  86. F0 declines at end of sentence
  87. it causes the person to be oblivious to future consequences of their actions, and sensitive to only immediate consequences
  88. not funny (name the world's most shocking city, elementary??)
  89. semantics comes into play AS a sentence is being read aka as syntax determines parsing
  90. temporal parietal junction and anterior superior temporal sulcus (prefrontal)
  91. risk-taking strategy: the certain death of 400 people is less acceptable than a 2/3 chance that 600 people will die
  92. tendency to selectively look for info that conforms to our hypothesis and overlook info that argues against it
  93. (or story) problem that is analogous to the target problem and therefore provides info that can lead to a solution to the target problem
  94. observing people to determine how they solve problems in real world situations
  95. in problem solving, the underlying principle of a problem
  96. Traumatic brain injury patients (usually frontal damage)
    autistic patients
  97. the section with no direct involvement/physical contact was most acceptable
  98. melody of speech
  99. person can't properly convey or interpret emotional prosody (usually damage to non-dominant hemisphere)
  100. problem involving moving discs from one set of pegs to another, used to illustrate means-end analysis
  101. RHD: exhibit problems understanding sarcasm (and conversations, stories, jokes, metaphor, indirect requests)
    social and communication deficits, NOT APHASIC (like LHD)
  102. there is a basic difference in how participants feel they are progressing toward a solution as tehy are working on a problem (not good at predicting when insight)
  103. LH: cerebellum, temporal gyrus, occipital lobe, fusiform gyrus
  104. STG, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex showed increased activation when using social intelligence in normal subjects (amygdala not activated in autistic patients)
  105. framing effect
  106. rapid transitions and precise TIMING within a phoneme (syllable)
  107. everyone is a potential organ donor unless he/she requests to be
  108. inferences that connect an object/person in one sentence to an object or person in another sentence
  109. procedure where participants are asked to say out loud what they are thinking while doing a problem, used to help determine thought processes as they are solving a problem
  110. F0 goes up towards end of sentence
  111. problem solving, various conditions that exist along the pathways between the initial and goal states
  112. Joshua Greene
  113. Comprehension of affective and nonaffective prosody, filtered out the words so that they were unintelligible but the tone was still there, and had to distinguish bw questions, statements, commands, and emotions
  114. slapstick
    funny image but is not a continuation of the joke storyline
  115. yes: attending to different things, distinguished between thinking and reasoning and ToM

    increase in activation in ToM
  116. non literal
    (literal interpretations don't fit with the context)
  117. working memory capacity
  118. the predicted emotion that subjects stated ended up being more extreme than the actual felt emotion
  119. inferences about tools or methods (infer what we know abut the context, like time period, etc.)
  120. eye's test related to the theory of mind
  121. the process of changing a problem's representation (gestalt, key mechanism to problem solving)
  122. when hints are given regarding the relevance of the source problem, when source and target problems have similar surface features, and twhen strucutral features are made more obvious
  123. it is an imaging technique that has great temporal resolution like an EEG that tell millisecond to millisecond what is going on, although the localizing is not as good as an fMRI
  124. syllogism where the premises and conclusion describe the relationship bw the two categories using states that begin with all, no, or some
  125. subjects are unresponsive to future consequences, and are more controlled by immediate prospects
  126. aprosodia
  127. from right temporal region to L and R frontal region
  128. autistic
    RHD (stroke or TBI)
    deficit in amygdala could also be the issue
  129. prefrontal cortex (where working memory is) and temporal parietal region
  130. balance of energy at different pitches (tone, harmonics), why clarinet is different from saxophone
  131. there was significant increase in activation over fixation
  132. RHD
  133. fMRI testing, RH decreases with higher frequency of clicks (passive listening), LH is opposite
    frontal regions in both hemispheres involved judgements based on prosodic info with emotion?
  134. RH: cerebellum, fusiform gyrus, temporal gyrus, and inferior frontal gyrus
  135. aka rhythm, gaps in sentences, etc.
  136. saw that at first the LH was activated, and then later on the RH was activated when they were getting more of the appreciation
  137. ability for 2 people to cooperate so that it is beneficial for both ppl, detecting cheating
    (Wason 4-card problem)
  138. to explain behavior of others, observers often posit traits rather than situational factors
  139. Duncker and Maier
  140. types of inference:
    anaphoric, instrument, causal
  141. specific elements that make up a problem
  142. how the cartoon should end if it is a joke
  143. Mandarin, Thai (tonal languages)
  144. syllogism with 2 premises and a conclusion, but whose first premise is an if then statement
  145. premises are stated as facts, not based on an observation of cases
  146. associated with the act of making a decision
  147. in problem solving, the conditions at the beginning of a problem
  148. when experience with a previously solved source problem or source story is sued to help solve a new target problem (Duncker's radiation)
  149. TRUE
  150. basing judgements of the frequency of events on what events come to mind
  151. PITCH in slower transitions, over many syllables (suprasegmental)
  152. our interpretation of a sentence is influenced not only be the meaning of words, but the meaning of a scene we're observing
    apple conditions
    (BOTH syntactic info of sentence and info provided by scene)
  153. Tversky and Kahneman
  154. L and R amygdala
    bilateral regions of insular cortex
  155. not funny but surprising (what do they call big African cats? lions)
  156. used the lesion approach
    mean sarcasm error scores in prefrontal cortex
    lesion size did not affect sarcasm errors
    RHD more affected/more sarcasm errors
  157. it removed a lot of the memory problems that other tasks had and truly focused on interpretations (of eyes)
  158. divergent
  159. idea that restructuring is associated with insight
  160. gaps determine sentence meaning
  161. in problem solving, people's tendency to focus on a specific characteristic of the problem that keeps them from arriving at a solution
  162. vocal effect that extends over more than one sound segment (pitch, stress, vowel length, tone, etc.)
  163. 1-increase in activation during a task compared to similar nonsocial control tasks
    2-has to respond when a person is present in stimulus AND when participants reason about the person's mental state
  164. to test a rule, you must look for situations that falsify the rule