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  1. Psychophysics
  2. Transduction:
  3. Amplitude/Intensity is PERCEIVED as...
  4. Signal Detection Theory makes a distinction between:
  5. Hubel and Wiesel:
  6. Thresholds:
  7. One cell's firing can ____ another cell's firing
  8. Scaling:
  9. During his isolation, Fechner thought about:
  10. Sensitivity:
  11. Western culture:
  12. Perception exists....
  13. The MORE light entering the retina...
  14. Your experience is derived from...
  15. What are these cultures' perceptions a product of?
  16. These features become exaggerated in:
  17. What creates the perception of motion?
  18. JND also is known as...
  19. Eastern culture:
  20. The Basilar membrane does NOT...
  21. Sounds are created when...
  22. We must study the mind by:
  23. Why did pirates wear an eyepatch?
  24. Loudness:
  25. Panpsychism:
  26. Where are Rods seen/not seen?
  27. Sensory neuroscience:
  28. Rate Intensity:
  29. Psychophysics adopted...
  30. Frequency is perceived as...
  31. Frequency:
  32. Absolute Threshold:
  33. What is the Red Shift?
  34. Signal Detection Theory:
  35. What are the physical qualities of sound waves?
  36. Fechner's Proof 1821:
  37. Retinal Ganglion Cells:
  38. Why did the celebrity faces become "ugly"?
  39. What do these hierarchical convergent circuits allow you to do?
  40. What can you see better with peripheral vision?
  41. Fechner's Proof 1860:
  42. Larger stimulus values have ____ JNDs and smaller stimulus values have a _____ JND
  43. Photoreceptors act like....
  44. Opsins are used in what study?
  45. How can you see on your blind spot?
  46. Perception:
  47. How did Fechner attempt to describe the relationship between the mind and body?
  48. The Four possible stimulus/response situations in signal detection theory:
  49. Criterion:
  50. Number of cones:
  51. Optic nerve:
  52. What do these A.T. methods rely on?
  53. Cornea:
  54. Photopigment:
  55. Number of Rods:
  56. The arrangement of each individual's features have:
  57. Fechner's Proof 1848:
  58. Hair Cells
  59. Cochlea
  60. What is the relay station for sight?
  61. Amplitude/Intensity:
  62. Perception =
  63. At 50% A.T. ...
  64. Neuroimaging:
  65. Ex. of A.T.
  66. Anvil
  67. People cannot have the same....
  68. ____ are responsible for most of the ______
  69. The mind is NOT....
  70. What do these vibrations do?
  71. Kurt Gödel:
  72. Iris:
  73. What is CONSTRUCTED?
  74. Liberal Threshold
  75. Dualism:
  76. What has highly convergent input to form a face?
  77. What type of properties does this ugly-celebrity-face use?
  78. Neurotransmitters become "____" in response to ______
  79. What does the plot of Weber's law look like?

  80. Materialism:
  81. Subjective Reports: there is sometimes a difference between:
  82. LGN numbers:
  83. What is replaced in the cortex?
  84. Convergence:
  85. Striate Cortex numbers:

    - _____ in the visual system.
  86. Cone description
  87. This difference of subjective reporting is determined by:
  88. How are the circular receptive fields in the LGN TRANSFORMED into the elongated receptive fields in striate cortex?
  89. Eardrum
  90. Hammer
  91. Ernst Weber:
  92. How does the eye "take in" an image?
  93. Where are circular receptive fields found?
  94. The Striate Cortex is also known as:
  95. Ex. of Weber's Law:
  96. Visual Processing time:
  97. Fovea:
  98. What takes place in the Striate Cortex?
  99. Lateral Geniculate Nucleus:
  100. What is the input for convergence?
  101. Just Noticeable Difference:
  102. Why do we see edges?
  103. Rod description:
  104. Opsins cause neurotransmitters...
  105. What does SDT stand for?
  106. Sensation =
  107. Weber's Law:
  108. Pupil:
  109. What causes near/far-sightedness?
  110. The LESS light entering the retina...
  111. Weber's Law is NOT:
  112. What are CONSTRUCTED?
  113. Basilar membrane
  114. Psychophysics:
  115. Descartes explains that each individual...
  116. 3 Weber's Law facts
  117. Stirrup
  118. How much light are humans responsive to?
  119. Retina:
  120. Opsins:
  121. Sensation:
  122. Background Intensity Ex.s:
  123. Where are you blind?
  124. All methods so far rely on...
  125. The study of sensation and perception is...
  126. Gustav Theodore Fechner:
  127. Pitch:
  128. What is the equation of SDT?
  129. What are the psychological qualities of sound waves?
  1. a Sees the whole
  2. b - Rods/Cones receive an image from the lens
    - Sends it to the brain through the OPTIC NERVE
  3. c Perception/experiences
  4. d bleached; photons
  5. e - Substance ON RODS + CONES
    - Sensitive to light
  6. f an observers' ability to perceive a signal + their willingness to report it.
  7. g - The colored part of the eye
    - Consists of a muscular diaphragm surrounding the pupil
    - Regulates the light entering the eye by EXPANDING and CONTRACTING THE PUPIL
  8. h In the retina
  9. i Through using the language of mathematics
  10. j JND
    - The smallest detectable difference between two stimuli
    - The minimum change in a stimulus that can be correctly judged as different from a reference stimulus
  11. k - 125 million photoreceptors at the RETINA
    - 3.5 million neurons in EACH LGN
  12. l - A cortical neuron that responds to oriented bards of light might receive input from several retinal ganglion cells
    - If you string several together, they more an oriented bar
    - A cell that is tuned to any orientation you want could be created in cortex by connecting it up with the appropriate retinal ganglion cells.
  13. m Various, specific cells
  14. n Conversion of one kind of energy into another
  15. o to release
  16. p in the mind
  17. q AFTER physical energy stimulation
    BEFORE stimulus organization & interpretation
  18. r - The dark circular opening at the center of the iris in the eye
    - Where light enters the eye.
  19. s Subjective reports
  20. t Passes vibrations from the eardrum to the anvil. (Bone)
  22. v Dots
  23. w d' = Z(hit rate) - Z(false alarm rate)
  24. x FFA
  25. y what is perceived and what is reported/acted upon
  26. z - Incompleteness Theorems
  27. aa Membrane that separates
    - Flexible
    - Move to vibrations within the cochlea
    - Organ of Corti is situated on B.M.
    - B.M. Stimulates the Organ of Corti, sending nerve impusles to the brain
  28. ab Metric properties
  29. ac Mind has an existence SEPARATE from the material world of the body
  30. ad Y-axis: Delta B.I. (Difference Threshold)
    X-axis: Background Intensity
    Slope: Linear positive slope
  31. ae the Difference Threshold
  32. af Describing mathematical ways to describe psychological properties
  33. ag Signal Detection Theory
  34. ah The ability to tell the difference between 1-2lb is EASIER than the difference between 10-20lb
  35. ai Passes vibrations from the stirrup to the cochlea.
    - smallest bone in the human body
  36. aj DETECTION
  37. ak The Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
  38. al - a scientific pursuit
    - requires scientific methods
  39. am -Finding the limits of what can be perceived
    -Trying to find the level of stimulus energy until perception occurs
  40. an the philosophical relationship between mind and matter
  41. ao - A light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye
    - Contains rods and cones
    - Pixelated Input
  42. ap An internal threshold that is set by the observer
  43. aq The biology of sensation and perception
    -There should be a binary property that changes
  44. ar - The transparent "window" into the eyeball
  45. as relying on methods of inference, drawn from overt behavior and subjective reports
  46. at Passes vibrations from the hammer to the stirrup. (Bone)
  47. au objects vibrate
  48. av A major transformation of visual information
  49. aw Measuring private experience
  50. ax ...
  51. ay Loudness & Pitch
  52. az Proof that the Moon is Made of Iodine
  53. ba vibrate simultaneously
  54. bb The number of times per second that a pattern of pressure change repeats
  55. bc LGN are replaced with elongated "stripe" receptive fields in cortex.
  56. bd your brain, NOT the "real world"
  57. be - Consists of all retinal ganglion cells converging and leaving your eye towards your brain
    - Blind Spot
  58. bf A membrane of the middle ear that vibrates in response to sound waves
  59. bg The FASTER the photopigments are used up.
  60. bh - Brain exaggerates features
  61. bi a universal "law"
    -There are exceptions
  62. bj - Receive input from Rods and Cones
    - Transmit signal to brain
  63. bk The magnitude of displacement of a sound pressure wave
  64. bl One cannot tell the difference
  65. bm - Primary Visual Cortex
    - V1
  66. bn Lives in isolation
  67. bo Weight, Light, etc
  68. bp specific cell identifiers
  69. bq Pitch
  70. br half or one whole neuron.
    - Input is light...
  71. bs So they would be able to see in the dark when they invaded below deck.
  72. bt LGN firing
  73. bu - Spiral-shaped
    - Fluid-filled
    - Lined with cilia (tiny hairs) that move when vibrated and cause a nerve impulse to form.
  74. bv - Very sensitive to light
    - ONLY register shades of grey
    - Distributed all throughout the retina
  75. bw A very narrow band of light
  76. bx - Universal photoreceptor molecules
    - Change from resting to signaling upon light absorption.
  77. by - 140 million cells/hemisphere
    - First cortical representation
  78. bz peripheral vision
  79. ca - Distributed all throughout the retina
  80. cb - Vision: A candle 30 miles away
    - Hearing: a watch ticking 20 feet away
    - Balance: A tilt of half a minute on a clock-face
    - Taste: A teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water
    - Smell: A drop of perfume in 3 rooms
  81. cc In the Optic Nerve
  82. cd Defining quantitative relationships between physical and psychological/subjective events
  83. ce 100-120 million
  84. cf decrease
  85. cg -A way to provide an estimate of an observer's sensitivity to a stimulus and criterion for response.

    - To separate the true perception aspect from the decisional, response criterion, aspect of behavior.
    -A psychophysical theory that QUANTIFIES the response of an observer to the presentation of a signal in the presence of NOISE
  86. ch An image of the brain, NOT MIND
  87. ci Hit: Stimulus + Response
    Miss: Stimulus + No Response
    False Alarm: No Stimulus + Response
    Correct Rejection: No Stimulus + No Response
  88. cj - The farther the star the more red it becomes
    - The universe is still expanding
  89. ck The mind exists as a property of ALL MATTER
  90. cl Takes ~ 70-80 msec
  91. cm directly observable; empirical
  92. cn Minimum amount of stimulation necessary from a person to detect a stimulus 50% of the time.
  93. co LOUDNESS
  94. cp Sees the smaller pieces
  95. cq They rely on a large number of trials repeating at the same stimulus and procedure to get an overall average estimate.
  96. cr - Relay Station
    - Compression of retinal input
    - Circular receptive fields
    - Activates particular LGN cells
    - Less cells in LGN than rods
  97. cs They cause pressure changes in the medium
  98. ct Ex. 1-100
  99. cu several concepts for understanding sensation and perception
  100. cv Perceptual systems
  101. cw Describes the relationship between stimulus and resulting sensation that says the JND is a constant, linear fraction of the comparison stimulus
  102. cx 5-6 million
  103. cy The exposure of visual systems
  104. cz larger; smaller
  105. da Perceptual
  106. db - The perceptual system
    - Initially represents SIMPLE aspects of input
    - Constructs object percepts using cells that represent specific convergent input from groups of other cells
  107. dc The result of organization and interpretation of information conveyed by sensory signals
  108. dd A value that defines the ease with which an observer can tell the difference between the presence and the absence of a stimulus
    - The differences between stimulus 1 + 2
  109. de "Nanna oder das Seelenleben der Pflanzen"
    - Argued plants had mental lives, perception, experience
  110. df -Founder of psychophysics
    -Ambition and hard-working; worked himself to the point of exhaustion
    -Resigned his post at the university and sank into 3-year depression
    -Stared at the sun and went blind
    - considered to be the true founder of experimental psychology
  111. dg Optogenetics
  112. dh Discovered that the smallest change (JND) in a stimulus that can be detected is a constant proportion of the stimulus level
  113. di The MORE photopigments there are to PROCESS WHAT LITTLE LIGHT IS THERE
  114. dj Wrong curvature of the cornea
  115. dk Rods
  116. dl - The central part of retina
    - Highest density of cones
    -Highest resolution of retina (fixation, input, detail)
  117. dm To see the world and objects
  118. dn The circumstances
  119. do Your brain constructs an inference of what's between the Optic Nerve
    - "Fills it in"
  120. dp Amplitude/Intensity & Frequency
  121. dq The only thing that exists is MATTER
    - All things, including mind and consciousness, are the result of interactions between bits of matter
  122. dr Creates nerve impulses
    - As B.M. vibrates, the hair cells are bent against the tectorial membrane, triggering the hair cells to fire.
  123. ds The psychological aspect of sound
    - Related mainly to the fundamental frequency
  124. dt The psychological aspect of sound
  125. du 1. It applies primarily to the method of "Just Noticeable Differences"

    2. It was initially derived from comparing different weights

    3. Other stimuli and other methods may lead to different functions relating stimulus intensity to sensation
  126. dv "Elementa de Physik"
    -motivated by a desire to REFUTE materialism
    - "Pan-Psychist"
  127. dw - Sensitive to particular wavelengths
    - Produce color vision
    - Vision with high degree of detail
  128. dx Hierarchical convergent circuits; Gestalt laws of organization
  129. dy Hubel and Wiesel