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  1. Different Voice pitches , accents (reference points), some words COARTICULATE (blend in when said together )
  2. Receptive aphasia= werneckies aphasia = Comprehension deficit
  3. Anomia to name tools
  4. But you can learn more, we are wired to learn any language , as you grow up you loose this able to make distinctions of sounds in languages
  5. Brain areas shown by fmri : left hemisphere laterized - language- primary auditory cortex is in tempral lobs (heschyls gyrus) - info spreads out to superior temporal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus (secondary auditory cortex) ---- these all process sound , other areas of the brain like prefrontal cortex process language semantics phonemes (basic components of sound )more so than acoustic sounds.
  6. The meaning of words
  7. A huge network ! Involving many areas of the brain.
  8. Picking up body language . Difficulty is comprehending spoken and written language
  9. Are stored in motor areas and tactile sensory areas
  10. Concepts and the associated words for those concepts are stored in different areas of brains depending on the physical vs functional characteristics of that word or object (wainwright )
  11. Syntax deviation, grammatical errors
  12. Left hemisphere damage to the Posterior 3rd of superior temporal gyrus : damage can equal language deficits :
  13. Arcuate fascicules .. Weneckie area sends the pathways
  14. Physically using the word (: Hammer) vs physical properties of the word (buildings)
  15. Strokes or aneurism
  16. Object recognition areas : based on physical : Info temporal lobe occipital areas
  17. Paul Brocca - the case of the lebornge 1861 - experiment showed damage was to inferior frontal lobe in left hemisphere : broccas area = we speak with our left hemisphere = yes specific functions do work in specific areas of brain
  18. Of language in people . Some people have different areas and hemispheres involved. Language is unique. All of our brains are different so this can make things difficult
  19. And expression areas
  20. Wernickies predicted this could occur before he saw it was discovered - caused by damage to acuate fascicules- allows us to monitor what we are saying - also can't repeat back what was said to them
  21. Semantics and syntax
    N400 response: negative deflection to ERP for semantic errors
  22. Non fluent or telegraphic speech (most common ones) --- dysarthria : difficulty controlling muscles involved in articulation --- comprehension is normal except for grammar (agrammertism: failure to comprehend meaning from grammar)
  23. Understands complicated grammar in sentences . Very important for speech production
  24. People don't develop expressive aphasia !! Shows there are other areas involved
  25. You wouldn't know they had that condition
  26. Emotions which may be involved in grammer
  27. Difficulty controlling muscles involved in articulation
  28. Pars triangularis + pars opercularis
  29. EEG/EEP recording from Brocca area in brain from epilepsy patients . Showed there are 3 stages . Finding word. Finding phonetic. Then Speaking word
  30. They can alter the size of the peak by altering the properties of a word. Size of word doesn't matter but property's do. Lexical selection , word identify. Eg work vs worked = changes in 2nd stage
    Last stage is phonological encoding = how to say words using syllables
  31. You can combine words to explain new things and meanings
  32. Sometimes we identify reading words by individual letters individually some times wholistically
  33. Anomnia: Inability to name things -
  34. expressive aphasia -
  35. Autographic: what do words look like - depends on language
    Phonologic : sound of words - depends on sound
  36. Left frontal lobe : insular cortex (insula) +underlying white matter basal ganglia = can cause expressive aphasia
  37. Functional categorical organization
  38. Evidence from experiment showing slower to respond if words are not associated but faster to respond if they are - rose : flower
  39. Understand the meanings
  40. They feel no pain
  41. Caused by damage to Wernekie, dementia : language disorders
  42. Or you can sound out the word and use auditory and search lexicon through sounds ( 2 different pathways !!)
  43. Has limitations when you can't make out the sound , top down also lets us get around the segmentation problems (is 2 words or 3 words or 2 1word)
  44. People patients who have language and comprehension deficits ( low aphasias) you get abnormal responses : brain appears to recognize the word but timing is off. (Extreme and dull?) processing is not in sync
  45. Probably up to 50 thousand words , hardly don't use that much
  46. Transient aphasia.... They can regain their comprehension abilities after swelling goes away
  47. People with werneckies don't know they are making those mistakes - they think they are saying things fine.
  48. Top down processing- what we know about language or experiences or what we expect somebody might be saying can influence spoken or written language

    Bottom up is the opposite which isn't the case
  49. Anomia to name people
  50. Might say spoon when they mean to say fork- say closely related words by accident ?
  51. Features make up identifying animate vs inanimate objects , blade handle cut = knife
  52. A concept of how mental lexicon is organized - words are connected by associated concepts - when one word is active associated words are active and so forth - "spreading activation"
  53. Language deficit that is not due to sensory or motor issues -
  54. Is where you start seeing s brain region that treat language sounds differently -it doesn't know the difference between real words and fake pseudo words.- haven't identified the meaning yet
  55. When you say something that's not even a word
  56. Grammar and syntax
  57. Self monitoring system is what's the wrong part of their disfunction
  58. By exposure ... Brain seems to be hardwired to learn language
  59. fluent speech
    - primary deficit is they can't comprehend the meaning of what is being said to them - incorrect word use - they cannot understand Semantic concepts and they don't know what they are saying (self monitor system)
  60. How words are combined to form meanings
  61. 1 Language comprehension: hearing voice to understanding , from reading to understand
    2 COMING UP WITH A CONCEPT AND HOW TO PICK THE WORDS TO EXPRESS IN SPOKEN OR WRITTEN FORM
  62. Hear words or read them first .. Auditory and vision .. Then words go into mental lexicon .. Corresponding word(closest fit is found): then semantics are evaluated by concept in the sentence. (Concept is u have to extract the language and identify the words)(then words have to be understood in grammatical sense in context of the sentence)
  63. Starts with idea/concept then goes to lexicon to identify correctly select words to express. LEMMA(form of word to use before you say it run/ran) -- then have to code the word phonologically in order to speak and articulate - self monitoring system is like auto correct for speech : sometimes after before or during what u say
  64. Contains semantic information. Also contains syntax information & information about word forms
  65. TRUE : need more specific feature to identify animate things