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Long-Term Learning

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  • We construct memories with...

    false connections

    What professions are good at constructing memories?

    Lawyers, Politicians, etc

    Memory is..


    Memory does not work like...

    Memory kind of works like...

    a tape-recorder

    a wikipedia page; it is changed all of the time by us

    What has implications?

    The fallibility of memory

    The majority of evidence presented in a courtroom are...

    eye-witness testimonies based on individuals' memories

    How many people have been reported to be wrongly convicted?

    Over 2000 in the last 20 years

    Loftus, 2007

    - People will estimate higher speeds when the word "smashed" is used

    - People aren't just saying it; they REALLY believe it

    - People will even remember things that were not there

    Elizabeth Loftus Research

    - Implanting memories of political events

    - Over half of participants report remembering details of an event that never happened

    USA memory championship records:

    Names/Faces: 175 faces
    Random Words: 120 words
    Numbers: 303 digits

    Are memory champions gifted?

    - IQ is about average

    How can these champions memorize so much?

    Via activation of the right hippocampus and parietal cortex

    What method do these champions use and how does it work?

    The Memory Palace/ Method of Loci
    - Memorize the layout of a building/any geographical entity
    - Place the things that you need to memorize within these spacial locations
    = Luria (1969)

    Memory can be _____ into _______.

    Memory can be subdivided into a number of fundamental processes.


    Organizing and transforming incoming information to be entered into memory
    - Related to sensation and perception
    - "saying the word"

    Encoding is critical to...

    effective memory


    Retaining information in memory
    - Transfer to distributed neural networks by hippocampus


    - Accessing/Reconstructing information previously stored in memory

    Memory is a mechanism to...

    maintain a stable identity and experience over time.

    Patient H.M. missing Hippocampus:

    - COULD NOT form new explicit memories
    - COULD learn unconsciously

    Memory ____ experiences and information into a ____.

    Memory binds experiences and information into a "self."

    Memory's different mechanisms:

    1. Sensory Memory
    2. Short-Term Memory
    3. Long-Term Memory

    Each memory store has a different:

    - Duration
    - Capacity


    The LENGTH of time information is maintained.


    The AMOUNT of information that is maintained

    Very short term memory arises from:

    the temporary activation of perceptual areas of the brain.

    Characteristics of: Duration:

    Very short, typically less than 1 second

    Characteristics of: Capacity:

    Very large

    Sperling's 1960 Experiment: Whole Report:

    - Report as many letters as you can remember

    Sperling's 1960 Experiment: Partial Report:

    - A tone indicated which row to report AFTER the stimuli dissapeared

    Sperling's 1960 Experiment: Findings:

    Full Report: 4-5 items correctly recalled

    Partial Report: all 4 items correctly recalled

    Sperling's 1960 Experiment: Conclusions:

    - Large-capacity memory store that fades very quickly

    - Attention is NECESSARY to move information from sensory memory to short-term memory

    Sensory memory is close to...

    sensation, and just at the beginning of "perception"

    Transfer of short-term memory entails...


    STM =

    Short-Term Memory
    - the "contents of consciousness"

    William James:


    "The spacious present"

    Characteristics: STM Duration:

    Several seconds without rehearsal; 30 seconds with rehearsal

    Characteristics: STM Capacity:


    ~ 5-9 items

    STM is like a...

    "buffer" that stabilizes awareness over time on a continuum

    - Buffer between past and future

    LTM =

    Long-Term Memory

    Long-Term Memory:

    - Contains the accumulated knowledge base
    - Stored in the cerebral cortex
    > Records of experience

    Characteristics: LTM: Duration:

    Hours to years

    Characteristics: LTM: Capacity:

    - Possibly limitless

    Long Term analogy:

    Hard Drive

    What resides in LTM?

    Inactive information

    How information is successfully transferred to LTM depends on...

    a number of parameters

    Flashbulb Memory:

    Information that is more deeply processed is encoded and stored more effectively.

    The deeper the connection...

    the more complex.

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