Chapter 8 Action

This is a Free Service provided by Why Fund Inc. (a 501 C3 NonProfit) We thank you for your donation!


(1. Click on the course Study Set you wish to learn.) (2. If you wish you can click on "Print" and print the test page.) (3. When you want to take a test...click on anyone of the tests for that Study Set.) (4. Click on "Check Answers" and it will score your test and correct your answers.) (5. You can take all the tests as many times as you choose until you get an "A"!) (6. Automated college courses created from lecture notes, class exams, text books, reading materials from many colleges and universities.)

New

Long-Term Learning

Learn efficiently and remember over time.

Start Long-Term Learning

Get personalized study reminders at intervals optimized for better retention.
Track your progress on this set by creating a folder
Or add to an existing folder

Add this set to a folder

  • After suffering a focal brain injury, a patient has great difficulty in pantomiming particular motor actions such as turning a key in a lock. Because other problems like hemiplegia, muscle weakness, sensory deficits, and lack of motivation have been ruled out, your diagnosis would be
    Select one:
    a. agnosia.
    b. apraxia.
    Correct
    c. anomia.
    d. akinetopsia.

    b. apraxia.

    Lesions to the pyramidal motor tract would produce difficulty in moving effectors on which side of the body?
    Select one:
    a. the contralateral side
    b. the ipsilateral side
    c. both the contralateral and ipsilateral sides
    d. neither side: the pyramidal neurons do not innervate effector muscles

    a. the contralateral side

    The primary interaction of muscles and the nervous system involves the alpha motor neurons, which originate in the _______, exit through the _______, and terminate in the muscles.
    Select one:
    a. brain ; dorsal root
    b. brain ; ventral root
    c. spinal cord ; dorsal root
    d. spinal cord ; ventral root

    d. spinal cord ; ventral root

    Sherrington (1947) surgically disconnected spinal motor neurons from cortical and subcortical motor centers in laboratory animals. Which of the following statements is true about the subsequent motor behavior of these animals?
    Select one:
    a. The animals could still generate voluntary movements, but reflexive responses were disrupted.
    b. Reflexive responses were intact, but complex voluntary movements were disrupted.
    c. The animals showed normal motor function as long as sensory inputs from the dorsal root were also severed.
    d. The animals became completely motionless and unresponsive to stimulation.

    b. Reflexive responses were intact, but complex voluntary movements were disrupted.

    Corticospinal fibers originate primarily in the
    Select one:
    a. cerebellum.
    b. supplementary motor area.
    c. premotor cortex.
    d. primary motor cortex.

    d. primary motor cortex.

    Alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord communicate with muscle fibers by releasing acetylcholine, which influences muscle activity by
    Select one:
    a. depolarizing neurons in the peripheral nervous system.
    b. directly causing muscle contractions.
    c. hyperpolarizing peripheral motor neurons.
    d. inhibiting neurons in the dorsal root of the spinal cord.

    b. directly causing muscle contractions.

    Which of the following would demonstrate the finding that some aspects of motor learning are independent of the specific effectors used to perform an action?
    Select one:
    a. Right-handed pitchers have great difficulty in throwing a baseball accurately with the left hand.
    b. Actions such as the backhand stroke in tennis require the coordination of a sequence of separate movements.
    c. All cyclists tend to use the same set of effectors in riding, regardless of the specific age at which they learned to ride a bicycle.
    d. One's signature looks very similar regardless of whether one uses the left or the right hand to produce it.

    d. One's signature looks very similar regardless of whether one uses the left or the right hand to produce it.

    With regard to motor cortex, a population vector is the
    Select one:
    a. summed activity of the neurons in the motor cortex, including cells that are tuned to all directions.
    b. summed activity of the neurons in the motor cortex, including only cells that are tuned to the same preferred direction.
    c. total number of neurons that are tuned to the same preferred direction.
    d. preferred direction of a single neuron.

    a. summed activity of the neurons in the motor cortex, including cells that are tuned to all directions.

    The term embodied cognition refers to the idea that our conceptual knowledge is grounded in knowledge about the body and movement.
    Select one:
    True
    False

    True

    Activity in the premotor cortex reflects not only the trajectory of a movement but also the context in which the movement occurs.
    Select one:
    True
    False

    True

    Chapin's early work on a brain-machine interface (BMI) in rats used an online population vector that matched the _______ of the rats' movement.
    Select one:
    a. direction
    b. force
    Correct
    c. velocity
    d. complexity

    b. force

    Lesions to this region of the cerebellum lead to postural instability and difficulty in keeping one's eyes fixed on a visual object despite head or body movements.
    Select one:
    a. the spinocerebellum
    b. the vestibulocerebellum
    c. the neocerebellum
    d. the dentate nucleus

    b. the vestibulocerebellum

    Single axons of the corticospinal tract can extend for more than one meter.
    Select one:
    True
    False

    True

    Single-cell recording studies have indicated that the _______ may be especially important in the control of internally guided motor sequences, whereas the _______ may be especially important in the control of externally guided motor sequences.
    Select one:
    a. supplementary motor cortex ; premotor cortex
    b. premotor cortex ; supplementary motor cortex
    c. basal ganglia ; cerebellum
    d. cerebellum ; basal ganglia

    a. supplementary motor cortex ; premotor cortex

    What disorder is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic fibers in the substantia nigra, which results in deficits in initiating voluntary movements, bradykinesia, and the progressive emergence of a resting tremor?
    Select one:
    a. Huntington's disease
    b. Parkinson's disease
    c. hemiballism
    d. cogwheeling

    Parkinson's disease

    Which of the following is NOT a part of the basal ganglia?
    Select one:
    a. the putamen
    b. the claustrum
    Correct
    c. the caudate
    d. the globus pallidus

    b. the claustrum

    Although simple reflexes can occur without sensory input, the generation of rhythmic walking movements requires sensory feedback from the environment.
    Select one:
    True
    False

    False

    The loss of a motor skill that cannot be attributed to hemiplegia, muscle weakness, sensory deficits, or motivation is called
    Select one:
    a. hemiparesis.
    b. hypermetria.
    c. apraxia.
    d. akinetopsia.

    c. apraxia.

    Which of the following is NOT an effector?
    Select one:
    a. the brain
    b. the jaw
    Incorrect
    c. the arm
    d. the back

    a. the brain

    Neurons in the spinal cord that can mediate sequences of motor actions even in the absence of external sensory feedback signals are called
    Select one:
    a. proximal effectors.
    b. central pattern generators.
    c. alpha motor neurons.
    d. ventral root neurons.

    c. alpha motor neurons.

    A diagnosis of apraxia is mainly exclusionary: a person is said to have apraxia if he or she has a coordination problem that can't be linked to a deficit in controlling the muscles themselves.
    Select one:
    True
    False

    True

    Activity in the premotor cortex reflects not only the trajectory of a movement but also the context in which the movement occurs.
    Select one:
    True
    False

    True

    Mirror cells are neurons in the _______ cortex that respond when an animal produces a particular movement and when the animal _______.
    Select one:
    a. parietal ; perceives another animal producing the same movement
    b. parietal ; produces the mirror image of the same movement
    c. premotor ; perceives another animal producing the same movement
    d. premotor ; produces the mirror image of the same movement
    Question 19
    Incorrect
    Mark 0 out of 1
    Flag question
    Question text

    c. premotor ; perceives another animal producing the same movement

    After suffering a focal brain injury, a patient has great difficulty in pantomiming particular motor actions such as turning a key in a lock. Because other problems like hemiplegia, muscle weakness, sensory deficits, and lack of motivation have been ruled out, your diagnosis would be
    Select one:
    a. agnosia.
    b. apraxia.
    c. anomia.
    d. akinetopsia.

    b. apraxia.

    In the most general sense, scientists use the term mirror system to refer to a distributed network of neural regions involved in both
    Select one:
    a. the perception of the self and the perception of others.
    b. action production and action interpretation.
    c. the control of specific effectors as well as abstracted movement plans.
    d. proprioception and somatosensation.

    b. action production and action interpretation.

    In the days following her stroke, Patient E cannot refrain from reaching out and grasping nearby objects even when she has been asked not to do so. This syndrome probably is the result of the abnormal dominance of the
    Select one:
    a. lateral supplementary motor area loop.
    b. lateral premotor loop.
    c. medial supplementary motor area loop.
    d. medial premotor loop.

    a. lateral supplementary motor area loop.

    Hemiplegia is the
    Select one:
    a. paralysis of the side of the body that is contralateral to the injured brain region.
    b. paralysis of the side of the body that is ipsilateral to the injured brain region.
    c. loss of sensory feedback from the side of the body that is contralateral to the injured brain region.
    d. loss of sensory feedback from the side of the body that is ipsilateral to the injured brain region.

    a. paralysis of the side of the body that is contralateral to the injured brain region.

    Single-cell recording studies have indicated that the _______ may be especially important in the control of internally guided motor sequences, whereas the _______ may be especially important in the control of externally guided motor sequences.
    Select one:
    a. supplementary motor cortex ; premotor cortex
    b. premotor cortex ; supplementary motor cortex
    c. basal ganglia ; cerebellum
    d. cerebellum ; basal ganglia

    a. supplementary motor cortex ; premotor cortex

    The concept of endpoint control refers to the observation that voluntary muscle events
    Select one:
    a. are programmed to result in the displacement of an effector based on the desired distance from its starting point.
    b. are programmed to result in the displacement of an effector based on its desired final location.
    c. require sensory feedback that arrives after an effector has been moved to its desired location. Incorrect
    Incorrect
    d. require sensory feedback from an effector that arrives during the entire course of its movement.

    b. are programmed to result in the displacement of an effector based on its desired final location.

    Keele's work with people with Parkinson's disease suggests that they may have difficulties in which of the following cognitive operations?
    Select one:
    a. discriminating scents
    b. spatial memory
    c. facial recognition
    d. set shifting

    d. set shifting

    The supplementary motor area (SMA) is particularly active during externally guided movements.
    Select one:
    True
    False

    False

    In performing a sequence of complex actions, such as playing the piano, each movement is planned primarily in relation to the immediately preceding and subsequent movements.
    Select one:
    True
    False

    False

    Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

    Having trouble? Click here for help.

    We can’t access your microphone!

    Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

    Example:

    Reload the page to try again!

    Reload

    Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

    Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

    It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

    Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
    to use Voice Recording.

    For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

    Your microphone is muted

    For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

    Star this term

    You can study starred terms together

    ! Voice Recording

    This is a Plus feature