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108 True/False questions

  1. Transpositionpitch classes vary in how resolved (good) vs. restless- not about physics, about perception psychology (entirety)

          

  2. Calculate nPVIlarge contrast between neighboring durations (English)

          

  3. Harmonyvertical organization of pitch from a scale (pitches combined simultaneously or near-simultaneously)

          

  4. Timbrehow we tell these same pitches apart played on different instruments when sounds have the same pitch, loudness and duration- "sound color"
    - Vowels and consonants in singing lead to large variation in Timbre
    - biological need to discern sounds in the dark

          

  5. Spandrela brain system that has evolved for other reasons (parrots not entraining to beat in the wild but their brains do have this capacity)
    - Music w/ beat helping Parkinson's pts

          

  6. Dimensional Theory/Langer's Theory of EmotionContinuum/ Circumplex model of affect = (High Arousal, Positive Valence, Low Arousal, Negative Valence)

          

  7. AuditoryPerception- ex: pitch

          

  8. Double Dissociationlow freq. high amplitude, loud

          

  9. SSIRH (Shared Syntactic Integration Resource Hypothesis)When playing chess have to draw upon other cognitive thinking rather than just thinking about how chess pieces move
    - Predicts interference between language and musical grammar processing

          

  10. Aesthetic EmotionDepersonalized

          

  11. Pitch Helix- demonstration of 'octave equivalence" going up and up

          

  12. Sine WaveSkip 1 white key twice = 7 semitones

          

  13. Strong Vowel ReductionSyllable Timed Languages

          

  14. Additive Rhythmlarger periods of time are constructed by concatenating (joining end to end) a series of units into larger units of unequal length
    (4+3+5)

          

  15. Tensionpitch classes vary in how resolved (good) vs. restless- not about physics, about perception psychology (entirety)

          

  16. Melodic Skeletona grid of organization of uneven interval spacing

          

  17. Fourier Analysislow contrast between neighboring durations

          

  18. GroupingKnowing when a phrase starts and stops = pitch drop, longer notes

          

  19. AcousticsKnowing when a phrase starts and stops = pitch drop, longer notes

          

  20. Song IllusionTonality in speech can sound like music (looping a speech and begin to hear a music)

          

  21. Emotional Vocalization Theorymusic and emotional speech share acoustic cues (happy vs. sad speech and music share similar qualities- fast/high = happy, slow/low = sad)

          

  22. Neural Resonance TheoryDiscrete pitches, predictable rhythms, repetition → moving in sync! (dancing, singing, cooperation)

          

  23. Temporary Threshold Shiftnon-harmonic mixtures of frequencies
    - If it doesn't make up a full harmonic, then it's just a partial (not the whole thing harmony- some pieces still missing)

          

  24. 4 Basic EmotionHappy, Sad, Anger, Fear

          

  25. Discrete Theories of EmotionDepersonalized

          

  26. 3 Features (of Human Movement to Beat)- Predicted
    - Tempo Flexible (~300-900 ms)
    - Cross Modal (we can feel it, tap it, see it, vocalize the beat)

          

  27. Octave Equivalencedistorting ratios to get the sound we like (we subconsciously correct the deviations so that pitches can land in between interval categories)

          

  28. Broca's Area(known for language grammar processing)
    - shows overlap between musical and language processing

          

  29. 3 Components of Musical Rhythm- Timing
    - Accent
    - Grouping

          

  30. "True" Musicinterpreting same sound in different ways
    - Ex: Huron's experiment playing same sounds after a priming of distinct music
    - Ex: O-Fortuna vs. Gopher Tuna

          

  31. Gamalan MusicSkip 1 white key twice = 7 semitones

          

  32. Intense EmotionIntrospective
    - Mbira, Catharsis
    - Expectation is not necessary for music listening but more so about personal interpretation

          

  33. 1 Semitonespacing between 2 white keys w/o black key (increase in fund. freq. by 6%)

          

  34. Schoenberg- Expression, brief, concise, impossible for one sensation, illogicality of the senses, no prediction or repetition (inner life has no repetition)
    - Elimination of the "conscious will/logic"
    - "art calculated without calculation has no errors"

          

  35. Modality Biasnon-harmonic mixtures of frequencies
    - If it doesn't make up a full harmonic, then it's just a partial (not the whole thing harmony- some pieces still missing)

          

  36. Divisive Rhythmlarger periods of time are constructed by concatenating (joining end to end) a series of units into larger units of unequal length
    (4+3+5)

          

  37. Speech Patterns in MusicImplicit learning of native language (extract a "pure rhythm")- begins even before birth!

          

  38. Harmonicsfrequencies differing in amplitude

          

  39. Beata sense of a regular periodic pulse that one gets from much rhythmic music (what you tap your foot to)

          

  40. Perception Action LoopsDepersonalized

          

  41. Low nPVIlow contrast between neighboring durations

          

  42. Contour Theorystructural similarities between human emotional actions and music
    - Ex: drooping willow try, pugs face

          

  43. Pitch Intervalfrequency distance between two tones

          

  44. 100 CentsSemitone

          

  45. Centralitycombos three pitch using the Skip 1 rule (mostly I, IV, and V scale degrees/tone)- *note the tones are/must be written in roman numerals)

          

  46. Pitchcombos three pitch using the Skip 1 rule (mostly I, IV, and V scale degrees/tone)- *note the tones are/must be written in roman numerals)

          

  47. Structural Tonesuppermost frequency

          

  48. Melodyhorizontal organization of pitches from a scale (especially in Indian music)

          

  49. Skip 1 RulePure Tone
    - Periodic sounds created by periodic vibrations

          

  50. High nPVIlarge contrast between neighboring durations (English)

          

  51. Rhythma sense of a regular periodic pulse that one gets from much rhythmic music (what you tap your foot to)

          

  52. Statistical Learningimplicit learning of sounds patters w/o explicit teaching
    - Sponge-like learning
    - Makes melodies easier to form schemas and remember

          

  53. Absorption:placement of accented events at non-beat positions (misalignment to stress in words and beats) or placement of non-accented events at beat positions (silence where you feel the beat)

          

  54. 12 Tone MethodIntrospective
    - Mbira, Catharsis
    - Expectation is not necessary for music listening but more so about personal interpretation

          

  55. Stress-TimingMachine Gun Speech (French)

          

  56. Syllable Timingplacement of accented events at non-beat positions (misalignment to stress in words and beats) or placement of non-accented events at beat positions (silence where you feel the beat)

          

  57. Pure Tonespacing between 2 white keys w/o black key (increase in fund. freq. by 6%)

          

  58. Simultaneous Multidimensionalityanalogous to looking at same object from multiple perspectives (each beat can be a distinct "beginning movement")

          

  59. Indian SoundsAll sounds decay and are imperfect

          

  60. Metric Significancehearing distinct/different down beats in same rhythm

          

  61. Beat Alignment TestHearing and trying to distinguish when beeps are on/off the beat

          

  62. TonicA central note

          

  63. Musical Scalefluid filled organ that receives air pressure fluctuation through ear drum and bones that then pump out electrical impulses

          

  64. Assumptions of Western Musicthis type of music always wants to go somewhere and holds a sense of prediction

          

  65. Complex Harmonic Toneperiodic tones with a pure tone (fundamental frequency) with interval multiples (overtones) of 100

          

  66. Polymetricthere is a rhythm hierarchy??

          

  67. Vocal Learning and Rhythmic Synchronization Hypothesisif language and music are grammatically demanding simultaneously, language processing will become more difficult

          

  68. Fundamental Frequency(what you alter) tones

          

  69. Triadprinciple repertoire element of Indian music (change it and adjust to the new key/raga)
    - a way of going up and down
    - distinct human personality

          

  70. Paradox of Rhythmmetronomes, patter repeat regularly in time

          

  71. Frisson/Musical Chills- HR increase, Body Temp decrease
    - Triggers: loud, volume, low pitch, infrasound (vibrations), scream-like, crescendo, proximity
    - SURPRISE, FEAR

          

  72. Representation Networksinteger multiples of the lowest frequency ???

          

  73. Hierarchical Organization of BeatsSome are felt to be stronger than others and are accessible at different levels for different people (hearing different stress intervals in the same song)
    - We see this from involuntary movements/dancing to music

          

  74. Membershipsubjective sense that a pitch does or does not belong (picking the odd note out)- even if we've never heard it before

          

  75. Cochleafluid filled organ that receives air pressure fluctuation through ear drum and bones that then pump out electrical impulses

          

  76. Syncopationplacement of accented events at non-beat positions (misalignment to stress in words and beats) or placement of non-accented events at beat positions (silence where you feel the beat)

          

  77. Mozart EffectOnly has short term performance boost- targets mood and arousal

          

  78. Sound IntensityTonality in speech can sound like music (looping a speech and begin to hear a music)

          

  79. Fante Drum LanguageCommunicating pitch structure that a voice holds but rather with rhythm... - Such that different interval spacing of same tones can have entirely different meanings

          

  80. Partialscombos three pitch using the Skip 1 rule (mostly I, IV, and V scale degrees/tone)- *note the tones are/must be written in roman numerals)

          

  81. Metric Matrixhow we tell these same pitches apart played on different instruments when sounds have the same pitch, loudness and duration- "sound color"
    - Vowels and consonants in singing lead to large variation in Timbre
    - biological need to discern sounds in the dark

          

  82. Ornamental TonesBase tones (don't change)

          

  83. "Hearing As"interpreting same sound in different ways
    - Ex: Huron's experiment playing same sounds after a priming of distinct music
    - Ex: O-Fortuna vs. Gopher Tuna

          

  84. Melodiessuccessive combos of small set pitch intervals
    - Important not just because high vs. low (other animals can perceive that)
    - More bc of membership, tension, centrality

          

  85. Overtonesuppermost frequency

          

  86. Boy Help Girl Testcomplex wave (music) is a sum of sine waves
    - Each component has diff freq. and amplitude- dissected then put back together

          

  87. Vowel ReductionStress- Timed Languages have strong "blank" (lots of fluctuation in vowel duration)

          

  88. Speed Increasehigh freq., high pitch

          

  89. Sound Size Symbolismsame music played at different pitches have different emotional meanings

          

  90. Equal Temperamentevery pair of adjacent notes has an identical frequency ratio (his means that the perceived "distance" from every note to its nearest neighbor is the same for every note in the system.)

          

  91. Octave Stretchingdistorting ratios to get the sound we like (we subconsciously correct the deviations so that pitches can land in between interval categories)

          

  92. Non-Periodic Rhythmlarger period of time is divided into smaller rhythmic units or, conversely, some integer unit is regularly multiplied into larger, equal units
    (3+3+3)

          

  93. Periodic Rhythmentrainment to motor output and auditory stimuli appear to be rare- humans (vocal learners) may be very unique in perception/action process!
    - Monkey only follow single intervals
    - Dogs dance but not sensitive to bear

          

  94. Polyrhythmicthere is no structure to differentiating importance of different rhythms and which one is the strongest

          

  95. Schoenberg on Tonal Musicthis type of music always wants to go somewhere and holds a sense of prediction

          

  96. Metronome Senseability to organize a beat into smaller bits/ diversifying a beat

          

  97. Closeness of Tonesdetermines "niceness" of music

          

  98. nPVImeasure of durational contrast of any temporal unit (vowel, syllable, phrase
    - A measure of rhythm but Not periodicity (gives a quantifiable value for how languages differ from each other
    - sensitive to the order of durations, but not to variability (a space between 1 and 5 is the same as 10 and 50)

          

  99. Emotional Voice TheoryDiscrete pitches, predictable rhythms, repetition → moving in sync! (dancing, singing, cooperation)

          

  100. Emancipation of the Dissonanceability to organize a beat into smaller bits/ diversifying a beat

          

  101. Bulgarian Exceptionno major key so minor sounds don't sound sad

          

  102. Minor Keyssuccessive combos of small set pitch intervals
    - Important not just because high vs. low (other animals can perceive that)
    - More bc of membership, tension, centrality

          

  103. Long oscillationlow freq. high amplitude, loud

          

  104. Chromaprinciple repertoire element of Indian music (change it and adjust to the new key/raga)
    - a way of going up and down
    - distinct human personality

          

  105. EDIOTEvent Density Increasing Over Time

          

  106. Social Bonding Theorylistener can pick up cues similar to emotional speech especially with musical training
    - ex: keyboard training most effective

          

  107. Ragaprinciple repertoire element of Indian music (change it and adjust to the new key/raga)
    - a way of going up and down
    - distinct human personality

          

  108. Weak Vowel ReductionVowels in unstressed syllables can become short and acoustically neutralized while stressed vowels tend to be relatively long