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### 108 Multiple choice questions

1. larger periods of time are constructed by concatenating (joining end to end) a series of units into larger units of unequal length
(4+3+5)
2. 1. Absolute value of the difference ([4-1] = 3)
2. Find the mean (4+1/2 = 2.5)
3. Ratio between #1 and #2 (3/2.5 = 1.2 = contrast value)
4. Add contrast values together and average them
5. Multiply average by 100 = nPVI
3. Machine Gun Speech (French)
4. vertical organization of pitch from a scale (pitches combined simultaneously or near-simultaneously)
5. - All musical pitches bear fixed relationships to each other
- All scales can be derived from a single all-encompassing scale (chromatic scale)- can occur at any pitch level
- Musical Intervals are determined by simple-integer freq. ratios
- JAVANESE MUSIC DOESN'T HAVE ANY OF THESE
6. (what you alter) tones
7. any notes can go together, never has to be resolved
8. two related mental processes are shown to function independently of each other.
- Ex: patients with brain damaged showed loss of sensitivity to tonality but no language grammar
9. Discrete pitches, predictable rhythms, repetition → moving in sync! (dancing, singing, cooperation)
10. some pitches classes are heard as more central than others (play a key-inducing context then say which note fits into this particular musical context)
- like 'musical priming'
11. Knowing when a phrase starts and stops = pitch drop, longer notes
12. metronomes, patter repeat regularly in time
13. measure of durational contrast of any temporal unit (vowel, syllable, phrase
- A measure of rhythm but Not periodicity (gives a quantifiable value for how languages differ from each other
- sensitive to the order of durations, but not to variability (a space between 1 and 5 is the same as 10 and 50)
14. Tonality in speech can sound like music (looping a speech and begin to hear a music)
15. complex wave (music) is a sum of sine waves
- Each component has diff freq. and amplitude- dissected then put back together
16. no major key so minor sounds don't sound sad
17. fluid filled organ that receives air pressure fluctuation through ear drum and bones that then pump out electrical impulses
18. Event Density Increasing Over Time
19. listener can pick up cues similar to emotional speech especially with musical training
- ex: keyboard training most effective
20. (known for language grammar processing)
- shows overlap between musical and language processing
21. periodic tones with a pure tone (fundamental frequency) with interval multiples (overtones) of 100
22. how we tell these same pitches apart played on different instruments when sounds have the same pitch, loudness and duration- "sound color"
- Vowels and consonants in singing lead to large variation in Timbre
- biological need to discern sounds in the dark
23. similar pattern of intervals but different pitches (humans can still tell Happy Birthday played at lower octave)
- possible biological need to still tell men and women's identical speech apart
24. structural similarities between human emotional actions and music
- Ex: drooping willow try, pugs face
25. frequencies differing in amplitude
26. Only species capable of vocal learning (parrots, humans, elephants) can develop entrainment that is predictive, tempo flexible, and cross-modal (contra Darwin who believed it applied to all species)
- Other species utilized "spandrel"
27. Pure Tone
- Periodic sounds created by periodic vibrations
28. determines "niceness" of music
29. every pair of adjacent notes has an identical frequency ratio (his means that the perceived "distance" from every note to its nearest neighbor is the same for every note in the system.)
30. All sounds decay and are imperfect
31. People are not able to interpret a visual beat as well as an auditory beat even though they're both within the same timing system
32. combos three pitch using the Skip 1 rule (mostly I, IV, and V scale degrees/tone)- *note the tones are/must be written in roman numerals)
33. Communicating pitch structure that a voice holds but rather with rhythm... - Such that different interval spacing of same tones can have entirely different meanings
34. ability to organize a beat into smaller bits/ diversifying a beat
35. A central note
36. a grid of organization of uneven interval spacing
37. spacing between 2 white keys w/o black key (increase in fund. freq. by 6%)
38. large contrast between neighboring durations (English)
39. still recognizing music that played an octave higher
- Doubling of fundamental frequency
40. same music played at different pitches have different emotional meanings
41. "Loudness"
42. Only has short term performance boost- targets mood and arousal
43. music and emotional speech share acoustic cues (happy vs. sad speech and music share similar qualities- fast/high = happy, slow/low = sad)
44. Introspective
- Mbira, Catharsis
- Expectation is not necessary for music listening but more so about personal interpretation
45. uppermost frequency
46. larger period of time is divided into smaller rhythmic units or, conversely, some integer unit is regularly multiplied into larger, equal units
(3+3+3)
47. When playing chess have to draw upon other cognitive thinking rather than just thinking about how chess pieces move
- Predicts interference between language and musical grammar processing
48. ex: can still recognize a Jazzy version of Happy Birthday
49. this type of music always wants to go somewhere and holds a sense of prediction
50. the brain functions that enable the perception/actions circuit are quite basic
51. if language and music are grammatically demanding simultaneously, language processing will become more difficult
52. Syllable Timed Languages
53. interpreting same sound in different ways
- Ex: Huron's experiment playing same sounds after a priming of distinct music
- Ex: O-Fortuna vs. Gopher Tuna
54. implicit learning of sounds patters w/o explicit teaching
- Sponge-like learning
- Makes melodies easier to form schemas and remember
55. pitch classes vary in how resolved (good) vs. restless- not about physics, about perception psychology (entirety)
56. Frequency of Pressure Oscillation
- attitude that organizes sound of scale of low to high
57. entrainment to motor output and auditory stimuli appear to be rare- humans (vocal learners) may be very unique in perception/action process!
- Monkey only follow single intervals
- Dogs dance but not sensitive to bear
58. low freq. high amplitude, loud
59. frequency distance between two tones
60. getting wrapped up in the music- allows quick relief of stress
- ex: minimal use of anesthesia
61. systematic, non random, patterns of timing, accent, and grouping in sequence of events
62. a sense of a regular periodic pulse that one gets from much rhythmic music (what you tap your foot to)
63. placement of accented events at non-beat positions (misalignment to stress in words and beats) or placement of non-accented events at beat positions (silence where you feel the beat)
64. there is a rhythm hierarchy??
65. breaking away from traditional conventions and not using previous knowledge
66. analogous to looking at same object from multiple perspectives (each beat can be a distinct "beginning movement")
67. non-harmonic mixtures of frequencies
- If it doesn't make up a full harmonic, then it's just a partial (not the whole thing harmony- some pieces still missing)
68. moving in sync with other may blur line between the self and others in the brain- leads to empathetic behavior
69. - HR increase, Body Temp decrease
- Triggers: loud, volume, low pitch, infrasound (vibrations), scream-like, crescendo, proximity
- SURPRISE, FEAR
70. Stress- Timed Languages have strong "blank" (lots of fluctuation in vowel duration)
71. Vowels in unstressed syllables can become short and acoustically neutralized while stressed vowels tend to be relatively long
72. - Predicted
- Tempo Flexible (~300-900 ms)
- Cross Modal (we can feel it, tap it, see it, vocalize the beat)
73. there is no structure to differentiating importance of different rhythms and which one is the strongest
74. conscious yet true, to connect with/be accepted by a wider audience
- to solve the crisis he had when he couldn't be spontaneous anymore
75. distorting ratios to get the sound we like (we subconsciously correct the deviations so that pitches can land in between interval categories)
76. Semitone
77. An interference test
- 1 out of key note made the harder sentence even more difficult to understand
- Shows interaction between language and music grammar processing
78. - Timing
- Accent
- Grouping
79. integer multiples of the lowest frequency ???
80. perceived pitch (that singular sine wave), lowest freq.
81. Use labels- Baskin Robins/list of Emotions
82. horizontal organization of pitches from a scale (especially in Indian music)
83. Music - ex: frequency
- Speech does not have as many fixed frequencies as music (speech is constantly fluctuating in frequencies)
84. Base tones (don't change)
85. Perception- ex: pitch
86. languages chucking out regularly occurring syllables (English, Arabic)
- Ex: The teacher is interested in buying some books
87. high freq., high pitch
88. stable set of pitch classes that divide the octave
- 12 pitches per octave
- Use only ~5 in a song- a cog. limitation, not sensory limitation
89. - Expression, brief, concise, impossible for one sensation, illogicality of the senses, no prediction or repetition (inner life has no repetition)
- Elimination of the "conscious will/logic"
- "art calculated without calculation has no errors"
90. not being able to hear for a few days after a concert- ear cells are dying permanently!
91. subjective sense that a pitch does or does not belong (picking the odd note out)- even if we've never heard it before
92. - all instruments tuned to same pitch
- pélog, sléndro
- inconsistency of pitch intervals
93. successive combos of small set pitch intervals
- Important not just because high vs. low (other animals can perceive that)
- More bc of membership, tension, centrality
94. Implicit learning of native language (extract a "pure rhythm")- begins even before birth!
95. Depersonalized
96. hearing distinct/different down beats in same rhythm
97. How a high C and low C distinguish themselves
98. a brain system that has evolved for other reasons (parrots not entraining to beat in the wild but their brains do have this capacity)
- Music w/ beat helping Parkinson's pts
99. principle repertoire element of Indian music (change it and adjust to the new key/raga)
- a way of going up and down
- distinct human personality
100. Hearing and trying to distinguish when beeps are on/off the beat
101. low contrast between neighboring durations
102. Skip 1 white key twice = 7 semitones
103. Some are felt to be stronger than others and are accessible at different levels for different people (hearing different stress intervals in the same song)
- We see this from involuntary movements/dancing to music
104. - demonstration of 'octave equivalence" going up and up