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  1. Octave Equivalence
  2. Pure Tone
  3. Non-Periodic Rhythm
  4. "Hearing As"
  5. Timbre
  6. Bulgarian Exception
  7. Equal Temperament
  8. Speech Patterns in Music
  9. Frisson/Musical Chills
  10. Raga
  11. Speed Increase
  12. Absorption:
  13. Vowel Reduction
  14. Melodic Skeleton
  15. Divisive Rhythm
  16. 4 Basic Emotion
  17. Syllable Timing
  18. Complex Harmonic Tone
  19. EDIOT
  20. Fourier Analysis
  21. "True" Music
  22. Rhythm
  23. Sound Intensity
  24. Gamalan Music
  25. Broca's Area
  26. Metronome Sense
  27. Double Dissociation
  28. Social Bonding Theory
  29. Acoustics
  30. Emotional Vocalization Theory
  31. Sine Wave
  32. Harmony
  33. Modality Bias
  34. Tension
  35. Long oscillation
  36. Low nPVI
  37. Statistical Learning
  38. Polyrhythmic
  39. Cochlea
  40. Indian Sounds
  41. Structural Tones
  42. Fante Drum Language
  43. Closeness of Tones
  44. Boy Help Girl Test
  45. Auditory
  46. Harmonics
  47. Fundamental Frequency
  48. Transposition
  49. Triad
  50. Neural Resonance Theory
  51. Chroma
  52. Aesthetic Emotion
  53. Beat
  54. Sound Size Symbolism
  55. Calculate nPVI
  56. Spandrel
  57. Stress-Timing
  58. Simultaneous Multidimensionality
  59. Metric Significance
  60. Pitch
  61. Partials
  62. Contour Theory
  63. Emotional Voice Theory
  64. Additive Rhythm
  65. Temporary Threshold Shift
  66. Tonic
  67. Representation Networks
  68. Centrality
  69. Schoenberg on Tonal Music
  70. Pitch Interval
  71. Beat Alignment Test
  72. Song Illusion
  73. Strong Vowel Reduction
  74. Octave Stretching
  75. High nPVI
  76. Mozart Effect
  77. Grouping
  78. Assumptions of Western Music
  79. Vocal Learning and Rhythmic Synchronization Hypothesis
  80. Ornamental Tones
  81. Syncopation
  82. Overtones
  83. 3 Features (of Human Movement to Beat)
  84. Intense Emotion
  85. nPVI
  86. 100 Cents
  87. Membership
  88. Metric Matrix
  89. Minor Keys
  90. Periodic Rhythm
  91. Polymetric
  92. Melodies
  93. Pitch Helix
  94. 12 Tone Method
  95. Skip 1 Rule
  96. SSIRH (Shared Syntactic Integration Resource Hypothesis)
  97. Weak Vowel Reduction
  98. Hierarchical Organization of Beats
  99. Perception Action Loops
  100. Melody
  101. Dimensional Theory/Langer's Theory of Emotion
  102. 3 Components of Musical Rhythm
  103. Paradox of Rhythm
  104. Emancipation of the Dissonance
  105. Schoenberg
  106. 1 Semitone
  107. Discrete Theories of Emotion
  108. Musical Scale
  1. a no major key so minor sounds don't sound sad
  2. b not being able to hear for a few days after a concert- ear cells are dying permanently!
  3. c perceived pitch (that singular sine wave), lowest freq.
  4. d Perception- ex: pitch
  5. e this type of music always wants to go somewhere and holds a sense of prediction
  6. f determines "niceness" of music
  7. g (known for language grammar processing)
    - shows overlap between musical and language processing
  8. h (what you alter) tones
  9. i Music - ex: frequency
    - Speech does not have as many fixed frequencies as music (speech is constantly fluctuating in frequencies)
  10. j - Expression, brief, concise, impossible for one sensation, illogicality of the senses, no prediction or repetition (inner life has no repetition)
    - Elimination of the "conscious will/logic"
    - "art calculated without calculation has no errors"
  11. k frequencies differing in amplitude
  12. l structural similarities between human emotional actions and music
    - Ex: drooping willow try, pugs face
  13. m Machine Gun Speech (French)
  14. n analogous to looking at same object from multiple perspectives (each beat can be a distinct "beginning movement")
  15. o When playing chess have to draw upon other cognitive thinking rather than just thinking about how chess pieces move
    - Predicts interference between language and musical grammar processing
  16. p - demonstration of 'octave equivalence" going up and up
  17. q similar pattern of intervals but different pitches (humans can still tell Happy Birthday played at lower octave)
    - possible biological need to still tell men and women's identical speech apart
  18. r subjective sense that a pitch does or does not belong (picking the odd note out)- even if we've never heard it before
  19. s Depersonalized
  20. t larger period of time is divided into smaller rhythmic units or, conversely, some integer unit is regularly multiplied into larger, equal units
  21. u same music played at different pitches have different emotional meanings
  22. v A central note
  23. w two related mental processes are shown to function independently of each other.
    - Ex: patients with brain damaged showed loss of sensitivity to tonality but no language grammar
  24. x Introspective
    - Mbira, Catharsis
    - Expectation is not necessary for music listening but more so about personal interpretation
  25. y pitch classes vary in how resolved (good) vs. restless- not about physics, about perception psychology (entirety)
  26. z An interference test
    - 1 out of key note made the harder sentence even more difficult to understand
    - Shows interaction between language and music grammar processing
  27. aa moving in sync with other may blur line between the self and others in the brain- leads to empathetic behavior
  28. ab Discrete pitches, predictable rhythms, repetition → moving in sync! (dancing, singing, cooperation)
  29. ac People are not able to interpret a visual beat as well as an auditory beat even though they're both within the same timing system
  30. ad a sense of a regular periodic pulse that one gets from much rhythmic music (what you tap your foot to)
  31. ae principle repertoire element of Indian music (change it and adjust to the new key/raga)
    - a way of going up and down
    - distinct human personality
  32. af Stress- Timed Languages have strong "blank" (lots of fluctuation in vowel duration)
  33. ag languages chucking out regularly occurring syllables (English, Arabic)
    - Ex: The teacher is interested in buying some books
  34. ah Semitone
  35. ai Tonality in speech can sound like music (looping a speech and begin to hear a music)
  36. aj periodic tones with a pure tone (fundamental frequency) with interval multiples (overtones) of 100
  37. ak integer multiples of the lowest frequency ???
  38. al low contrast between neighboring durations
  39. am high freq., high pitch
  40. an large contrast between neighboring durations (English)
  41. ao not repeating regularly in time but has temporal structure
    - Ex: a metronome that is gradually accelerating or ticks irregularly, seeing that small waves is likely to bring big waves after, rain drops
  42. ap ability to organize a beat into smaller bits/ diversifying a beat
  43. aq "Loudness"
  44. ar Happy, Sad, Anger, Fear
  45. as non-harmonic mixtures of frequencies
    - If it doesn't make up a full harmonic, then it's just a partial (not the whole thing harmony- some pieces still missing)
  46. at 3rd, 6th 7th scales lowered by 1 semiton
  47. au Hearing and trying to distinguish when beeps are on/off the beat
  48. av - HR increase, Body Temp decrease
    - Triggers: loud, volume, low pitch, infrasound (vibrations), scream-like, crescendo, proximity
  49. aw larger periods of time are constructed by concatenating (joining end to end) a series of units into larger units of unequal length
  50. ax systematic, non random, patterns of timing, accent, and grouping in sequence of events
  51. ay complex wave (music) is a sum of sine waves
    - Each component has diff freq. and amplitude- dissected then put back together
  52. az Skip 1 white key twice = 7 semitones
  53. ba - All musical pitches bear fixed relationships to each other
    - All scales can be derived from a single all-encompassing scale (chromatic scale)- can occur at any pitch level
    - Musical Intervals are determined by simple-integer freq. ratios
  54. bb interpreting same sound in different ways
    - Ex: Huron's experiment playing same sounds after a priming of distinct music
    - Ex: O-Fortuna vs. Gopher Tuna
  55. bc fluid filled organ that receives air pressure fluctuation through ear drum and bones that then pump out electrical impulses
  56. bd Only has short term performance boost- targets mood and arousal
  57. be Pure Tone
    - Periodic sounds created by periodic vibrations
  58. bf Use labels- Baskin Robins/list of Emotions
  59. bg horizontal organization of pitches from a scale (especially in Indian music)
  60. bh the brain functions that enable the perception/actions circuit are quite basic
  61. bi - Predicted
    - Tempo Flexible (~300-900 ms)
    - Cross Modal (we can feel it, tap it, see it, vocalize the beat)
  62. bj conscious yet true, to connect with/be accepted by a wider audience
    - to solve the crisis he had when he couldn't be spontaneous anymore
  63. bk a grid of organization of uneven interval spacing
  64. bl Communicating pitch structure that a voice holds but rather with rhythm... - Such that different interval spacing of same tones can have entirely different meanings
  65. bm Implicit learning of native language (extract a "pure rhythm")- begins even before birth!
  66. bn distorting ratios to get the sound we like (we subconsciously correct the deviations so that pitches can land in between interval categories)
  67. bo placement of accented events at non-beat positions (misalignment to stress in words and beats) or placement of non-accented events at beat positions (silence where you feel the beat)
  68. bp - all instruments tuned to same pitch
    - pélog, sléndro
    - inconsistency of pitch intervals
  69. bq hearing distinct/different down beats in same rhythm
  70. br measure of durational contrast of any temporal unit (vowel, syllable, phrase
    - A measure of rhythm but Not periodicity (gives a quantifiable value for how languages differ from each other
    - sensitive to the order of durations, but not to variability (a space between 1 and 5 is the same as 10 and 50)
  71. bs Base tones (don't change)
  72. bt 1. Absolute value of the difference ([4-1] = 3)
    2. Find the mean (4+1/2 = 2.5)
    3. Ratio between #1 and #2 (3/2.5 = 1.2 = contrast value)
    4. Add contrast values together and average them
    5. Multiply average by 100 = nPVI
  73. bu any notes can go together, never has to be resolved
  74. bv combos three pitch using the Skip 1 rule (mostly I, IV, and V scale degrees/tone)- *note the tones are/must be written in roman numerals)
  75. bw how we tell these same pitches apart played on different instruments when sounds have the same pitch, loudness and duration- "sound color"
    - Vowels and consonants in singing lead to large variation in Timbre
    - biological need to discern sounds in the dark
  76. bx stable set of pitch classes that divide the octave
    - 12 pitches per octave
    - Use only ~5 in a song- a cog. limitation, not sensory limitation
  77. by listener can pick up cues similar to emotional speech especially with musical training
    - ex: keyboard training most effective
  78. bz breaking away from traditional conventions and not using previous knowledge
  79. ca - Timing
    - Accent
    - Grouping
  80. cb there is a rhythm hierarchy??
  81. cc getting wrapped up in the music- allows quick relief of stress
    - ex: minimal use of anesthesia
  82. cd some pitches classes are heard as more central than others (play a key-inducing context then say which note fits into this particular musical context)
    - like 'musical priming'
  83. ce Some are felt to be stronger than others and are accessible at different levels for different people (hearing different stress intervals in the same song)
    - We see this from involuntary movements/dancing to music
  84. cf ex: can still recognize a Jazzy version of Happy Birthday
  85. cg implicit learning of sounds patters w/o explicit teaching
    - Sponge-like learning
    - Makes melodies easier to form schemas and remember
  86. ch every pair of adjacent notes has an identical frequency ratio (his means that the perceived "distance" from every note to its nearest neighbor is the same for every note in the system.)
  87. ci music and emotional speech share acoustic cues (happy vs. sad speech and music share similar qualities- fast/high = happy, slow/low = sad)
  88. cj uppermost frequency
  89. ck successive combos of small set pitch intervals
    - Important not just because high vs. low (other animals can perceive that)
    - More bc of membership, tension, centrality
  90. cl spacing between 2 white keys w/o black key (increase in fund. freq. by 6%)
  91. cm metronomes, patter repeat regularly in time
  92. cn Vowels in unstressed syllables can become short and acoustically neutralized while stressed vowels tend to be relatively long
  93. co Only species capable of vocal learning (parrots, humans, elephants) can develop entrainment that is predictive, tempo flexible, and cross-modal (contra Darwin who believed it applied to all species)
    - Other species utilized "spandrel"
  94. cp Knowing when a phrase starts and stops = pitch drop, longer notes
  95. cq Frequency of Pressure Oscillation
    - attitude that organizes sound of scale of low to high
  96. cr Continuum/ Circumplex model of affect = (High Arousal, Positive Valence, Low Arousal, Negative Valence)
  97. cs frequency distance between two tones
  98. ct Event Density Increasing Over Time
  99. cu entrainment to motor output and auditory stimuli appear to be rare- humans (vocal learners) may be very unique in perception/action process!
    - Monkey only follow single intervals
    - Dogs dance but not sensitive to bear
  100. cv there is no structure to differentiating importance of different rhythms and which one is the strongest
  101. cw still recognizing music that played an octave higher
    - Doubling of fundamental frequency
  102. cx a brain system that has evolved for other reasons (parrots not entraining to beat in the wild but their brains do have this capacity)
    - Music w/ beat helping Parkinson's pts
  103. cy Syllable Timed Languages
  104. cz All sounds decay and are imperfect
  105. da if language and music are grammatically demanding simultaneously, language processing will become more difficult
  106. db How a high C and low C distinguish themselves
  107. dc vertical organization of pitch from a scale (pitches combined simultaneously or near-simultaneously)
  108. dd low freq. high amplitude, loud