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44 True/False questions

  1. Pitch discrimination in infants?Fetuses exposed mostly to low frequencies (due to attenuation characteristics of mother's body)
    Newborns are better at discriminating high frequencies. Olsho (1984)
    5 month old infants better at discriminating sounds over 4000 Hz than adults, but are WORSE than adults for lower frequencies (2000 Hz and below).

          

  2. Does maternal response to music affect the fetuses response ?POSSIBLY
    Played classical/pop songs to mother via headphones
    Fetuses showed increase in motor activity and decrease in respiratory movements when mother listened to 25 minutes of classical or pop music (compared to control
    group with no music). Effects were stronger for genre of music that mother reported she preferred.

    Zimmer: the mother's liking of a particular genre may affect her physical state (e.g. state of relaxation) and this may be causing the fetus's response

          

  3. Clarity of Sound Reaching Uterus through Speech and is it clearly heard?Querleu et al (1988)
    Participants asked to recognize various phonemes (vowels and consonants) from intra-uterine recordings
    Both male and female voices clearly heard, though voices lost "crispness," making many phonemes (especially consonants, which contain higher frequencies than vowels) unrecognizable.
    Participants recognized 30% of phonemes, and only 22% of the consonants
    Most of the time it is not clearly heard

          

  4. effects of changing melodic intervals?However, infants usually cannot discriminate between two melodies with same contour, even if there are 3 or more different intervals between melodies. Suggests that melodic contour and relative intervals between pitches of melody seem to be much more important than the absolute pitches of the melody.

          

  5. what role does it play in infant development? do infants like this kind of speech?)fetuses are most likely responding to large scale differences between different music selection, NOT preferentially responding to particular STYLES of music

          

  6. Practical benefits of ID singing:Increases attention (just like ID speech)
    Reduces body movement (making feeding and diaper changes easier)
    Calms infant, reduces crying, and brings about sleep more easily

          

  7. Pitch discrimination in humans and infants and their sensitive range?Range of human hearing: 20 - 20,0000 Hz
    Most sensitive range: 2000 - 4000 Hz (both adults and infants)

          

  8. Prosody, what is it?characteristics of speech like tempo, rhythm, pitch, and stress.

          

  9. music memory in infants, can they remember pieces they haven't heard in a while?Decasper and Fifer: Infants sucked on special pacifer when listening to mother's voice. Prefered mothers voice to other females

          

  10. distinguish between real and simulated infant-directed singing?ID singing is even more compelling to infants than is ID speech (Nakata & Trehub, 2004) - 6-month old infants prefer videos of mom engaged in ID singing over ID speech

          

  11. What is the mozart effect?Rauscher et al were cautious in drawing any conclusions, media got results and concluded that listening to Mozart highers the infants IQ. Did not mention that this was not true most of the time and it did not last long at all. Explanations in findings were ignored. The media GREATLY overextended the original findings. The popular idea of the "Mozart Effect" has not been supported.

          

  12. Effects in changing contour?However, infants usually cannot discriminate between two melodies with same contour, even if there are 3 or more different intervals between melodies. Suggests that melodic contour and relative intervals between pitches of melody seem to be much more important than the absolute pitches of the melody.

          

  13. What is habituation and how can we use it with infant research on melody perception?INTERNAL sounds - mother's breathing, heartbeat, digestion
    EXTERNAL sounds - conversations, doors closing, traffic, music, etc

          

  14. infant rhythm perception?The popular notion that there are lasting benefits of playing classical music to newborns and infants. Despite the popularity of this notion, it has NOT been shown scientifically.

          

  15. lingering effects of a father's voice on infant?Decasper and Fifer: Infants sucked on special pacifer when listening to mother's voice. Prefered mothers voice to other females

          

  16. Shetler (1989) and motor changesStudies of fetal responses to music consistently show changes in motor response and heart rate when exposed to various classical music pieces

          

  17. what properties of music do fetuses seem to be responding to?fetuses are most likely responding to large scale differences between different music selection, NOT preferentially responding to particular STYLES of music

          

  18. What aspects of external sound are important?The popular notion that there are lasting benefits of playing classical music to newborns and infants. Despite the popularity of this notion, it has NOT been shown scientifically.

          

  19. perception of accents in rhythm (possible for infants? how do they "pick up" the
    accents? body feelings? visual cues?
    Perception of accents in rhythm ARE POSSIBLE FOR INFANTS. Infants bounced every 2 beats preferred rhythm with auditory accent every two beats. Infants bounced every 3 beats preferred rhythm with auditory accent every three beats.Infants who were blindfolded when bounced, still sensed accents, but did not bounce when viewing someone else doing it. VISUAL CUES ARE NOT ENOUGH TO ALLOW INFANTS TO ENCODE RHYTHMIC ACCENTS.

          

  20. Media distortion of mozart effect?Rauscher et al were cautious in drawing any conclusions, media got results and concluded that listening to Mozart highers the infants IQ. Did not mention that this was not true most of the time and it did not last long at all. Explanations in findings were ignored. The media GREATLY overextended the original findings. The popular idea of the "Mozart Effect" has not been supported.

          

  21. How loudly does the fetus experience internal sounds?FREQUENCY: LOW frequency sounds below about 300 Hz will have little or no attenuation (little or no loss of sound energy)
    HIGH frequency sounds have much more attenuation and are much less likely to make it to fetus with enough energy to be heard over internal noise

          

  22. What are the two sources of sound that reaches the fetus?Amplitude and frequency

          

  23. methods for delivering sound to fetus (three of them)?Look for MOTOR response:
    Startle responses, other changes in fetal movement corresponding to onset of sound.
    Originally measure through visual or tactile methods, but can now be measured through
    ultrasound. Reports of mother not generally used - mother's reports are less reliable, and mother is less sensitive to movement than newer technologies.

    Look for PHYSIOLOGICAL changes:
    Typically, changes in heart rate are observed
    Originally used stethoscope and watch, but can now use cardiotocography (electronic fetal monitor).

          

  24. Practical benefits of infant-direct singing?Increases attention (just like ID speech)
    Reduces body movement (making feeding and diaper changes easier)
    Calms infant, reduces crying, and brings about sleep more easily

          

  25. Clarity of Sound Reaching Uterus through Orchestral Music and is it clearly heard?Studies performing intra-uterine recordings of orchestral music. Attenuation of higher frequencies made music sound more muffled and less bright or brilliant than original recording. However, for music played at normal listening volumes, rhythm and basic timbre come through and tunes are generally easy to identify.

          

  26. lingering effects of a mother's voice on infant?Decasper and prescott: 2-day old newborns who have been exposed to father's voice for 4-10 hours still don't show preference for father's voice (DeCasper & Prescott, 1984)

          

  27. Pitch matching in infants? Possible? results?Fetuses exposed mostly to low frequencies (due to attenuation characteristics of mother's body)
    Newborns are better at discriminating high frequencies. Olsho (1984)
    5 month old infants better at discriminating sounds over 4000 Hz than adults, but are WORSE than adults for lower frequencies (2000 Hz and below).

          

  28. What are the methods for Determining Detection of Sound by Fetus (two of them)?Airborne technique: Sounds created at some distance from the mother, Sound waves travel through air to reach mother (and fetus!), Typically, sound created with loud speakers within a few feet of mother

    Air-Coupled technique: Stimulation applied directly to mother's abdomen through speaker, Speaker usually isolated from mother's abdomen by foam/rubber ring, Advantage over airborne is that it transmits sound more directly to mother and minimizes sound pressure loss

    Vibroacoustic technique: Device like tuning fork or voice simulator (electronic larynx) transmits vibrations directly to the mother's abdomen. Designed to propagate sound pressure more efficiently through tissue and fluids

          

  29. EEG/ERP study with infant (2, 3, 4 month olds) vs adult processing of pitch differences3 and 4-month olds had responses similar to adults, but 2-month olds were very different.
    3 and 4-month olds had a "mismatch negativity" (MMN) response 200ms after onset of oddball tone, followed by a positivity around 300ms. Infants at 2-months did not.
    Explanation: There is a developmental transition somewhere between 2 and 4-months of age in the way pitches are processed in the brain.
    Possible explanation: progressive myelination occurs in infants' brain. The slow-wave response of 2 month old may change to fast adult-like response as the process of myelination takes place.

          

  30. lingering effects of a music on infant?DeCasper and Spence(1986): newborns can recognize some acoustic characteristics of speech that they heard during end of pregnancy, and preferred the story compared to others

          

  31. Newborns/infants at orienting sound? accuracy? improvement?2 to 4-day old newborns will turn their head toward sound of a rattle. Some can even track and follow a moving sound (though they aren't too accurate!).By about 6 months, they can get within 4-6 degrees of sound source location. At 7 months, they can reach for a sound in the dark using only their sense of hearing to locate sound.

          

  32. lingering effects of heartbeat sound exposure on infant ?newborns are COMFORTED by sounds of heartbeat of about 72 bpm because it is a familiar sound from the womb.
    Salk: Newborns who heard heartbeat for 4 days after birth cried less and were likely to gain weight than newborns in control group. However studies did find like other tools such as the metronome gave the sma result as the sound of the heartbeat. One possibility is that rhythmic sounds at that tempo just happen to be comforting to a newborn. Another possibility is that fetal exposure to resting heartbeat made them relaxed during prenatal development, and this relaxation has now generalized to other slow rhythmic sounds as well.

          

  33. Fetal response to music, motor changes?Studies of fetal responses to music consistently show changes in motor response and heart rate when exposed to various classical music pieces

          

  34. infant-directed (ID) singing, characteristics? universal?ID Speech (universal):
    Higher in pitch
    Greater fluctuation in pitch and loudness
    Slower tempo
    Shorter phrases
    Exaggerated enunciation
    Longer pauses

          

  35. Attenuation and why it occurs?IN AMPLITUDE: When sound waves pass from air to liquid medium there is a loss of strength of vibrations, this occurs because the sound wave reaching the fetus are lower in intensity than they were originally - they've been attenuated.

          

  36. What are the frequency differences in attenuation?Amplitude and frequency

          

  37. do infants like infant-direct singing?Practical benefits of ID singing:
    Increases attention (just like ID speech)
    Reduces body movement (making feeding and diaper changes easier)
    Calms infant, reduces crying, and brings about sleep more easily

          

  38. what's important in recognizing/perceiving melody?However, infants usually cannot discriminate between two melodies with same contour, even if there are 3 or more different intervals between melodies. Suggests that melodic contour and relative intervals between pitches of melody seem to be much more important than the absolute pitches of the melody.

          

  39. what was unusual about the preferences shown by infants in the Saffran et al, 2000 study?Despite surprising conclusion that the experimental group preferred the NOVEL pieces to the familiar, it is still clear that the infants remembered the pieces.

          

  40. absolute time differences between beats or relative time differences between beats are important?Phillips-Silver & Trainor
    During presentation of unaccented rhythm, researcher bounced child on either every second beat or every third beat - allowing child to "feel" accent. They are important, let the infant know the cues to pick up the accents

          

  41. infant-directed speech (differences from adult-directed speech? universal?Similar characteristics to ID speech:
    Higher in pitch
    Greater fluctuation in pitch
    Slower tempo
    Longer pauses

    Also seems to be universal (mothers, fathers,
    young siblings all sing this way to infants) - though
    fathers don't do it as often and don't raise their pitch as much as mothers do.

          

  42. Newborns/infants at orienting sound compared to adults?However, infants' ability to localize sounds not as good as adults. One possibility is that their small heads make interaural timing and intensity differences hard to detect. Their head also doesn't make much of a "sound shadow" that reduces intensity of sound wave at far ear. They also spend a lot of time on their backs - our head and ears work best at sound localization when we are STANDING.

          

  43. Fetal responsiveness to sound, when does this start occurring?Studies have found that fetuses start to RESPOND TO SOUND AROUND 6TH MONTH of development (start of third trimester)

          

  44. lingering effects of a stories on infant?DeCasper and Spence(1986): newborns can recognize some acoustic characteristics of speech that they heard during end of pregnancy, and preferred the story compared to others