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31 True/False questions

  1. Thayer & Levenson (1983)
    Emotional Power of Music in Film: Physiological Responses
    Skin conductance (shown to be related to anxiety level) increased when watching film with "horror" soundtrack and decreased when watching film with "documentary" soundtrack compared to watching film with no music

          

  2. Neural Bases of Emotional Responses to Music??Consistently rated high in sadness (Albinoni, Barber)
    Consistently rated high in fear (Holst, Mussorgsky)
    Consistently rated high in happiness (Vivaldi, Alfven)
    Tension was correlated with each of the emotions

          

  3. Sloboda (2005) Results
    Tears
    Most often provoked by appoggiaturas and certain melodic or harmonic sequences.
    Appoggiaturas: brief non-harmonic tones (tones not part of accompaniment chord). Sound dissonant and create tension that gets released when tone gets resolved back to chord.
    Passages characterized by successive creating and releasing of tension in the music

          

  4. How Performers Communicate Emotion?Theory describes types of cues performers use to convey emotion.
    Looked at results of numerous studies and summarized them.
    Performers use cues reflecting kind of physical activity a person would engage in when feeling that emotion.

          

  5. How Performers Communicate Emotion?
    Patrick Juslin
    The way a musicians performs a certain musical piece can also express emotion that can be very different than the emotion conveyed by the actual (written) score

          

  6. Sloboda (2005) Results
    Shivers
    Most often triggered by a new or unexpected harmony
    Guhn et al (2007) found that they tend to occur:
    1) in slow movements
    2) When a solo instrument emerged or became distinct from accompaniment
    3) When there was a swell of loudness in the music

          

  7. Musically trained and untrained listeners agreed regarding emotion expressed
    Firm rhythm:
    vigorous/dignified;

          

  8. DOES music seem to be inducing the actual experience of emotion?The way a musicians performs a certain musical piece can also express emotion that can be very different than the emotion conveyed by the actual (written) score

          

  9. Bolivar, Cohen & Fentress (1994) Results
    aggressive vs. friendly music?
    Regardless of accompanying music type, subjects agreed on which interactions were aggressive vs. friendly
    However, aggressive interactions were rated as MORE aggressive when accompanied by aggressive music than with friendly music
    Friendly interactions were rated as MORE friendly when accompanied by friendly music than with aggressive music

          

  10. Thayer & Levenson (1983)
    Results
    skin conductance ??
    Skin conductance (shown to be related to anxiety level) increased when watching film with "horror" soundtrack and decreased when watching film with "documentary" soundtrack compared to watching film with no music

          

  11. Feeling emotion is different than recognizing it!
    Sloboda (2005)
    Theory describes types of cues performers use to convey emotion.
    Looked at results of numerous studies and summarized them.
    Performers use cues reflecting kind of physical activity a person would engage in when feeling that emotion.

          

  12. Krumhansl (1997) Results /Consistently rated high in sadness (Albinoni, Barber)
    Consistently rated high in fear (Holst, Mussorgsky)
    Consistently rated high in happiness (Vivaldi, Alfven)
    Tension was correlated with each of the emotions

          

  13. Effect of Music on Evaluation of Film's Characters and Relationships
    Boltz (2001) - Positive Mood vs. Negative Mood
    When watching scene accompanied by music with a positive mood, on-screen relationships are perceived as more harmonious or romantic

    When watching same scene accompanied by music with a negative mood, perceived to be more likely that one character might harm the other

    Positive music also led viewers to have more positive descriptions of a male character's traits (e.g. kind, loving, protective) than when the same scene was accompanied by more negative music (e.g. deranged, evil, manipulative)

          

  14. How do physiological responses induced by music related to subjects' emotional experiences?Investigated four musical features:
    major vs minor key
    rising vs falling melodic line
    firm vs flowing motion in rhythm
    simple vs complex harmony
    For each feature, made two recordings of same piece differing only on that feature - subject only heard one version.
    Subjects asked what the music expressed to them

          

  15. Intensity of Perception of Film's Emotional Content

    Bolivar, Cohen & Fentress (1994)
    Subjects rated aggressiveness or
    friendliness of filmed interactions of wolves
    Film clips were accompanied by either
    friendly or aggressive music (as previously rated)

          

  16. Blood et al (1999) "pleasant" music versus listening to "scary" music?? amygdala?Consistently rated high in sadness (Albinoni, Barber)
    Consistently rated high in fear (Holst, Mussorgsky)
    Consistently rated high in happiness (Vivaldi, Alfven)
    Tension was correlated with each of the emotions

          

  17. Tan et al (2008)Viewers who saw scene with diegetic music (i.e. played over the "mall's speakers" in the characters' world) viewed the scene as being more tense and suspenseful, and viewed the characters as being more antagonistic, hostile, and ill-intentioned

    Viewers who saw the scene with nondiegetic music perceived the male as being less afraid, less excited, and having less romantic interest in the female character.

          

  18. Musically trained and untrained listeners agreed regarding emotion expressed
    Simple (consonant) harmony:
    exciting, agitated, vigorous, inclined toward sadness

          

  19. Diegetic musicadded to soundtrack and does not exist in. The characters' world

          

  20. Musically trained and untrained listeners agreed regarding emotion expressed
    Major key:
    sad, dreamy, sentimental

          

  21. More research indicating listener agreement in emotion expressed by musical features
    Terwogt & van Grinsven (1991)
    Adults and children listened to musical excerpts and tried to link them to emotions of happiness, sadness, anger, and fear.
    Adults and children as young as age 5 easily identified happiness and sadness.
    Subjects did not differentiate anger and fear well.
    CONCLUSION: some emotions seem to be easily and consistently recognized, while others seem to be more difficult to identify

          

  22. Sloboda (2005) Results
    Most common responses?
    tears and shivers (racing heart rarely reported)

          

  23. Musically trained and untrained listeners agreed regarding emotion expressed
    Flowing Rhythm:
    happy, graceful, dreamy, tender
    Rising vs falling contours weren't clearly differentiated or consistent

          

  24. Musically trained and untrained listeners agreed regarding emotion expressed
    Complex (dissonant) harmony:
    exciting, agitated, vigorous, inclined toward sadness

          

  25. Do certain attributes of music lead listeners to reliably have specific emotional experiences?
    Hevner (1936)
    Krumhansl (1997)
    Presented 6 musical pieces (first three minutes of piece):
    Mars (from The Planets) by Gustav Holst
    La Primavera (from The Four Seasons) by Antonio Vivaldi
    Adagio in G minor by Tomaso Albinoni
    Night on Bald Mountain by Modest Mussorgsky
    Adagio for Strings, Opus 11 by Samuel Barber
    Midsommarvarka by Hugo Alfven

    One group of subjects indicated the degree of sadness, fear, happiness, and tension they were experiencing as the listened

    Second group listened to same pieces while physiological responses were recorded with polygraph (heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, temperature and dampness of skin)

          

  26. More research indicating listener agreement in emotion expressed by musical features
    People can recognize certain intended emotions of music even from other cultures with different tonal systems of music
    happy, graceful

          

  27. Musically trained and untrained listeners agreed regarding emotion expressed
    Minor key:
    sad, dreamy, sentimental

          

  28. Sloboda (2005) Results
    Heart Response
    Most often triggered by sudden dynamic changes (volume) or by events occurring earlier than expected.

          

  29. Krumhansl (1997) Results / Emotional ReportsPhysiological responses also differed systematically with these same pairs of pieces!

    Sadness
    1)Slower heart rate
    2)Decreased skin conductance level

    Fear
    1)Increase pulse transmission time
    2)Faster breathing rate

    Happiness
    1)Faster breathing rate
    2)Lower respiration depth

          

  30. Nondiegetic musicpresented as if it exists in the film "world"

          

  31. Tan et al (2008)
    conclusion
    Viewers who saw scene with diegetic music (i.e. played over the "mall's speakers" in the characters' world) viewed the scene as being more tense and suspenseful, and viewed the characters as being more antagonistic, hostile, and ill-intentioned

    Viewers who saw the scene with nondiegetic music perceived the male as being less afraid, less excited, and having less romantic interest in the female character.