31 Multiple choice questions
- Subjects rated aggressiveness or
friendliness of filmed interactions of wolves
Film clips were accompanied by either
friendly or aggressive music (as previously rated)
- Theory describes types of cues performers use to convey emotion.
Looked at results of numerous studies and summarized them.
Performers use cues reflecting kind of physical activity a person would engage in when feeling that emotion.
- Most often triggered by a new or unexpected harmony
Guhn et al (2007) found that they tend to occur:
1) in slow movements
2) When a solo instrument emerged or became distinct from accompaniment
3) When there was a swell of loudness in the music
Not only are listeners reports of emotional responses to music consistent, but music also produces physiological changes that correspond to the type of musical emotion.
- happy, graceful, dreamy, tender
Rising vs falling contours weren't clearly differentiated or consistent
- Researchers also showed a version of the scene with "chase" music..
At end of study they were told that the music had been manipulated, and asked to choose what they thought was the original version.
Most chose the "chase" music - it was consistent with the apparent situation!
However, they STILL gave highest "tension" ratings to the actual original (diegetic) version!
- Looked at relationship between features of music and reports of physical responses related to emotional experience.
Asked subjects to recall music to which they had a physical emotional reaction (and to identify specific parts that caused the reaction).
Looked at three types of reaction: tears, chills, heart response.
Sloboda located score for all of the reported pieces.
Looked for relationships between musical features and the physical responses people reported experiencing as a result.
- happy, merry, graceful, playful
- sad, dreamy, sentimental
watching scene accompanied by music with a positive mood, on-screen
relationships are perceived as more harmonious or romantic
When watching same scene accompanied by music with a negative mood, perceived to be more likely that one character might harm the other
Positive music also led viewers to have more positive descriptions of a male character's traits (e.g. kind, loving, protective) than when the same scene was accompanied by more negative music (e.g. deranged, evil, manipulative)
- Most often provoked by appoggiaturas and certain melodic or harmonic sequences.
Appoggiaturas: brief non-harmonic tones (tones not part of accompaniment chord). Sound dissonant and create tension that gets released when tone gets resolved back to chord.
Passages characterized by successive creating and releasing of tension in the music
- Regardless of accompanying music type, subjects agreed on which interactions were aggressive vs. friendly
However, aggressive interactions were rated as MORE aggressive when accompanied by aggressive music than with friendly music
Friendly interactions were rated as MORE friendly when accompanied by friendly music than with aggressive music
is neuroscientific research that shows differences in brain activity
between listening to "pleasant" music versus listening to "scary" music
- exciting, agitated, vigorous, inclined toward sadness
- happy, graceful
- Adults and children listened to musical excerpts and tried to link them to emotions of happiness, sadness, anger, and fear.
Adults and children as young as age 5 easily identified happiness and sadness.
Subjects did not differentiate anger and fear well.
CONCLUSION: some emotions seem to be easily and consistently recognized, while others seem to be more difficult to identify
- Investigated four musical features:
major vs minor key
rising vs falling melodic line
firm vs flowing motion in rhythm
simple vs complex harmony
For each feature, made two recordings of same piece differing only on that feature - subject only heard one version.
Subjects asked what the music expressed to them
- Physiological responses also differed systematically with these same pairs of pieces!
1)Slower heart rate
2)Decreased skin conductance level
1)Increase pulse transmission time
2)Faster breathing rate
1)Faster breathing rate
2)Lower respiration depth
- Krumhansl (1997)
Presented 6 musical pieces (first three minutes of piece):
Mars (from The Planets) by Gustav Holst
La Primavera (from The Four Seasons) by Antonio Vivaldi
Adagio in G minor by Tomaso Albinoni
Night on Bald Mountain by Modest Mussorgsky
Adagio for Strings, Opus 11 by Samuel Barber
Midsommarvarka by Hugo Alfven
One group of subjects indicated the degree of sadness, fear, happiness, and tension they were experiencing as the listened
Second group listened to same pieces while physiological responses were recorded with polygraph (heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, temperature and dampness of skin)
who saw scene with diegetic music (i.e. played over the "mall's
speakers" in the characters' world) viewed the scene as being more tense
and suspenseful, and viewed the characters as being more antagonistic,
hostile, and ill-intentioned
Viewers who saw the scene with nondiegetic music perceived the male as being less afraid, less excited, and having less romantic interest in the female character.
- Consonant (pleasing) musical intervals stimulate an area of the ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX associated with REWARD and reinforcement.
Dissonant (those that sound unpleasant) increase activity in the parahippocampal gyrus (a region closely connected to the amygdala)
The amygdala is involved in emotional responses - in particular FEAR responses (sort of a "warning center")
Other research indicates that removal of the amygdala leads to the reduced ability to recognize scary music
- tears and shivers (racing heart rarely reported)
- Music has always been important to film
Showed viewers graphic, stressful film about industrial accidents (3 accidents in film)
One group watched film with no music
One group watched film with "horror movie"
soundtrack music (dissonant, harsh timbres)
One group watched film with "documentary"
soundtrack music (consonant, "major-sounding")
Measured physiological responses of subjects as they watched film (heart rate, amount of physical movement of subject, skin conductance, blood pressure, anxiety level as reported by subject)
- Consistently rated high in sadness (Albinoni, Barber)
Consistently rated high in fear (Holst, Mussorgsky)
Consistently rated high in happiness (Vivaldi, Alfven)
Tension was correlated with each of the emotions
way a musicians performs a certain musical piece can also express
emotion that can be very different than the emotion conveyed by the
actual (written) score
- added to soundtrack and does not exist in. The characters' world
- Westerners recognized joy, anger, sadness in Hindustani music.
Japanese recognized joy, anger, sadness in Western and Hindustani music.
Studies show is that listeners' judgments of emotion correspond to judgments of basic musical features like tempo, loudness, and melodic complexity (e.g. Joy = fast and melodically simple, Anger = loud and melodically complex).
Ability to accurately recognize emotional intent of music not entirely dependent on being familiar with specific tonal system!
conductance (shown to be related to anxiety level) increased when
watching film with "horror" soundtrack and decreased when watching film
with "documentary" soundtrack compared to watching film with no music
- presented as if it exists in the film "world"
- Most often triggered by sudden dynamic changes (volume) or by events occurring earlier than expected.