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  1. Describe variables related to the development and acquisition of motor skills in music performance
  2. Identify and explain the effects of metacognition, self-regulation, motivation, and self-efficacy on quality of musical practice
  3. Identify and describe musical cues for expressiveness (GERMS)
  4. Compare and contrast the ideas/evidence of quantity of practice vs. quality of practice
  5. Identify mental rehearsal
  1. a GERMS
    Generative rules- Mark structural boundaries that performers emphasize, such as slowing down at cadence points.

    Emotional expression- Comes from the manipulation of performance features such a tempo, timbre, dynamics.

    Random fluctuations- Are limitations in human motor precision.

    Motion principles- Relate tempo changes to natural body movements.

    Stylistic unexpectedness- Adds unpredictable or uncertainty to a performance.
  2. b Quantity of practice- The amount of practice that is a goof predictor of eventual level of musical performance excellence. (10,000 hrs over a decade to achieve excellence)

    Quality if Practice- Also called deliberate practice because there is a given task with a goal, motivation in order to improve, performer is provided with feedback and provided with ample opportunities for repetition and gradual refinements of the performance.
  3. c -The primacy of motor movements in music performance is such that anything a performer wants to share with an audience must be expressed in action. The actual notes, along with expression of beauty, emotion or other profound thoughts can be shared with the audience only if the performer engages in a body movement of some type such as increasing air pressure or bow speed, modifying a singing vowel or striking the keys with more force.
    -Involves repetition and practice.
    -Motor movements continue to involve during the consolidation stage.
    -During the automatic stage, a newly learned motor skills requires minimal cognitive resources.
  4. d Metacognition- Thinking about one's thoughts.
    Self-regulation- Has to do with the individual learner setting personal goals and then monitoring progress toward these goals.
    Motivation- The forces that pushes someone towards achievement. This composed of attainment value (How important it is to do well) and intrinsic motivation (personal enjoyment for performing)
    Self-efficacy- Is the belief that one can perform at a competent level in particular situations such as public or adjudicated performances.
  5. e -Musicians have long used mental rehearsals as an effective learning strategy.
    -Mental rehearsal is thus an imaginary rehearsal of musical performance.