33 Multiple choice questions
- anxiety caused by the presence of an audience
Not rare - up to 50% of students and performing musicians report high degrees of performance anxiety.
Not necessarily associated with size of audience, but by likelihood that they will critically evaluate performance.
subjects' perception of tone durations when watching a marimba player
make either short and swift gestures or long and graceful gestures
(compared to simply listening to performance)
Subjects perceived lengths of tones differently when they could see performer.
- Had subjects watch and rate silent video clips of musiciansperforming the emotional intensions: Happy, Sad, Angry, and Fearful
Watching marimba player: happy, sad, angry were well communicated
With sax and bassoon players: happy, sad, angry again recognized
Researchers found that performers share a common body language in conveying these emotions musically
Slow and smooth movements convey sadness
Jerky movements convey anger
Much movement and fast movements convey happiness
Visual information in performance especially important for musically untrained listeners (Davidson, 1995)
3 musical styles (classical, pop, easy-listening) and silence at a
student cafeteria over 4 days. Investigated how music affected perceived
characteristics of cafeteria and how it affected students' purchase
intentions. Gave students questionnaires during visit.
Perception of cafeteria varied with type of music played.
When pop music played, cafeteria perceived as fun and upbeat.
When classical music played, cafeteria rated as more sophisticated and "upmarket".
When easy-listening music played, cafeteria rated as cheap and "downmarket".
Students were willing to pay most for cafeteria items when classical music was playing, followed by pop, easy-listening, and silence.
there are people present that we believe are likely to be hostile or
critical in their evaluation of us, performance will likely suffer.
If there are people present that we believe to be supportive and friendly, especially for something easy and well-learned, we will likely perform better.
- performance will probably be BETTER playing in front of a crowd than when practicing alone
- will have performance suffer when in front of crowd
- Singing along VERY common
Audience screams, claps, stands during popular songs
Dress is very casual
Certain types of musical shows (e.g. metal, punk) have mosh pits where people run around and plow into each other
- Investigated cases of audience members fainting
Authors hung out with first-aid workers at New Kids on the Block concert.
400 people (all girls between 11-17) fainted
Interviewed 40 regarding causes of fainting
40% reported syncope - loss of consciousness with loss of postural tone, followed by spontaneous return to consciousness
- More women in strings and woodwind sections
More men playing double bass, tuba, sousaphone
- the audition - audience is small, but highly evaluative
- Not so much
Far fewer females play jazz in high school and college (McKeage, 2004).
A far lower percentage of females continue playing jazz once they get to college.
This study, as well as Wehr-Flowers (2006) found that female jazz musicians lacked confidence in, and are more anxious about, their improvisational skills than males are.
- Sleeplessness the night before
Not eating since early in the morning when they lined up for show
Long periods of standing in arena
EXTENDED SCREAMING also played a role, however!
adolescents wrote about worst experience in a music performance - what
happened, how they felt, their age, who the audience was
RESULTS regarding cognitions:
60% of subjects reported a fear of being negatively evaluated by others, and a negative self-evaluation
- Main fears seems to be fear of humiliation and disgrace coming from messed-up performance.
- the tendency for people to perform better when in the presence of other people
- Varied music in supermarket (slow, fast, silence)
Measured how long it took shoppers to pass between two particular points in the market. Measured sales volume
Traffic flow significantly slower with slow tempo music (127.53 sec) than for faster music (108.93 sec).
Sales volume were consistently associated with slower temp music than with faster tempo music (38.2% difference).
- the mere presence of people (Zajonc) or the idea that they are evaluating us (Cottrell).
- Found that slower tempo music also led to longer RESTAURANT stays
- Varied music in high-quality restaurant (classical, pop, silence).
Upper-middle class clientele
Time spent in restaurant
Money per person spent on starters, main courses, desserts, coffee, bar drinks, wine. Overall drink bill, food bill, and total spent.
Classical pieces all very well known (e.g. Vivaldi's Four Seasons; Strauss's Emperor Waltz). Pop music well known songs from mid-80s to current(e.g. Britney Spears' "Crazy"; Culture Club's "Karma Chameleon"; Ricky Martin's "Living La Vida Loca").
People spent consistently more per person on starters and coffee, and had a higher total spent on food and total overall spending when classical music was played.
- Completely acceptable to have quiet conversation during performance
Expected to applaud after each musician's extended solo
French or German music in background as customers milled around grocery
store. 4 French wines / 4 German wines displayed in drink section of
market. Prices, quality, and dryness/sweetness of wines matched. Asked
shoppers to complete questionnaire after shopping
French wine outsold German wine when French music played
German wine outsold French wine when German music played
Subjects responded that French music made them think of France and German music made them think of German
HOWEVER, only 6 of the 44 subjects responded "yes" to question, "Did the type of music playing influence your choice of wine?"
Customers did not seem aware of the effect music had on selection
- found that the presence of others seems to boost our performance (cyclists racing times, adolescents winding a fishing reel)
He later found that it wasn't just an effect of "competition" - subjects' performance improved simply by having someone "oversee" their attempts
- Music typically regarded as more "feminine" subject for children.
In Western culture (O'Neill & Boulton, 1996)
flutes, violins, clarinets viewed appropriate for girl
drums, guitar, trumpet viewed appropriate for boy.
Research indicates that you can change children's gender stereotypes a bit (Harrison & O'Neill, 2000).
Increase girl's attraction to guitar by observing female guitarist. Increase boy's attraction to piano by observing male pianist.
HOWEVER, girl's attraction to piano decreased by observing male pianist and boy's attraction to guitar decreased by observing female guitarist. Girls may be more willing to consider a counter-stereotypical instrument than boys (Pickering & Repachili, 2001)
- Suggested that the presence of other people causes arousal.
This arousal strengthens the most likely response
For things that are easy and well-learned, arousal causes us to perform these tasks more quickly and accurately.
For tasks that are difficult and less well-learned, arousal causes us to perform these tasks less quickly and less accurately.
- Beta-blockers - lower person's arousal level (but this can lower arousal level too far and make performance "lackluster").
Cognitive - behavioral therapy - addresses problem instead of just symptom.
Adjusts a person's way of thinking about the performance situation.
Can lead to reduced anxiety levels and more optimal arousal levels.
- Suggests that there is an OPTIMAL level of arousal that leads to optimum performance.
If arousal level is too high or too low, your performance won't be optimal.
- the arousal caused by the audience exceeds the level at which arousal causes good performance
- RESULTS: Fainting caused by hyperventilation
Some were overcome by emotion (seeing their idols!)
Most did not report being overcome by emotion, but did report rise in anxiety from feeling, squeezed, trapped, and choked in middle of the crowd
Most fainters were right next to the stage, with fans pushing and trying to get as close to the performers as possible.
- Stagebill magazine's 10 Golden Rules of concert etiquette
Sit in assigned seat and be sure to be seated before music starts.
Attire more casual in recent decades (business casual / smart casual fairly standard)
Silence during piece is expected
Wasn't always that way - people would chat, eat, clap
Gustav Mahler was first to start discouraging applause between movements - now considered a faux pas
(1986) - after a traffic light turns green, drivers take 15% less time
to travel the first 100 yards when another car is beside them at the
- Expert pool players who made 71% of their shots when alone, made 80% when four people came to watch them.
Poor pool players, who made 36% of their shots when alone, made only 25% when watched