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  1. Stimulus ControlThe process whereby a reinforcer temporarily ceases to strengthen an operant. A reduction in performance occurs generally after a large amount of reinforcement.

          

  2. Programmed InstructionA gradual decline in the magnitude of a respondent over repeated occurrences. Ex: a nurse's aversion to the sight of blood decreases as she is exposed to repeated viewing of open wounds.

          

  3. Behavioral ContrastA phenomenon
    when 2 behaviors are initially reinforced at equal levels and then 1 behavior stops being reinforced. Then the behavior that is no longer reinforced decreases in frequency whole the behavior that continues to be reinforced increases in frequency

          

  4. Cognitive Behavior ModificationMeasurable descriptive characteristics (Parameters) that qualify particular aspects of the performance, such as frequency, rate, intensity, duration, topography, and accuracy.

          

  5. Response DifferentiationThe process whereby reinforcement alters some specific property of an operant such as its duration, intensity, or topography; a procedure that reinforces a subset of specific behavior, conforming to specified behavioral dimensions.

          

  6. RandomThat which rewards the occurrence of a behavior.

          

  7. Response Generalization (induction)the spread of the effects of reinforcement to responses outside of a specific response may be accompanied by other responses that are similar but not identical to the reinforced response.

          

  8. OvercorrectionProcedures used to teach correct behaviors when inappropriate behaviors are exhibited.

          

  9. EnvironmentA regular response from all normal organisms of the same species to the same eliciting stimulus. Ex: salivation

          

  10. Confounding VariablesVariables that are operating in an experimental study, which make the effects of the experimental manipulation on the independent variable difficult to evaluate precisely.

          

  11. Conditioned Reinforcera stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer. Money is one of these because it has become the reward.

          

  12. FadingThe gradual removal of discriminative stimuli such as cues and prompts.

          

  13. BehaviorAny act of an organism, either internal or external, that can be observed and /or measured. Can have one of four relationships to the environment.

          

  14. Superstitious BehaviorThe group of simple response components that compose a more complex behavior.

          

  15. Incompatible BehaviorA response whose occurrence precludes the simultaneous occurrence of another response. Ex: A musician cannot be both flat and sharp at the same time.

          

  16. Behavior TherapyThe application of learning theory techniques for the purpose of changing maladaptive behavior.

          

  17. Reinforcement DensityThe contingent use of a stimulus resulting in an increase or maintenance of behavior. All operants have the potential to produce events that will strengthen their future occurrence. There are 2 types.

          

  18. Social ReinforcerReinforcing stimuli that have the effect of maintaining or perpetuating life, such as food, water, elimination, and warmth.

          

  19. Neutral StimuliEnvironmental events that regularly precede responses. They elicit relatively fixed and stereotyped responses. Ex: The bell in Pavlov's classic dog experiment.

          

  20. Multiple Baseline DesignFrequency or rate with which responses are reinforced. The lower the ratio or shorter the interval required by a give reinforcement schedule, the denser the reinforcement.

          

  21. Interresponse ReinforcementThe amount of time that passes between two responses.

          

  22. ApprovalAny observable endorsement of behavior.

          

  23. Adaptive BehaviorBehavior that serves to ensure survival or is considered appropriate in specified societal contexts such as school.

          

  24. Errorless Discrimination ProcedureThe process whereby an operant is emitted only in the presence of certain stimuli.

          

  25. Reliability formulaCalculated and reported in percentages by dividing the number of agreements by the number of agreements plus disagreements and then multiplying the fraction by one hundred.

          

  26. Positive PunishmentThose events that will weaken an operant's future occurrence by the presentation of stimuli

          

  27. Functional AnalysisA relation in which the occurrence of event B consistently follows the occurrence of event A or is dependent upon the previous occurrence of event A.

          

  28. Independent VariableThe factor purposely manipulated in a behavior modification program to ascertain its relationship with the dependent variable. Sometimes thought of as the "cause" of the "effect" on the dependent measure.

          

  29. ReflexA physical response (behavior) mediated by the autonomic nervous system.

          

  30. Functional RelationA relation in which the occurrence of event B consistently follows the occurrence of event A or is dependent upon the previous occurrence of event A.

          

  31. PromptAn auxiliary discriminative stimulus that is applied to help occasion as given response. Usually faded before the terminal goal is judged as having been achieved.

          

  32. SatiationMatching the behavior of a model.

          

  33. Unconditioned ResponseA response that nearly inevitably follows a specific stimulus.

          

  34. Successive ApproximationsBehavioral elements or subsets, each of which more and more closely resembles the specified terminal behavior.

          

  35. ContingencyThe time between the occurrence of the stimulus and the occurrence of the response.

          

  36. TransferThe effect that learning a task has on the learning of another task. If having learned the first task facilitates learning the second task, it is called positive; if learning the first task interferes with learning the second task, then it is called negative.

          

  37. Chainingusing operant conditioning to teach a complex response by linking together less complex skills. Child offered candy, says thank you, smile and you're welcome, hug.

          

  38. Terminal BehaviorThe behavior that is achieved at the end of a behavior modification program. The terminal behavior is described according to all its relevant behavioral dimensions and is usually assigned a criterion by which an acceptable level of performance is to be judged.

          

  39. Interval Schedule of ReinforcementA schedule in which reinforcement is made contingent upon the passage of time before the response is reinforced.

          

  40. Generalization TrainingA procedure designed to facilitate the occurrence of generalization.

          

  41. ContingentProvides written documentation regulating contingencies.

          

  42. Respondent ConditioningThe changing of the frequency of an occurrence of a behavior by modifying the consequences of the behavior

          

  43. CounterconditioningProcedures used to teach correct behaviors when inappropriate behaviors are exhibited.

          

  44. ShapingThe gradual removal of discriminative stimuli such as cues and prompts.

          

  45. ReplicateA physical reaction in time and space to an environmental event generally synonymous with behavior and , in behavioral research, both observable and measurable. Ex: fines.

          

  46. ReinforcementThe contingent use of a stimulus resulting in an increase or maintenance of behavior. All operants have the potential to produce events that will strengthen their future occurrence. There are 2 types.

          

  47. Task AnalysisThe effect that learning a task has on the learning of another task. If having learned the first task facilitates learning the second task, it is called positive; if learning the first task interferes with learning the second task, then it is called negative.

          

  48. Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates (DRL)A schedule in which responses that are spaced relatively far apart in time are selectively reinforced.

          

  49. DisapprovalA physical reaction in time and space to an environmental event generally synonymous with behavior and , in behavioral research, both observable and measurable. Ex: fines.

          

  50. ExtinctionThe process whereby a reinforcer temporarily ceases to strengthen an operant. A reduction in performance occurs generally after a large amount of reinforcement.

          

  51. Premack PrincipleThe principle that contingent access to high frequency behaviors serves as a reinforcer for the performance of low frequency behaviors.

          

  52. ProbeA phase in a behavior modification experiment designed to test the effect of a given procedure.

          

  53. Rate of RespondingA regular response from all normal organisms of the same species to the same eliciting stimulus. Ex: salivation

          

  54. Aversive ControlThe withdrawal or presentation of an aversive stimulus, which then maintains or increases the frequency of a response. Three types exist.
    1. Escape, in which the organism terminates the stimulus after it has begun.
    2. Avoidance, in which the organism postpones the beginning of stimuli.
    3. Punishment, in which responses are followed by a stimulus.

          

  55. Stimulus DiscriminationAfter an operant has been reinforced in the presence of a particular stimulus a number of times, that stimulus comes to control the operant. Control of this sort is achieved when responses are reinforced in the presence of a specified stimulus and not others and the stimulus controls the probability that the response will be emitted.

          

  56. Eliciting StimuliAny stimulus that an organism will escape from, avoid, or terminate.

          

  57. BaselineA stable, usually recoverable, performance (5 or more observations) upon which the effects of experimental variables can be assessed.

          

  58. Incompatible ResponseA response that nearly inevitably follows a specific stimulus.

          

  59. Stimulus OverloadWhen a response decreases in frequency because of too large a frequency or magnitude of reinforcement, stimulus overload has occurred.

          

  60. Restitution overcorrectionProcedures used to teach correct behaviors when inappropriate behaviors are exhibited.

          

  61. Discriminative StimulusSeparate presentation of stimuli

          

  62. ReinforcerA physical response (behavior) mediated by the autonomic nervous system.

          

  63. OrdinateTo repeat an experimental procedure or finding.

          

  64. Operant ReinforcementA stimulus that, when presented as a consequence of a response, results in an increase or maintenance of that response.

          

  65. Positive ReinforcementA stimulus that, when presented as a consequence of a response, results in an increase or maintenance of that response.

          

  66. Stimulus DeprivationThe process whereby an operant is emitted only in the presence of certain stimuli.

          

  67. Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible (DRI)A procedure in which a reinforcer follows a response (usually a physical response) in compatible with a targeted behavior.

          

  68. Schedule of ReinforcementThe rule followed by the environment in determining which among the many occurrences of a response will be reinforced. Include 3 different types: ratio, interval, and mixed.

          

  69. Contingency ControlThe ability to manipulate the environmental consequences of a given behavior in order to achieve a specific behavioral goal.

          

  70. ConsequateWhen the event follows the behavior but need not do so. Reinforcement is generally contingent upon behavior. After reinforcement occurs, this has been established. Ex: If one is asked to turn off the water and does so, the behavior is called this.

          

  71. FrequencyThe gradual removal of discriminative stimuli such as cues and prompts.

          

  72. Learning HistoryThe behavior that is achieved at the end of a behavior modification program. The terminal behavior is described according to all its relevant behavioral dimensions and is usually assigned a criterion by which an acceptable level of performance is to be judged.

          

  73. Token EconomyA system requiring two components: tokens and back-up reinforcers.

          

  74. AdaptationMatching the behavior of a model.

          

  75. Punishing StimulusNeutral stimulus that, through repeated association with an unconditioned stimulus, begins to elicit a conditioned response

          

  76. Positive-practice overcorrectionA stimulus whose removal, if paired with the occurrence of a behavior, will increase the probability of occurrence of the behavior. Many times the term aversive stimulus is used in place of negative reinforcer.

          

  77. Behavioral GoalAn approach in which values and/or ideas, are defined into directly observable and measurable behaviors. Assumption: Most behavior is learned.

          

  78. Differential ReinforcementThe strengthening of certain behaviors while others are being extinguished. A programmed contingency whereby specified responses are reinforced while others are not.

          

  79. AccountabilityProviding an objective demonstration in measurable terms of the effectiveness of given programs. Ex: An increase in reading scores following the introduction of contingency contracting with students.

          

  80. Spontaneous RecoveryA continuum of stimuli

          

  81. ContractProvides written documentation regulating contingencies.

          

  82. Contingency ContractA written contract specifying subsequent behavioral contingencies between persons involved. Ex: Completion of school assignments will result in money and special privileges from parents and free time in school.

          

  83. Continuous FieldA response that does not have a clearly discriminable beginning or end.

          

  84. On-TaskBehavior consistent with definitional classes of behavior previously defined.

          

  85. LinkA stimulus used to help an individual remember to produce any specified response, which may then be reinforced.

          

  86. Applied ResearchResearch that is directed toward an analysis of variables that can be effective in improving behavior under study. Conducted in natural settings

          

  87. Behavioral ApproachAn approach in which values and/or ideas, are defined into directly observable and measurable behaviors. Assumption: Most behavior is learned.

          

  88. Differential PunishmentThe extinguishing of certain behaviors while others are being reinforced.

          

  89. TopographyAn auxiliary discriminative stimulus that is applied to help occasion as given response. Usually faded before the terminal goal is judged as having been achieved.

          

  90. Event SamplingWhen a neutral stimulus acquires reinforcing properties through temporal association with another reinforcer.

          

  91. RespondentA regular response from all normal organisms of the same species to the same eliciting stimulus. Ex: salivation

          

  92. Changing Criterion DesignSpecification of a predetermined level of behavioral performance that is to be achieved. These are used to specify goals and to evaluate the success of behavioral programs.

          

  93. Group ContingenciesWhen the event follows the behavior but need not do so. Reinforcement is generally contingent upon behavior. After reinforcement occurs, this has been established. Ex: If one is asked to turn off the water and does so, the behavior is called this.

          

  94. Back-up ReinforcerAn object or event that has already demonstrated it reinforcing effect on an individual that is received in exchange for a specific number of tokens, points, or other more generalized reinforcers.

          

  95. ModelingThe gradual removal of discriminative stimuli such as cues and prompts.

          

  96. Dependent VariableA phenomenon that varies in any way (appears, disappears, or changes) as a function of any application, removal, or variation in other variables (independent). Usually monitored or measured in behavior modification studies.

          

  97. Discrete StimuliAll those environmental events that at any given moment do not elicit any behavioral change, whether they precede, accompany, or follow responses.

          

  98. Stimulus ChangeA behavioral procedure that employs discriminative stimuli, or stimuli that occasions or inhibit specific behaviors.

          

  99. PairingThe act of associating one stimulus with another. (combining primary reinforcers with secondary reinforcers).

          

  100. OscillationMatching the behavior of a model.

          

  101. LatencyThe time between the occurrence of the stimulus and the occurrence of the response.

          

  102. Mixed Schedules of ReinforcmentA schedule in which reinforcement is made contingent upon the emission of a number of responses before one response is reinforced.

          

  103. Conditioningusing operant conditioning to teach a complex response by linking together less complex skills. Child offered candy, says thank you, smile and you're welcome, hug.

          

  104. Pavlovian ConditioningThe same as Respondent Conditioning

          

  105. Negative PunishmentThose events that will weaken an operant's future occurrence by the removal of stimuli.

          

  106. Reinforcing Incompatible BehaviorA behavioral procedure that increases the occurrence of a behavior or behaviors that coexist with another, usually "undesired" behavior.

          

  107. Reversal ProcedureA regular response from all normal organisms of the same species to the same eliciting stimulus. Ex: salivation

          

  108. TicEach unit of a chain, composed of a discriminative stimulus, response, and a reinforcer.

          

  109. DependentA physical reaction in time and space to an environmental event generally synonymous with behavior and , in behavioral research, both observable and measurable. Ex: fines.

          

  110. Subset of BehaviorBehavior that is controlled by consequences.

          

  111. Single Subject Experimental DesignsResearch designs developed for evaluating the effects of one or more independent variables on the behavior of a single organism.

          

  112. Primary ReinforcersReinforcing stimuli that have the effect of maintaining or perpetuating life, such as food, water, elimination, and warmth.

          

  113. Reinforcement HistoryThe sum of an individual's behaviors that have been conditioned or modified as a result of environment events.

          

  114. CriterionSpecification of a predetermined level of behavioral performance that is to be achieved. These are used to specify goals and to evaluate the success of behavioral programs.

          

  115. ContingentThe potential of all operants to produce events that will weaken their future occurrence. There are two types: Positive and Negative.

          

  116. Respondent BehaviorBehavior that is controlled by consequences.

          

  117. AddictionA condition in which cessation of reinforcement (usually physiological) produces physical or physiological problems of abstinence.

          

  118. Stimulus GeneralizationThe spread of the effects of reinforcement (or of other operations) in the presence of one stimulus to other stimuli that differ from the original stiulus along one or more dimensions.

          

  119. ReliabilityA regular response from all normal organisms of the same species to the same eliciting stimulus. Ex: salivation

          

  120. Supplementary ReinforcersReinforcers used in addition to the major contingent reinforcer

          

  121. Ratio Schedule of ReinforcementA schedule in which reinforcement is made contingent upon the emission of a number of responses before one response is reinforced.

          

  122. Time Out Room, Time Out BoothA facility that is arranged in such a manner that the individual placed therein has little likelihood of receiving reinforcement from the environment. The place in which time out from positive reinforcement occurs.

          

  123. Target BehaviorSpecification of a predetermined level of behavioral performance that is to be achieved. These are used to specify goals and to evaluate the success of behavioral programs.

          

  124. CueAn object that can be exchanged at a later time for another reinforcing item or activity. The extent to which tokens are reinforcing or take on the properties of a generalized reinforcer is dependent on the individual's experience and on what back-up items are available.

          

  125. Response CostA regular response from all normal organisms of the same species to the same eliciting stimulus. Ex: salivation

          

  126. HabituationA gradual decline in the magnitude of a respondent over repeated occurrences. Ex: a nurse's aversion to the sight of blood decreases as she is exposed to repeated viewing of open wounds.

          

  127. EmotionA complex response elicited and occasioned by environmental conditions and composed of both operants and respondents. Ex: Love or sadness.

          

  128. ImitationA complex response elicited and occasioned by environmental conditions and composed of both operants and respondents. Ex: Love or sadness.

          

  129. ThinningA technique whereby the behavior that is to be taught is demonstrated for the learner and any semblance of the goal behavior is initially rewarded. The criterion for reinforcement is then gradually increased until the goal behavior is obtained. Sometimes no shaping is required.

          

  130. Behavior ModificationThe changing of behavior (increasing or decreasing) using a schedule of reinforcement (positive or negative) and/or non-reinforcement. The programmed use of scientific techniques used to produce observable changes in behavior.

          

  131. Unconditioned ReinforcerWhen a stimulus can reinforce a behavior without the organism having had any previous experience. Ex: the smell of food produces salivation.

          

  132. Subject Confounding VariablesSubject characteristics (demographic, previous learning history, and present behaviors) that have not been controlled in an experiment but may effect changes in the occurrences of the dependent variable. Single-subject designs control for subject confounding variables by comparing the subject's performance under one condition with his performance under other conditions.

          

  133. SuperstitiousBehavior has nothing to do with the reinforce. Ex: Rubbing a good luck piece does not cause good luck, but is occasionally reinforced by chance.

          

  134. Off-TaskAny behavior that interferes or is incompatible with previously defined situational expectations.

          

  135. Continuous ResponseA behavioral procedure that employs discriminative stimuli, or stimuli that occasions or inhibit specific behaviors.

          

  136. InconsistencyThe relationship between the behavior of an organism and environmental events (generally reinforcing) that follow the behavior and either increase or decrease the probability of similar behavior in the future.

          

  137. Generalized ReinforcerA stimulus whose removal, if paired with the occurrence of a behavior, will increase the probability of occurrence of the behavior. Many times the term aversive stimulus is used in place of negative reinforcer.

          

  138. Time OutTime out from positive reinforcement is a procedure in which access to the sources of various forms of reinforcement are removed for a particular period, contingent upon the emission of a response. The opportunity to receive reinforcement is contingently removed for a specified time.

          

  139. Functional RelationshipA relation in which the occurrence of event B consistently follows the occurrence of event A or is dependent upon the previous occurrence of event A.

          

  140. Conditioned StimulusA contingent stimulus that, when presented, results in a reduction in the occurrence of the dependent behavior.

          

  141. Behavioral DimensionsThe specification of the set of responses to be emitted by the subject at the completion of a given behavior modification program. (Behavioral objective)

          

  142. Differential Reinforcement of High Rates (DRH)A schedule that involves the selective contingent reinforcement of a grouping of responses that occur in rapid succession. High rates are differentially reinforced while low rates are not.

          

  143. OperantThe act of associating one stimulus with another. (combining primary reinforcers with secondary reinforcers).

          

  144. Time SamplingA direct observational procedure in which the observer records the presence or absence of the behaviors to be changed, withing uniform time intervals.

          

  145. DesensitizationMatching the behavior of a model.

          

  146. TokenA phase in a behavior modification experiment designed to test the effect of a given procedure.

          

  147. GeneralizationResponding to two or more discriminatively different stimuli as if they were the same.

          

  148. DeprivationA procedure in which the reinforcement for a previously reinforced behavior is discontinued. The process whereby a conditioned response is reduced to its preconditioned level or strength, often approaching or reaching zero magnitude or frequency. The process involves continuing presentation of the conditioned stimulus without any further pairing with the unconditioned stimulus. With operant responses, this results when responding is no longer followed by reinforcement.

          

  149. Pay-OffThe time between the occurrence of the stimulus and the occurrence of the response.

          

  150. Operant ConditioningThe changing of the frequency of an occurrence of a behavior by modifying the consequences of the behavior

          

  151. Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors (DRO)A procedure in which a reinforcer follows any response an individual makes, except for one particular response. Thus, the individual receives scheduled reinforcement except when he engages in a particular specified behavior. This procedure results in a decrease of the specified behavior.

          

  152. Negative ReinforcerA stimulus whose removal, if paired with the occurrence of a behavior, will increase the probability of occurrence of the behavior. Many times the term aversive stimulus is used in place of negative reinforcer.

          

  153. ResponseA stimulus, the contingent use of which results in the increase or maintenance of the dependent behavior. The stimulus will increase the probability of the response which precedes it.

          

  154. ScallopThe gradual removal of discriminative stimuli such as cues and prompts.

          

  155. StimulusAn environmental event.

          

  156. AbscissaThe horizontal reference axis on a graph or chart. It is usually labeled with a scale that represents the passage of time in some form such as minutes, days, observations, or trials.

          

  157. Aversive StimulusAny stimulus that an organism will escape from, avoid, or terminate.

          

  158. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA)A procedure in which a reinforcer follows a behavior that is an alternative to a targeted behavior.

          

  159. Stimulus DeltaA stimulus in the presence of which a given response is not reinforced. This kind of discriminative stimulus is said to be established when, after several pairings with the occurrence or nonoccurrence of reinforcement, its presence or absence is accompanied by reliable changes in response.

          

  160. PunishmentThe potential of all operants to produce events that will weaken their future occurrence. There are two types: Positive and Negative.

          

  161. Adaptation PeriodThe gradual reduction of responses of responsiveness as an organism adjusts to the introduction of new stimuli into the environment. Ex: Sensory adaptation to a bright light; students tuning out a teacher's loud or soft commands where there is no contrast.

          

  162. Alternating Treatments DesignA stimulus whose removal, if paired with the occurrence of a behavior, will increase the probability of occurrence of the behavior. Many times the term aversive stimulus is used in place of negative reinforcer.

          

  163. Operant BehaviorAll respondents are a function of antecedent stimulus events.

          

  164. Operant LevelThe time between the occurrence of the stimulus and the occurrence of the response.