164 Multiple choice questions
- The sum total of an organism's past.
phase (time period) in any behavioral program during which the subject
(or subjects) adjusts to any novel stimuli that have been introduced
into the environment. Ex: The time necessary for a class to adapt to
observers prior to collection of baseline data.
behavioral procedure that increases the occurrence of a behavior or
behaviors that coexist with another, usually "undesired" behavior.
or more interventions suspected to effect change are selected and
either rotated or placed in a predetermined order such that data can be
collected s to the effect each has on the targeted behavior.
or Pavlovian) The process whereby eliciting stimuli increase the
frequency of respondents (usually a physiological change). A neutral
stimulus, when associated repeatedly with an unconditioned stimulus
which reliably elicits a specific response, comes to elicit a "new"
response which is similar in some respect to that produced originally by
the unconditioned stimulus.
- Alternation of responses usually found during the process of extinction
- involves returning the environment to its original state.
- The sum of an individual's behaviors that have been conditioned or modified as a result of environment events.
- The act of associating one stimulus with another. (combining primary reinforcers with secondary reinforcers).
applying the previously specified consequences to the occurrences of a
behavior, applying the consequences when the behavior has not occurred,
applying inappropriate consequences or applying appropriate and
inappropriate consequences simultaneously.
direct observational procedure in which the observer records the
presence or absence of the behaviors to be changed, withing uniform time
stimulus in the presence of which a given response is not reinforced.
This kind of discriminative stimulus is said to be established when,
after several pairings with the occurrence or nonoccurrence of
reinforcement, its presence or absence is accompanied by reliable
changes in response.
- The same as Respondent Conditioning
- A schedule in which reinforcement is made contingent upon the passage of time before the response is reinforced.
- A design that gradually changes the criterion for reinforcement.
- The sum total of an organism's surroundings (stimuli)
stimulus whose removal, if paired with the occurrence of a behavior,
will increase the probability of occurrence of the behavior. Many times
the term aversive stimulus is used in place of negative reinforcer.
- Behavioral elements or subsets, each of which more and more closely resembles the specified terminal behavior.
process whereby reinforcement alters some specific property of an
operant such as its duration, intensity, or topography; a procedure that
reinforces a subset of specific behavior, conforming to specified
- A behavioral procedure that employs discriminative stimuli, or stimuli that occasions or inhibit specific behaviors.
- Any behavior that interferes or is incompatible with previously defined situational expectations.
stimulus, the contingent use of which results in the increase or
maintenance of the dependent behavior. The stimulus will increase the
probability of the response which precedes it.
- The time between the occurrence of the stimulus and the occurrence of the response.
- Matching the behavior of a model.
- A schedule in which responses that are spaced relatively far apart in time are selectively reinforced.
horizontal reference axis on a graph or chart. It is usually labeled
with a scale that represents the passage of time in some form such as
minutes, days, observations, or trials.
a stimulus can reinforce a behavior without the organism having had any
previous experience. Ex: the smell of food produces salivation.
descriptive characteristics (Parameters) that qualify particular
aspects of the performance, such as frequency, rate, intensity,
duration, topography, and accuracy.
- The number of occurrences per unit time of the response.
changing of behavior (increasing or decreasing) using a schedule of
reinforcement (positive or negative) and/or non-reinforcement. The
programmed use of scientific techniques used to produce observable
changes in behavior.
factor purposely manipulated in a behavior modification program to
ascertain its relationship with the dependent variable. Sometimes
thought of as the "cause" of the "effect" on the dependent measure.
principle that contingent access to high frequency behaviors serves as a
reinforcer for the performance of low frequency behaviors.
technique whereby the behavior that is to be taught is demonstrated for
the learner and any semblance of the goal behavior is initially
rewarded. The criterion for reinforcement is then gradually increased
until the goal behavior is obtained. Sometimes no shaping is required.
that is not based on contingencies that are actually in existence but
is reinforced by chace. Ex: A child might wish on a star for a bicycle
and believe that his wish caused him to get it for his birthday.
behavior that is achieved at the end of a behavior modification
program. The terminal behavior is described according to all its
relevant behavioral dimensions and is usually assigned a criterion by
which an acceptable level of performance is to be judged.
the behavior has no logical relationship to the environment and all
stimuli are neutral. Ex: Tuneless whistling while daydreaming.
- A behavioral goal.
- A contingent stimulus that, when presented, results in a reduction in the occurrence of the dependent behavior.
- The removal of the occurrence of a stimulus
rule followed by the environment in determining which among the many
occurrences of a response will be reinforced. Include 3 different types:
ratio, interval, and mixed.
- The process whereby the reinforcing power of a stimulus is restored by depriving the organism of it for a period of time.
- A process of breaking down a complex behavior into it smallest parts.
- A pattern on a response record that is characterized by a sequence of positively accelerating curves.
- All respondents are a function of antecedent stimulus events.
out from positive reinforcement is a procedure in which access to the
sources of various forms of reinforcement are removed for a particular
period, contingent upon the emission of a response. The opportunity to
receive reinforcement is contingently removed for a specified time.
- The application of learning theory techniques for the purpose of changing maladaptive behavior.
- A procedure in which a reinforcer follows a behavior that is an alternative to a targeted behavior.
auxiliary discriminative stimulus that is applied to help occasion as
given response. Usually faded before the terminal goal is judged as
having been achieved.
object that can be exchanged at a later time for another reinforcing
item or activity. The extent to which tokens are reinforcing or take on
the properties of a generalized reinforcer is dependent on the
individual's experience and on what back-up items are available.
procedure in which the reinforcement for a previously reinforced
behavior is discontinued. The process whereby a conditioned response is
reduced to its preconditioned level or strength, often approaching or
reaching zero magnitude or frequency. The process involves continuing
presentation of the conditioned stimulus without any further pairing
with the unconditioned stimulus. With operant responses, this results
when responding is no longer followed by reinforcement.
withdrawal or presentation of an aversive stimulus, which then
maintains or increases the frequency of a response. Three types exist.
1. Escape, in which the organism terminates the stimulus after it has begun.
2. Avoidance, in which the organism postpones the beginning of stimuli.
3. Punishment, in which responses are followed by a stimulus.
- Procedures used to teach correct behaviors when inappropriate behaviors are exhibited.
potential of all operants to produce events that will weaken their
future occurrence. There are two types: Positive and Negative.
- The process whereby an operant is emitted only in the presence of certain stimuli.
- Any observable consequence to behavior defined negatively by the organism receiving it.
relationship between the behavior of an organism and environmental
events (generally reinforcing) that follow the behavior and either
increase or decrease the probability of similar behavior in the future.
- A regular response from all normal organisms of the same species to the same eliciting stimulus. Ex: salivation
- A conditioned reinforcing stimulus mediated by another individual within a social context.
operant conditioning to teach a complex response by linking together
less complex skills. Child offered candy, says thank you, smile and
you're welcome, hug.
reappearance of a response-previously eliminated by means of an
extinction procedure-following a time interval without any intervening
strengthening of certain behaviors while others are being extinguished.
A programmed contingency whereby specified responses are reinforced
while others are not.
the behaviors that the organism already has in his repertoire and
reinforcing those that are similar to the goal behavior, gradually
requiring the organism's behavior be more and more similar to the goal
behavior to be reinforced. This is continued until the goal behavior is
obtained. New behaviors may be developed by systematic reinforcement of
successive approximations toward a specified goal.
observational procedure in which the frequency of duration of a
specific iscrete behavior, such as times tardy or number of pages
completed, is recorded over a specific extended period of time.
(Typically a class day).
specification of the set of responses to be emitted by the subject at
the completion of a given behavior modification program. (Behavioral
an objective demonstration in measurable terms of the effectiveness of
given programs. Ex: An increase in reading scores following the
introduction of contingency contracting with students.
- The changing of the frequency of an occurrence of a behavior by modifying the consequences of the behavior
phenomenon that varies in any way (appears, disappears, or changes) as a
function of any application, removal, or variation in other variables
(independent). Usually monitored or measured in behavior modification
lawful relationship between two variables. In behavior modification, a
dependent variable and a given procedure are functionally related if the
behavior systematically varies as a function of the application of the
environmental event that sets the occasion for responses that are
followed by reinforcement. The probability of the response is high only
when certain environmental events are present. When this is present,
specific responses may then be reinforced.
- Responding to two or more discriminatively different stimuli as if they were the same.
gradual reduction of responses of responsiveness as an organism adjusts
to the introduction of new stimuli into the environment. Ex: Sensory
adaptation to a bright light; students tuning out a teacher's loud or
soft commands where there is no contrast.
to consistency of measurement. It is usually calculated by comparing
how well two or more independent observers agree among themselves.
Should be reported for each phase of a single-subject design.
- The gradual removal of discriminative stimuli such as cues and prompts.
- The extinguishing of certain behaviors while others are being reinforced.
schedule that involves the selective contingent reinforcement of a
grouping of responses that occur in rapid succession. High rates are
differentially reinforced while low rates are not.
- The amount of time that passes between two responses.
relationship between a specific response and environmental consequence
is said to be contingent if the consequence follows the behavior and
subsequently has the effect of increasing, maintaining, decreasing, or
stable, usually recoverable, performance (5 or more observations) upon
which the effects of experimental variables can be assessed.
gradual decline in the magnitude of a respondent over repeated
occurrences. Ex: a nurse's aversion to the sight of blood decreases as
she is exposed to repeated viewing of open wounds.
facility that is arranged in such a manner that the individual placed
therein has little likelihood of receiving reinforcement from the
environment. The place in which time out from positive reinforcement
- Neutral stimulus that, through repeated association with an unconditioned stimulus, begins to elicit a conditioned response
- Reinforcers used in addition to the major contingent reinforcer
- Establishing contingencies for a defined group that result in both positive and negative outcomes.
experimental design, usually single subject that involves: 1. Obtaining
base rates on several dependent behaviors. 2. Applying the independent
variable to one of the dependent behaviors until it is substantially
changed while the other dependent behaviors are left free to vary.
3. Applying the independent variable to a second dependent variable as in N0. 2. This procedure is continued until it is demonstrated that each behavior systematically changes when the independent variable is applied to it.
- Separate presentation of stimuli
the acquisition of a discrimination by carefully arranging a sequence
of discriminative stimuli so that only correct responses are occasioned.
and reported in percentages by dividing the number of agreements by the
number of agreements plus disagreements and then multiplying the
fraction by one hundred.
schedule in which reinforcement is made contingent upon the emission of
a number of responses before one response is reinforced.
- A stimulus that, when presented as a consequence of a response, results in an increase or maintenance of that response.
- Any observable endorsement of behavior.
- The selection and arrangement of educational content based upon principles of human learning.
- A continuum of stimuli
stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a
primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer. Money is one
of these because it has become the reward.
- A phase in a behavior modification experiment designed to test the effect of a given procedure.
effect that learning a task has on the learning of another task. If
having learned the first task facilitates learning the second task, it
is called positive; if learning the first task interferes with learning
the second task, then it is called negative.
- Research designs developed for evaluating the effects of one or more independent variables on the behavior of a single organism.
or rate with which responses are reinforced. The lower the ratio or
shorter the interval required by a give reinforcement schedule, the
denser the reinforcement.
spread of the effects of reinforcement to responses outside of a
specific response may be accompanied by other responses that are similar
but not identical to the reinforced response.
- Reinforcing stimuli that have the effect of maintaining or perpetuating life, such as food, water, elimination, and warmth.
- A stimulus used to help an individual remember to produce any specified response, which may then be reinforced.
object or event that has already demonstrated it reinforcing effect on
an individual that is received in exchange for a specific number of
tokens, points, or other more generalized reinforcers.
process of eliminating anxiety-stimuli through extinction and
reconditioning. The process generally involves three operations: 1.
training muscle relaxation, 2. constructing anxiety hierarchies ie
arranging specific stimuli from least to most anxiety provoking and 3.
counter-posing relaxation and anxiety-evoking stimuli from the
- A technique that involves the removal of the procedure in order to test the effectiveness of the procedure.
strength of an operant before any known reinforcement; the
unconditioned level of an operant (response), or the rate at which
responses occur before they have been reinforced. Generally, baseline or
base rate recording is a record of the operant level.
- The process of gradually decreasing reinforcement given for a particular behavior.
procedure in which a reinforcer follows any response an individual
makes, except for one particular response. Thus, the individual receives
scheduled reinforcement except when he engages in a particular
specified behavior. This procedure results in a decrease of the
- A procedure in which there is contingent withdrawal of specified amounts of available reinforcers.
- The ability to manipulate the environmental consequences of a given behavior in order to achieve a specific behavioral goal.
- Behavior consistent with definitional classes of behavior previously defined.
an operant has been reinforced in the presence of a particular stimulus
a number of times, that stimulus comes to control the operant. Control
of this sort is achieved when responses are reinforced in the presence
of a specified stimulus and not others and the stimulus controls the
probability that the response will be emitted.
- To apply consequences (reinforcement) following the occurrence of behavior.
of a predetermined level of behavioral performance that is to be
achieved. These are used to specify goals and to evaluate the success of
- An environmental event.
physical reaction in time and space to an environmental event generally
synonymous with behavior and , in behavioral research, both observable
and measurable. Ex: fines.
- To repeat an experimental procedure or finding.
- Combinations of interval and ratio schedules. Most school and home reinforcement, of necessity is mixed.
- A phenomenon
when 2 behaviors are initially reinforced at equal levels and then 1 behavior stops being reinforced. Then the behavior that is no longer reinforced decreases in frequency whole the behavior that continues to be reinforced increases in frequency
that is directed toward an analysis of variables that can be effective
in improving behavior under study. Conducted in natural settings
potential of operants to produce events which will strengthen their
future occurrence; following operant behavior with consequences of a
act of an organism, either internal or external, that can be observed
and /or measured. Can have one of four relationships to the environment.
- An habitual spasmodic movement of a particular muscle
- A procedure in which a reinforcer follows a response (usually a physical response) in compatible with a targeted behavior.
- Each unit of a chain, composed of a discriminative stimulus, response, and a reinforcer.
- When a neutral stimulus acquires reinforcing properties through temporal association with another reinforcer.
approach in which values and/or ideas, are defined into directly
observable and measurable behaviors. Assumption: Most behavior is
- Behavior that serves to ensure survival or is considered appropriate in specified societal contexts such as school.
has nothing to do with the reinforce. Ex: Rubbing a good luck piece
does not cause good luck, but is occasionally reinforced by chance.
process whereby a reinforcer temporarily ceases to strengthen an
operant. A reduction in performance occurs generally after a large
amount of reinforcement.
- A response that nearly inevitably follows a specific stimulus.
relation in which the occurrence of event B consistently follows the
occurrence of event A or is dependent upon the previous occurrence of
- A behavior emitted by an organism that operates on or changes the environment in a very particular way.
that are operating in an experimental study, which make the effects of
the experimental manipulation on the independent variable difficult to
- Provides written documentation regulating contingencies.
physical nature of the responses that compose the operant. Ex: How hard
the lever was pushed, by which hand, and how long a time it stayed
depressed, the movement of the body during observed motor off-task.
characteristics (demographic, previous learning history, and present
behaviors) that have not been controlled in an experiment but may effect
changes in the occurrences of the dependent variable. Single-subject
designs control for subject confounding variables by comparing the
subject's performance under one condition with his performance under
- A physical response (behavior) mediated by the autonomic nervous system.
vertical reference axis on a graph. In behavior modification, the
ordinate is usually labeled with a scale that measures the dependent
behavior, for example, frequency, percentage of responses, or rate.
- Those events that will weaken an operant's future occurrence by the removal of stimuli.
condition in which cessation of reinforcement (usually physiological)
produces physical or physiological problems of abstinence.
- The number of occurrences per given time period.
- The application of behavioral principles and techniques of behavior therapy to problems of a primarily cognitive nature.
- When the event must by nature of the situation, occur following a behavior. Ex: Water stops dependent on turning of faucet.
- The group of simple response components that compose a more complex behavior.
- Those events that will weaken an operant's future occurrence by the presentation of stimuli
- A system requiring two components: tokens and back-up reinforcers.
contingent use of a stimulus resulting in an increase or maintenance of
behavior. All operants have the potential to produce events that will
strengthen their future occurrence. There are 2 types.
two or more behaviors that, by the very nature of one, cannot exist
with the other. Sometimes the term is used to include not only behavior
that cannot occur simultaneously with another, but also behavior that
interferes with other behavior. Ex: Speaking and being quiet.
- Any stimulus that an organism will escape from, avoid, or terminate.
- Structuring responses that are incompatible one another.
events that regularly precede responses. They elicit relatively fixed
and stereotyped responses. Ex: The bell in Pavlov's classic dog
spread of the effects of reinforcement (or of other operations) in the
presence of one stimulus to other stimuli that differ from the original
stiulus along one or more dimensions.
those environmental events that at any given moment do not elicit any
behavioral change, whether they precede, accompany, or follow responses.
- A response that does not have a clearly discriminable beginning or end.
demonstration of the appropriate behavior in an exaggerated manner or
engaging in the behavior for and extended period of times.
the event follows the behavior but need not do so. Reinforcement is
generally contingent upon behavior. After reinforcement occurs, this has
been established. Ex: If one is asked to turn off the water and does
so, the behavior is called this.
- Behavior that is controlled by consequences.
conditioned reinforcer that is effective over a wide range of
deprivation conditions as a result of having been paired with a variety
of previously established reinforcers.
- That which rewards the occurrence of a behavior.
a response decreases in frequency because of too large a frequency or
magnitude of reinforcement, stimulus overload has occurred.
complex response elicited and occasioned by environmental conditions
and composed of both operants and respondents. Ex: Love or sadness.
written contract specifying subsequent behavioral contingencies between
persons involved. Ex: Completion of school assignments will result in
money and special privileges from parents and free time in school.
- A procedure designed to facilitate the occurrence of generalization.
- The determination of the external variables of which behavior is a function.
response whose occurrence precludes the simultaneous occurrence of
another response. Ex: A musician cannot be both flat and sharp at the