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  • Song Illusion

    Tonality in speech can sound like music (looping a speech and begin to hear a music)


    similar pattern of intervals but different pitches (humans can still tell Happy Birthday played at lower octave)
    - possible biological need to still tell men and women's identical speech apart

    Perception Action Loops

    moving in sync with other may blur line between the self and others in the brain- leads to empathetic behavior

    Emotional Vocalization Theory

    music and emotional speech share acoustic cues (happy vs. sad speech and music share similar qualities- fast/high = happy, slow/low = sad)

    Social Bonding Theory

    Discrete pitches, predictable rhythms, repetition → moving in sync! (dancing, singing, cooperation)

    Mozart Effect

    Only has short term performance boost- targets mood and arousal

    4 Basic Emotion

    Happy, Sad, Anger, Fear

    Discrete Theories of Emotion

    Use labels- Baskin Robins/list of Emotions

    Dimensional Theory/Langer's Theory of Emotion

    Continuum/ Circumplex model of affect = (High Arousal, Positive Valence, Low Arousal, Negative Valence)

    Contour Theory

    structural similarities between human emotional actions and music
    - Ex: drooping willow try, pugs face

    Emotional Voice Theory

    listener can pick up cues similar to emotional speech especially with musical training
    - ex: keyboard training most effective

    Frisson/Musical Chills

    - HR increase, Body Temp decrease
    - Triggers: loud, volume, low pitch, infrasound (vibrations), scream-like, crescendo, proximity


    getting wrapped up in the music- allows quick relief of stress
    - ex: minimal use of anesthesia

    Aesthetic Emotion


    Intense Emotion

    - Mbira, Catharsis
    - Expectation is not necessary for music listening but more so about personal interpretation


    Frequency of Pressure Oscillation
    - attitude that organizes sound of scale of low to high

    Sine Wave

    Pure Tone
    - Periodic sounds created by periodic vibrations

    Fourier Analysis

    complex wave (music) is a sum of sine waves
    - Each component has diff freq. and amplitude- dissected then put back together

    Fundamental Frequency

    perceived pitch (that singular sine wave), lowest freq.


    uppermost frequency


    frequencies differing in amplitude


    Music - ex: frequency
    - Speech does not have as many fixed frequencies as music (speech is constantly fluctuating in frequencies)


    Perception- ex: pitch

    Sound Size Symbolism

    same music played at different pitches have different emotional meanings

    Octave Equivalence

    still recognizing music that played an octave higher
    - Doubling of fundamental frequency

    Pitch Helix

    - demonstration of 'octave equivalence" going up and up

    Sound Intensity


    Temporary Threshold Shift

    not being able to hear for a few days after a concert- ear cells are dying permanently!


    fluid filled organ that receives air pressure fluctuation through ear drum and bones that then pump out electrical impulses


    non-harmonic mixtures of frequencies
    - If it doesn't make up a full harmonic, then it's just a partial (not the whole thing harmony- some pieces still missing)

    Pure Tone

    integer multiples of the lowest frequency ???


    how we tell these same pitches apart played on different instruments when sounds have the same pitch, loudness and duration- "sound color"
    - Vowels and consonants in singing lead to large variation in Timbre
    - biological need to discern sounds in the dark

    Musical Scale

    stable set of pitch classes that divide the octave
    - 12 pitches per octave
    - Use only ~5 in a song- a cog. limitation, not sensory limitation

    Equal Temperament

    every pair of adjacent notes has an identical frequency ratio (his means that the perceived "distance" from every note to its nearest neighbor is the same for every note in the system.)

    Assumptions of Western Music

    - All musical pitches bear fixed relationships to each other
    - All scales can be derived from a single all-encompassing scale (chromatic scale)- can occur at any pitch level
    - Musical Intervals are determined by simple-integer freq. ratios

    100 Cents


    Octave Stretching

    distorting ratios to get the sound we like (we subconsciously correct the deviations so that pitches can land in between interval categories)

    Gamalan Music

    - all instruments tuned to same pitch
    - pélog, sléndro
    - inconsistency of pitch intervals

    Pitch Interval

    frequency distance between two tones

    1 Semitone

    spacing between 2 white keys w/o black key (increase in fund. freq. by 6%)


    successive combos of small set pitch intervals
    - Important not just because high vs. low (other animals can perceive that)
    - More bc of membership, tension, centrality


    subjective sense that a pitch does or does not belong (picking the odd note out)- even if we've never heard it before


    some pitches classes are heard as more central than others (play a key-inducing context then say which note fits into this particular musical context)
    - like 'musical priming'


    pitch classes vary in how resolved (good) vs. restless- not about physics, about perception psychology (entirety)

    "Hearing As"

    interpreting same sound in different ways
    - Ex: Huron's experiment playing same sounds after a priming of distinct music
    - Ex: O-Fortuna vs. Gopher Tuna

    Statistical Learning

    implicit learning of sounds patters w/o explicit teaching
    - Sponge-like learning
    - Makes melodies easier to form schemas and remember

    Melodic Skeleton

    ex: can still recognize a Jazzy version of Happy Birthday

    Structural Tones

    Base tones (don't change)

    Ornamental Tones

    (what you alter) tones

    Bulgarian Exception

    no major key so minor sounds don't sound sad


    Event Density Increasing Over Time


    principle repertoire element of Indian music (change it and adjust to the new key/raga)
    - a way of going up and down
    - distinct human personality

    Indian Sounds

    All sounds decay and are imperfect

    Speed Increase

    high freq., high pitch

    Long oscillation

    low freq. high amplitude, loud

    Closeness of Tones

    determines "niceness" of music


    vertical organization of pitch from a scale (pitches combined simultaneously or near-simultaneously)


    combos three pitch using the Skip 1 rule (mostly I, IV, and V scale degrees/tone)- *note the tones are/must be written in roman numerals)

    Skip 1 Rule

    Skip 1 white key twice = 7 semitones


    horizontal organization of pitches from a scale (especially in Indian music)


    systematic, non random, patterns of timing, accent, and grouping in sequence of events

    Minor Keys

    3rd, 6th 7th scales lowered by 1 semiton


    A central note

    Double Dissociation

    two related mental processes are shown to function independently of each other.
    - Ex: patients with brain damaged showed loss of sensitivity to tonality but no language grammar

    Broca's Area

    (known for language grammar processing)
    - shows overlap between musical and language processing

    Representation Networks

    When playing chess have to draw upon other cognitive thinking rather than just thinking about how chess pieces move
    - Predicts interference between language and musical grammar processing

    SSIRH (Shared Syntactic Integration Resource Hypothesis)

    if language and music are grammatically demanding simultaneously, language processing will become more difficult

    Boy Help Girl Test

    An interference test
    - 1 out of key note made the harder sentence even more difficult to understand
    - Shows interaction between language and music grammar processing

    Periodic Rhythm

    metronomes, patter repeat regularly in time

    Non-Periodic Rhythm

    not repeating regularly in time but has temporal structure
    - Ex: a metronome that is gradually accelerating or ticks irregularly, seeing that small waves is likely to bring big waves after, rain drops

    3 Components of Musical Rhythm

    - Timing
    - Accent
    - Grouping


    Knowing when a phrase starts and stops = pitch drop, longer notes


    languages chucking out regularly occurring syllables (English, Arabic)
    - Ex: The teacher is interested in buying some books

    Syllable Timing

    Machine Gun Speech (French)

    Vowel Reduction

    Vowels in unstressed syllables can become short and acoustically neutralized while stressed vowels tend to be relatively long

    Strong Vowel Reduction

    Stress- Timed Languages have strong "blank" (lots of fluctuation in vowel duration)

    Weak Vowel Reduction

    Syllable Timed Languages


    measure of durational contrast of any temporal unit (vowel, syllable, phrase
    - A measure of rhythm but Not periodicity (gives a quantifiable value for how languages differ from each other
    - sensitive to the order of durations, but not to variability (a space between 1 and 5 is the same as 10 and 50)

    High nPVI

    large contrast between neighboring durations (English)

    Low nPVI

    low contrast between neighboring durations

    Calculate nPVI

    1. Absolute value of the difference ([4-1] = 3)
    2. Find the mean (4+1/2 = 2.5)
    3. Ratio between #1 and #2 (3/2.5 = 1.2 = contrast value)
    4. Add contrast values together and average them
    5. Multiply average by 100 = nPVI

    Speech Patterns in Music

    Implicit learning of native language (extract a "pure rhythm")- begins even before birth!


    a sense of a regular periodic pulse that one gets from much rhythmic music (what you tap your foot to)


    placement of accented events at non-beat positions (misalignment to stress in words and beats) or placement of non-accented events at beat positions (silence where you feel the beat)

    Hierarchical Organization of Beats

    Some are felt to be stronger than others and are accessible at different levels for different people (hearing different stress intervals in the same song)
    - We see this from involuntary movements/dancing to music

    Beat Alignment Test

    Hearing and trying to distinguish when beeps are on/off the beat

    Neural Resonance Theory

    the brain functions that enable the perception/actions circuit are quite basic

    Paradox of Rhythm

    entrainment to motor output and auditory stimuli appear to be rare- humans (vocal learners) may be very unique in perception/action process!
    - Monkey only follow single intervals
    - Dogs dance but not sensitive to bear

    3 Features (of Human Movement to Beat)

    - Predicted
    - Tempo Flexible (~300-900 ms)
    - Cross Modal (we can feel it, tap it, see it, vocalize the beat)

    Modality Bias

    People are not able to interpret a visual beat as well as an auditory beat even though they're both within the same timing system

    Vocal Learning and Rhythmic Synchronization Hypothesis

    Only species capable of vocal learning (parrots, humans, elephants) can develop entrainment that is predictive, tempo flexible, and cross-modal (contra Darwin who believed it applied to all species)
    - Other species utilized "spandrel"


    a brain system that has evolved for other reasons (parrots not entraining to beat in the wild but their brains do have this capacity)
    - Music w/ beat helping Parkinson's pts

    Emancipation of the Dissonance

    any notes can go together, never has to be resolved

    "True" Music

    breaking away from traditional conventions and not using previous knowledge

    Schoenberg on Tonal Music

    this type of music always wants to go somewhere and holds a sense of prediction


    - Expression, brief, concise, impossible for one sensation, illogicality of the senses, no prediction or repetition (inner life has no repetition)
    - Elimination of the "conscious will/logic"
    - "art calculated without calculation has no errors"

    12 Tone Method

    conscious yet true, to connect with/be accepted by a wider audience
    - to solve the crisis he had when he couldn't be spontaneous anymore


    there is a rhythm hierarchy??


    there is no structure to differentiating importance of different rhythms and which one is the strongest

    Metric Matrix

    a grid of organization of uneven interval spacing

    Metronome Sense

    ability to organize a beat into smaller bits/ diversifying a beat

    Simultaneous Multidimensionality

    analogous to looking at same object from multiple perspectives (each beat can be a distinct "beginning movement")

    Metric Significance

    hearing distinct/different down beats in same rhythm

    Additive Rhythm

    larger periods of time are constructed by concatenating (joining end to end) a series of units into larger units of unequal length

    Divisive Rhythm

    larger period of time is divided into smaller rhythmic units or, conversely, some integer unit is regularly multiplied into larger, equal units

    Fante Drum Language

    Communicating pitch structure that a voice holds but rather with rhythm... - Such that different interval spacing of same tones can have entirely different meanings

    Complex Harmonic Tone

    periodic tones with a pure tone (fundamental frequency) with interval multiples (overtones) of 100


    How a high C and low C distinguish themselves

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