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how we tell these same pitches
apart played on different instruments when sounds have the same pitch,
loudness and duration- "sound color"
- Vowels and consonants in singing lead to large variation in Timbre
- biological need to discern sounds in the dark
- All musical pitches bear fixed relationships to each other
- All scales can be derived from a single all-encompassing scale (chromatic scale)- can occur at any pitch level
- Musical Intervals are determined by simple-integer freq. ratios
- JAVANESE MUSIC DOESN'T HAVE ANY OF THESE
measure of durational contrast of any temporal unit (vowel, syllable, phrase
- A measure of rhythm but Not periodicity (gives a quantifiable value for how languages differ from each other
- sensitive to the order of durations, but not to variability (a space between 1 and 5 is the same as 10 and 50)
1. Absolute value of the difference ([4-1] = 3)
2. Find the mean (4+1/2 = 2.5)
3. Ratio between #1 and #2 (3/2.5 = 1.2 = contrast value)
4. Add contrast values together and average them
5. Multiply average by 100 = nPVI
Some are felt to be stronger than
others and are accessible at different levels for different people
(hearing different stress intervals in the same song)
- We see this from involuntary movements/dancing to music
entrainment to motor output and
auditory stimuli appear to be rare- humans (vocal learners) may be very
unique in perception/action process!
- Monkey only follow single intervals
- Dogs dance but not sensitive to bear
Vocal Learning and Rhythmic Synchronization Hypothesis
Only species capable of vocal
learning (parrots, humans, elephants) can develop entrainment that is
predictive, tempo flexible, and cross-modal (contra Darwin who believed
it applied to all species)
- Other species utilized "spandrel"
- Expression, brief, concise,
impossible for one sensation, illogicality of the senses, no prediction
or repetition (inner life has no repetition)
- Elimination of the "conscious will/logic"
- "art calculated without calculation has no errors"