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• ### Word

A string of bits that together contain binary information

### Bit

A Binary digit. They are either 1 or 0; on or off, voltage or no voltage conditions.

### Operator

Logic algorithms in Boolcan algebra. Combination commands that route digital signals to control complex operations.

### Flash Drive

A digital storage medium that connects to a computerized device via a serial interface (USB).

### Sampling

The process by which the entire analog audible frequency spectrum is assessed or scanned 44,100 times per second and the information (the entire audio spectrum) converted to binary code.

### Digital to Analog Converter

Converters transduce binary code into voltage fluctuations. Conversely, these converters transduce voltage variances to binary coded signals.

### Low Pass Filter

An electronic device that allows only frequencies lower than a given cutoff point to pass. In the digital domain, any frequencies below 20 kHz.

### Byte

An 8 bit binary word.

### Oversampling

In some CD players, samples of no voltage are created between actual samples so comparisons can be made among all samples, and a complete and accurate set of digits is the result, even if the original signal has been lost or degraded in some manner. This happens at either 4, 8 or 16 times per frame.

### Quantization

The representation of a complete voltage span (level or intensity) in discrete, binary numbers. It is the digital representation of amplitude level.

### Frame

The smallest recognizable complete sample of data.

### Format

The arrangement of bits, words and codes within a frame. Many are possible, and each electronic component in the digital domain reads only those frames that are (this) for that system.

### Pulse Code Modulation

Any kind of digital encoding of a signal. The most common type is where the voltage range is divided into a number of equal intervals.

### Multiplex

When two or more signals are combined in such a way that they can later be decoded or separated.

### Laser

In a CD "read" device, a special light emitting diode (led). This single wavelength light beam is filtered and focused on a very discrete area of the track so that it can read the pits that are there.

### Servo

A control system device that uses feedback of an output signal to compare and correct itself to a reference signal.

### MP3

A compressed digital audio file, reduced in size according to psychoacoustical findings related to the limits of human audio perception. A generic term for any number of similar compression schemes.

Example: