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249 True/False questions

  1. (DC)
    Paraplegia
    -lack of muscle coordination in the execution of voluntary movement
    -may result from head injury, stroke, MS, alcoholism, or a variety of hereditary disorders

          

  2. Neurologyenlarged structure of the neuron that contains the nucleus

          

  3. meningoceleventricle (of the heart or brain)

          

  4. (DC)
    Guillain-Barré syndrome
    -Autoimmune condition that causes acute inflammation of the peripheral nerves in which myelin sheaths on the axons are destroyed resulting in decreased nerve impulses, loss of reflex response and sudden muscle weakness
    -usually occurs after infection, stress, or trauma

          

  5. (DC)
    Bell palsy
    -inability to comprehend auditory, visual, spatial, olfactory, or other sensations even though the sensory sphere is intact
    -is common in parietal lobe tumors

          

  6. cerebrotomy-carry impulses to the cell body
    -resembles tiny branches on a tree, providing additional surface area for receiving impulses from other neurons

          

  7. (DC)
    Spina bifida
    Paralysis of both lower limbs, as a result of trauma or disease of the lower spinal cord

          

  8. gangliectomy-excision of a ganglion
    -a ganglion is a mass of nerve cell bodies (gray matter) in the PNS

          

  9. cerebrospinal fluid CSF analysisis any functional abnormality of the cerebrum caused by disorders that affect the blood vessels supplying the brain, which may result in a stroke

          

  10. lept/oseizure

          

  11. (DC)
    Congenital hydrocephalus
    Inherited disease of the CNS characterized by quick, involuntary movements, speech disturbances and mental deterioration

          

  12. cerebrospinal fluid- the second largest structure of the brain
    -occupies the posterior portion of the skull
    -most functions include movement, posture, or balance
    -it coordinates and refines muscular movement initiated by the cerebrum

          

  13. autism-psychological "worry" disorder characterized by excessive pondering or thinking "what if"
    -worry, dread, lack of energy, and loss of interest in life are common signs

          

  14. pachy-bone marrow; spinal cord

          

  15. somatic nervous systemmotor impulses transmitted to muscles under conscious control (walking and talking)

          

  16. lex/oword, phrase

          

  17. nerve conduction velocity(NCV)-test that measures the speed at which impulses travel through a nerve
    -one electrode stimulates a nerve while the other electrodes, placed over different areas of the nerve record an electrical signal as it travels through the nerve
    -used to diagnose MD and neurological disorders that destroy myelin

          

  18. craniomalacia-joined (referred) pain
    -pain experienced in a part of the body other than the place of pathology. For example- right shoulder pain is commonly associated with gallstones

          

  19. dyslexia-joined (referred) pain
    -pain experienced in a part of the body other than the place of pathology. For example- right shoulder pain is commonly associated with gallstones

          

  20. sthen/obone marrow; spinal cord

          

  21. stroke(cerebrovascular accident)CVAcerebrovascular disease

          

  22. psychiatrybranch of medicine concerned with mental illness

          

  23. papilledemaoptic disc in the back of the eyeball swells

          

  24. (DC)
    ataxia
    -lack of muscle coordination in the execution of voluntary movement
    -may result from head injury, stroke, MS, alcoholism, or a variety of hereditary disorders

          

  25. aurawarning signal

          

  26. neurilemma-additional external myelin sheath that is formed by Schwann cells and found only on axons in the peripheral nervous system
    -because the neurilemma does not disintegrate after injury to the axon, its enclosed hollow tube that provides an avenue for regeneration of injured axons

          

  27. psychosismajor emotional disorder in which contact with reality is lost to the point that the individuls is incapable of meeting the challenges of daily life

          

  28. status epilepticusproduce partial or complete loss of sensation, with or without loss of consciousness

          

  29. neurosis-destruction of a nerve
    -is sometimes performed using cryablation or radio- frequency techniques to relieve intractable pain as a temporary or permanent measure

          

  30. -paresis-inability to speak
    -can result from a stroke

          

  31. thalamotomysheath (usually refers to meninges)

          

  32. sensory nerves-are afferent
    -receive impulses from the sense organs, including the eyes, nose, tongue, and skin and transmit them to the CNS

          

  33. anorexia nervosa-are efferent
    -conduct impulses to muscles and glands

          

  34. bradykinesia;hypokinesiafeeling

          

  35. arachnoidStupor,numbness,sleep

          

  36. autonomic nervous system of PNS-12 pairs of cranial nerves
    -31 pairs of spinal nerves

          

  37. nucleusA cell organelle that contains the chromosomes and directs cell activities.

          

  38. carotidarteries of the neck

          

  39. depressionnerve

          

  40. radiculopathy (radiculitis)inflammation of the nerve root

          

  41. paraplegiaparalysis of the lower body and limbs

          

  42. (DC)
    Reye syndrome
    Brief loss of consciousness and posture caused by a temporary decrease of blood flow to the brain, also called fainting

          

  43. hallucinations-carry impulses away from cell body
    -threadlike extensions of nerve cells that transmit impulses to dendrites of other neurons as well as muscle and glands

          

  44. (DC)
    Dementia
    Broad term that refers to cognitive deficit, including memory impairment

          

  45. thrombolytic medicationclot buster medication administered 3 hours if symptom onset

          

  46. tractotomytransection of a nerve tract in the brain stem or spinal cord

          

  47. oligodendrocytes (oligodendroglia)responsible for developing myelin on axons of neurons in the CNS

          

  48. positron emission tomography(PET)computed tomography that records the positrons (positively charged particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical and procedures a cross sectional image of metabolic activity of body tissues to determine

          

  49. primary intracranial tumorshear voices and see visions that are not present

          

  50. bulimia nervosa-emerge from the intervertebral spaces in the spinal column and extend to various locations in the body
    -has afferent and efferent qualities
    -all 31 pairs are mixed nerves
    -each of them is identified according to the vertebra which they exit
    -each has two points of attachment to the spinal cord,the anterior and posterior root

          

  51. Alzheimer diseasereflexive behavior

          

  52. cell body-is the largest, uppermost portion of the brain
    -consists of two hemispheres divided by a deep longitudinal fissure, or groove
    -the fissure does not completely separate the hemispheres
    -major functions include sensory perception and interpretation, language, voluntary movement, and memory

          

  53. discographypoor (muscle) tone

          

  54. ascending tracts of the spinal cord-sensory nerve tracts
    -upward impulse

          

  55. psychostimulantsmajor emotional disorder in which contact with reality is lost to the point that the individuls is incapable of meeting the challenges of daily life

          

  56. spinal nerves-emerge from the intervertebral spaces in the spinal column and extend to various locations in the body
    -has afferent and efferent qualities
    -all 31 pairs are mixed nerves
    -each of them is identified according to the vertebra which they exit
    -each has two points of attachment to the spinal cord,the anterior and posterior root

          

  57. (DC)
    Syncope
    -inability to comprehend auditory, visual, spatial, olfactory, or other sensations even though the sensory sphere is intact
    -is common in parietal lobe tumors

          

  58. neuroncell that transmits impulses throughout the nervous system

          

  59. psychiatristfear

          

  60. seizure disorders-emerge from the intervertebral spaces in the spinal column and extend to various locations in the body
    -has afferent and efferent qualities
    -all 31 pairs are mixed nerves
    -each of them is identified according to the vertebra which they exit
    -each has two points of attachment to the spinal cord,the anterior and posterior root

          

  61. bipolar disorder-are efferent
    -conduct impulses to muscles and glands

          

  62. cryosurgery-completes the last major section of the brain
    -composed of the midbrain, medulla, and pons
    -is the pathway for impulse conduction between the brain and spinal cord
    -origin of 10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves
    -controls respiration, blood pressure, and heart rate
    - is the site that controls the beginning of life
    (initiation of the heart beating in a fetus) and the end of life ( the cessation of respiration and heart activity)

          

  63. hyperkinesiacondition of excessive strength

          

  64. encephalocele-herniation of the brain
    -is a condition in which portions of the brain and meninges protrude through a bony midline defect in the skull

          

  65. meningiomaherniation of the meninges

          

  66. PNS
    1.Cranial nerves
    2.Spinal nerves
    1. 12 pairs of nerves that emerge from the base of the skull and may act in a motor capacity, sensory, capacity, or both

    2. 31 pairs of nerves that emerge from the spine and act in both motor and sensory capacities

          

  67. sulcifurrows or fissures

          

  68. phobias-inability to speak
    -can result from a stroke

          

  69. narc/oStupor,numbness,sleep

          

  70. compressionpressure applied

          

  71. limbic sysytem (emotional brain)-complex neural system located beneath the cerebrum that controls basic emotions and drives and plays an important role in memory
    -is primarily related to survival and includes such emotions as fear, anger, and pleasure
    (food or sexual behavior)

          

  72. -plegiaparalysis

          

  73. gyrifurrows or fissures

          

  74. mening/o meningi/omeninges (membranes covering the brain and spinal cord)

          

  75. (DC)
    Lethargy
    abnormally deep unconsciousness with an absence of voluntary response to stimuli

          

  76. Epilepsiesparalysis

          

  77. (DC)
    Hemiplegia
    (unilateral paralysis)
    -Paralysis of one side of the body, typically as a result of stroke,
    - unilateral paralysis

          

  78. (DC)
    Meningocele spina bifida
    Form of spina bifida in which the spinal cord develops properly but the meninges protrude the spine

          

  79. (DC)
    closed head trauma
    Congenital deformity in which some or all of fetal brain is missing

          

  80. (DC)
    Acquired hydrocephalus
    Hydrocephalus that develops at birth or anytime afterwards as a result of injury or disease

          

  81. unilateralreflexive behavior

          

  82. hyperesthesia-increased feeling
    -involves a marked sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli

          

  83. gangli/onerve

          

  84. CNS
    1.Brain
    2.Spinal cord
    1. center of thought and emotion, interpretation of sensory stimuli, and coordination of body functions

    2. main pathway for transmission between the brain and body

          

  85. generalized seizuresentire brain is involved

          

  86. (DC)
    Huntington chorea
    -Congenital deformity of the neural tube which fails to close during fetal development, also called neural tube deficit
    -most common forms are meninocele, meningomyelocele, and occulta

          

  87. thalamus-receives all sensory stimuli except olfactory and processes and transmits them to the appropriate centers in the cerebral cortex
    -also receives impulses from the cerebrum and relays them to efferent nerves

          

  88. nerve block anestheticsfeeling

          

  89. hypothalamuscondition of excessive strength

          

  90. diencephalon (interbrain)-somewhat enlarged, often club-shaped endings of an axon
    -impulses must travel from the axon terminal of one neuron to the dendrite of the next neuron or its effector organ by crossing the synapse

          

  91. general anestheticact upon the brain to produce complete loss of feeling with loss of consciousness

          

  92. subarachnoid space-A stroke resulting from bleeding into the space surrounding the brain
    - example: ruptured aneurysm and is usually fatal

          

  93. central nervous system (CNS)-composed 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
    -located outside the spinal column and skull
    -consists of afferent and efferent neurons
    -formed by a neuroglia cell called schwann cells

          

  94. affective disorder-psychological disorders that are characterized by an abnormal mood
    -mania or depression

          

  95. hydrocephalusradiographic examination to detect pathology of the spinal cord, including the location of a spinal cord injury, cysts, and tumors following injection of a contrast medium

          

  96. axon terminal-somewhat enlarged, often club-shaped endings of an axon
    -impulses must travel from the axon terminal of one neuron to the dendrite of the next neuron or its effector organ by crossing the synapse

          

  97. transient ischemic attack(TIA)-A Temporary stroke that resolves within 24 hours
    -affects about 1/3 of all strokes

          

  98. parasympathetic division of the ANScontrol tremors and muscle rigidity associated with Parkinson disease by increasing dopamine in the brain

          

  99. stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)-precisely focused (stereotactic) radiation beams are used to treat tumors and other abnormal growths in the brain, spinal column and other body sites,and delivers high doses of radiation to the tumor with minimal exposure to surrounding healthy tissue
    -used to treat variety of brain tumors that are malignant(gliomas, metastastes) or benign (meningiomas, pituitary adenomas)
    -it also has an enhanced ability to control intracranial disease coupled with reduction in the risk of side effects from radiation therapy

          

  100. -algesia -algiapain

          

  101. cerebral cortexinner layer is white
    outer layer is gray

          

  102. hysteriasDepressed CNS functions, Promotes sedation and sleep, and relieve aggregation, anxiousness and restlessness. They may be non-barbiturates , or barbiturates that carry the risk of addiction

          

  103. hyperstheniacondition of excessive strength

          

  104. neur/ocell that transmits impulses throughout the nervous system

          

  105. ventricle-organ chamber or cavity that receives or holds fluid
    -In the nervous system, cerebrospinal fluid flows through the ventricles into the spinal cavity and back toward the brain, where it is absorbed into the blood

          

  106. ventriculitis-organ chamber or cavity that receives or holds fluid
    -In the nervous system, cerebrospinal fluid flows through the ventricles into the spinal cavity and back toward the brain, where it is absorbed into the blood

          

  107. maniawithout speech

          

  108. ataxia-inability to speak
    -can result from a stroke

          

  109. angiography (arteriography)-radiographic image (angiogram) of the inside of a blood vessel after injection of a contrast medium
    -used to diagnose vascular disorders, especially blockages, narrowed areas, and aneurysms

          

  110. crani/oganglion (knot or knotlike mass)

          

  111. lumbar puncture(LP)
    spinal puncture or spinal tap
    1. center of thought and emotion, interpretation of sensory stimuli, and coordination of body functions

    2. main pathway for transmission between the brain and body

          

  112. neurotransmitter-chemical substance that is released at the end of its axon
    -impulses within the transmitting axon causes the chemical substance to release

          

  113. syn-one

          

  114. multiple sclerosischaracterized by sudden changes in behavior or consciousness as a result of uncontrolled electrical activity within the brain

          

  115. thec/ocerebrum

          

  116. synalgiaparalysis of the lower body and limbs

          

  117. (DC)
    Palsy
    -Facial paralysis caused by a functional disorder of the seventh cranial nerve
    -usually resolves in 3-5 weeks
    -ass. with herpes virus

          

  118. dyskinesiamovement

          

  119. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHA)-psychological disorders that are characterized by an abnormal mood
    -mania or depression

          

  120. (DC)
    Convulsion
    -Sensation of numbness, tingling, or heightened sensitivity
    -caused by disorders that affect the CNS

          

  121. cerebrumwarning signal

          

  122. blood-brain barrier-innermost meninx
    -directly adheres to the brain and spinal cord
    -contains blood vessels and lymphatics that nourish the underlying tissue
    -passes over the brain and the contours of the gyri and sulci

          

  123. mental illnesschronic or recurring seizure disorders

          

  124. intracerebral hemorrhagecerebrum

          

  125. (DC)
    Poliomyelitis
    -Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, commonly resulting in a spinal deformity and paralysis
    -is preventable with vaccinations in children

          

  126. (DC)
    Herpes zoster
    (shingles)
    -Acute inflammatory eruption of highly painful vesicles on the trunk of the body or occasionally the face
    -also called shingles

          

  127. antidepressantspressure applied

          

  128. efferent
    (motor neurons)
    carry or move impulses away from the central nervous system to muscles or glands

          

  129. spinal cord-joined (referred) pain
    -pain experienced in a part of the body other than the place of pathology. For example- right shoulder pain is commonly associated with gallstones

          

  130. motor nerves-are efferent
    -conduct impulses to muscles and glands

          

  131. each hemisphere is divided into five lobes4 are named for the bones that lie directly above them
    1.frontal
    2.parietal
    3.temporal
    4.occipital
    5.insula;is hidden from view and can be seen only upon dissection

          

  132. antipakinsonian agents-wraps tightly around the axon
    -its exterior surface forms a thin tube called the neurilemma or neurolemma

          

  133. (DC)
    coma
    abnormally deep unconsciousness with an absence of voluntary response to stimuli

          

  134. para-without speech

          

  135. radiculalgiapain in the nerve root

          

  136. brainsteam-completes the last major section of the brain
    -composed of the midbrain, medulla, and pons
    -is the pathway for impulse conduction between the brain and spinal cord
    -origin of 10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves
    -controls respiration, blood pressure, and heart rate
    - is the site that controls the beginning of life
    (initiation of the heart beating in a fetus) and the end of life ( the cessation of respiration and heart activity)

          

  137. leptomeningsthe term used for the arachnoid and pia mater because of its thinness and delicacy

          

  138. encephal/obrain

          

  139. (DC)
    Occulta spina bifida
    Form of spina bifida in which one or more vertebra are malformed and the spinal cord is covered with a layer of skin

          

  140. trephination-involuntary movements
    -painful or difficult movement

          

  141. local anestheticsact upon the brain to produce complete loss of feeling with loss of consciousness

          

  142. psychiatric antipsychoticstreat psychosis, paranoia, and schizophrenia by altering chemicals in the brain, including the limbic system (group of brain structures), which controls emotions

          

  143. pons (bridge)connects the midbrain to the medulla

          

  144. cerebellum-is the largest, uppermost portion of the brain
    -consists of two hemispheres divided by a deep longitudinal fissure, or groove
    -the fissure does not completely separate the hemispheres
    -major functions include sensory perception and interpretation, language, voluntary movement, and memory

          

  145. ataxia-lack of muscle coordination
    -can result from a stroke

          

  146. anestheticsfeeling

          

  147. gliomatumor (composed of) neuroglial tissue

          

  148. aphasiaspeech

          

  149. -lepsyseizure

          

  150. (DC)
    Concussion
    -Injury to the brain occasionally with transient loss of consciousness as a result of trauma to the head
    -delayed symptoms include headache, nausea, vomiting, and blurred vision

          

  151. (DC)
    Hydrocephalus
    Accumulation of fluid in the ventricles of the brain causing increased intracranial pressure thinning of the brain tissue and separation of cranial bones

          

  152. midbrain (mesencephalon)Congenital deformity in which some or all of fetal brain is missing

          

  153. myelin sheathradiographic examination to detect pathology of the spinal cord, including the location of a spinal cord injury, cysts, and tumors following injection of a contrast medium

          

  154. neuroglia-literally means "nerve glue"
    -cells that support neurons and bind them to other tissues of the body
    -they do not transmit impulses, but they provide a variety of activities essential to the proper functioning of neurons
    -they supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons band assist in other metabolic activities
    -they also play an important role when the nervous system suffers injury or infection

          

  155. microglia-the smallest of the neuroglia
    -posses phagocytic properties and may become very active during times of infection

          

  156. (DC)
    Paresthesia
    -weakness, debility, or loss of strength
    -characterized as MS

          

  157. leptomeningopathyarachnoid and pia mater

          

  158. pia mater-without coordination
    -refers to poor muscle coordination, especially when voluntary movements are attempted

          

  159. Parkinson disease
    (shaking palsy)
    -condition of progressive neurological disorder affecting the portion of the brain that is responsible for movement
    - dopamine (a chemical neurotransmitter necessary for proper movement)is lacking in the brain
    -patient develops uncontrollable nodding of the head,slow movement(bradykinesia,hypokinesia), tremors, large joint stiffness, and a shuffling gait
    -sometimes experiences "pill rolling",rubbing the thumb against the index finger
    -muscle rigidity causes facial expressions
    -no cure

          

  160. leptomomeningeschronic or recurring seizure disorders

          

  161. thalam/o-receives all sensory stimuli except olfactory and processes and transmits them to the appropriate centers in the cerebral cortex
    -also receives impulses from the cerebrum and relays them to efferent nerves

          

  162. obsessive- compulsive disordercharacterized by sudden changes in behavior or consciousness as a result of uncontrolled electrical activity within the brain

          

  163. -taxiaorder, coordination

          

  164. echoencephalography-ultrasound technique used to study intracranial structures of the brain and diagnose conditions that cause a shift in the midline structures of the brain
    -bedside procedure is especially useful in detecting hemorrhage and hydrocephalus in children less than 2 years of age and infants in the neonatal unit, CT used for older children and adults

          

  165. myel/othalamus

          

  166. (DC)
    Myelomeningocele
    spina bifida
    Most severe form of spina bifida in which the spinal cord and meninges protrude through the spine

          

  167. demyelinationloss of myelin

          

  168. afferent
    (sensory neurons)
    -are afferent
    -receive impulses from the sense organs, including the eyes, nose, tongue, and skin and transmit them to the CNS

          

  169. (DC)
    Dyslexia
    -weakness, debility, or loss of strength
    -characterized as MS

          

  170. electromyography (EMG)-recording of electrical signals(action potentials) that occur in a muscle when it is at rest and during contraction to assess muscular disease or nerve damage
    -an electrode inserted into a muscle transmits electrical activity of the muscle and displays it on the monitor

          

  171. synapse-the functional connection between two neurons or between a neuron and its effector organ (muscle or gland)
    -is a gap or space

          

  172. subarachnoid hemorrhage-A stroke resulting from bleeding into the space surrounding the brain
    - example: ruptured aneurysm and is usually fatal

          

  173. intrathecalpertaining to one side

          

  174. kinesi/oMovement

          

  175. pachymeningitis-inflammation of the dura mater
    -the dura mater is a thick membrane that provides protection for the brain and spinal cord

          

  176. spinal cord matter-are afferent
    -receive impulses from the sense organs, including the eyes, nose, tongue, and skin and transmit them to the CNS

          

  177. (DC)
    Quadriplegia
    Paralysis of both lower limbs, as a result of trauma or disease of the lower spinal cord

          

  178. lumbar radiculopathy, (sciatica)contains cerebrospinal fluid

          

  179. clinical psychologistsindividuals trained in evaluating human behavior, intelligence, and personality

          

  180. poliomyelitisfear

          

  181. electrocephalography (EEG)-recording of electrical signals(action potentials) that occur in a muscle when it is at rest and during contraction to assess muscular disease or nerve damage
    -an electrode inserted into a muscle transmits electrical activity of the muscle and displays it on the monitor

          

  182. neurologist-literally means "nerve glue"
    -cells that support neurons and bind them to other tissues of the body
    -they do not transmit impulses, but they provide a variety of activities essential to the proper functioning of neurons
    -they supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons band assist in other metabolic activities
    -they also play an important role when the nervous system suffers injury or infection

          

  183. the types of neuroglia1. astrocytes
    2. oligodendrocytes
    3. microglia
    4. ependyma

          

  184. corpus callosum-wraps tightly around the axon
    -its exterior surface forms a thin tube called the neurilemma or neurolemma

          

  185. -esthesiamovement

          

  186. hemiparesismovement

          

  187. ependyma-inability to speak
    -can result from a stroke

          

  188. quadriplegia-inability to speak
    -can result from a stroke

          

  189. cervical radiculpathy-includes an array of psychological disorders, syndromes, and behavioral patterns that causes alterations in mood, behavior, and thinking
    -commonly result in a diminished capacity to cope with ordinary demands of life

          

  190. narcotic-relating to sleep
    -depresses the central nervous system, thus relieving pain and producing sleep

          

  191. astrocytes-star shaped neuroglia
    -provide three- dimensional mechanical support for neurons and form tight sheaths around the capillaries of the brain
    -these sheaths provide an obstruction, called the blood-brain barrier, that keeps large molecular substances from entering the brian
    -perform mildly phagocytic functions in the brain and spinal cord

          

  192. dentritesnonpsychotic mental illness that triggers feelings of distress and anxiety and impairs normal behavior

          

  193. Ischemia strokeAn eating disorder characterized by an obstinate and willful refusal to eat, a distorted body image, and an intense fear of being fat

          

  194. -kinesiamovement

          

  195. myastheniamuscle weakness

          

  196. ventricul/onerve

          

  197. hemiplegia- weakness in one-half of body
    -can result from stroke

          

  198. cerebr/oincision of the cerebrum

          

  199. anxiety-lack of muscle coordination
    -can result from a stroke

          

  200. -astheniapoor (muscle) tone

          

  201. axons-carry impulses away from cell body
    -threadlike extensions of nerve cells that transmit impulses to dendrites of other neurons as well as muscle and glands

          

  202. uni-union, together, joined

          

  203. myelographybone marrow; spinal cord

          

  204. posterior (dorsal)root of spinal nervesmotor fibers

          

  205. gli/oglue; neuroglial tissue

          

  206. (DC)
    asthenia
    Brief loss of consciousness and posture caused by a temporary decrease of blood flow to the brain, also called fainting

          

  207. (DC)
    Paralysis
    -inability to comprehend auditory, visual, spatial, olfactory, or other sensations even though the sensory sphere is intact
    -is common in parietal lobe tumors

          

  208. -phasia-inability to speak
    -can result from a stroke

          

  209. (DC)
    Cerebral palsy
    -Type of paralysis that affects movement and body position and sometimes, speech and learning ability
    -commonly occurs as the result of trauma to the brain during the delivery process

          

  210. medullamood disorder characterized by mental and physical hyperactivity, disorganized behavior, and excessively elevated mood

          

  211. bradykinesia-involuntary movements
    -painful or difficult movement

          

  212. ton/oword, phrase

          

  213. brain mattertechnique that cuts a circular opening into the skull to reveal brain tissue and decrease intracranial pressure

          

  214. autonomic nervous systemmotor impulses transmitted to glands and muscles not under conscious control (heart rate, respiration, digestion, pupil diameter)

          

  215. the 3 major structures of the neuron1. cell body
    2. axon
    3. dentrites

          

  216. (DC)
    Anencephaly
    Congenital deformity in which some or all of fetal brain is missing

          

  217. peripheral nervous system (PNS)-composed 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
    -located outside the spinal column and skull
    -consists of afferent and efferent neurons
    -formed by a neuroglia cell called schwann cells

          

  218. decompression surgerypressure applied

          

  219. narcolepsyA cell organelle that contains the chromosomes and directs cell activities.

          

  220. aphasia-lack of muscle coordination
    -can result from a stroke

          

  221. tonic-clonic seizure
    (grand mal seizure)
    -the most common type of generalized seizures
    -in the tonic phase, the entire body becomes rigid
    -in the clonic phase, there is uncontrolled jerking caused by alternative muscle contraction and relaxation

          

  222. hemiparesis-the smallest of the neuroglia
    -posses phagocytic properties and may become very active during times of infection

          

  223. synalgia-without coordination
    -refers to poor muscle coordination, especially when voluntary movements are attempted

          

  224. dura mater (pachymeninges)-inflammation of the dura mater
    -the dura mater is a thick membrane that provides protection for the brain and spinal cord

          

  225. magnetic source imaging (MS)
    magnetoencephalography(MEG)
    -noninvasive neuroimaging technique to pinpoint the specific location where seizure activity originates and enable custom surgical treatment for tumor and epileptic tissue resection
    -medically necessary for presurgical evaluation of persons with epilepsy to identify and localize areas of epileptic activity

          

  226. thalamotomypartial destruction of the thalamus to treat intractable pain;involuntary movements, including tremors in Parkinson disease; or emotional disturbances

          

  227. cerebrovascular diseasedisease of structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible deterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability, and death

          

  228. meninges (singular,meninx)-protective coverings of the brain and spinal cord
    -includes dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater

          

  229. sympathetic division of the ANSmotor impulses transmitted to muscles under conscious control (walking and talking)

          

  230. somatic nervous system of the PNS-12 pairs of cranial nerves
    -31 pairs of spinal nerves

          

  231. Hypnoticspoor (muscle) tone

          

  232. delusionsfalse beliefs

          

  233. anterior(ventral) root of spinal nervesmotor fibers

          

  234. subdural spaceparalysis of four (extremities)

          

  235. computed tomography angiography(CTA)-angiography in combination with a CT scan produce high-resolution, three- dimensional vascular images of the blood vessels
    -identifies blocked blood vessels,aneurysms, and buildup of plaque in a blood vessel
    -aids in differentiating hemorrhagic stroke and ischemic stroke

          

  236. (DC)
    agnosia
    -Congenital deformity of the neural tube which fails to close during fetal development, also called neural tube deficit
    -most common forms are meninocele, meningomyelocele, and occulta

          

  237. panic attacksudden, intense feeling of fear that comes without warning and is not attributable to any immediate danger

          

  238. 4 major structures of the brain-dilates the pupils to increase the amount of light entering the eye to optimize vision
    -decreases the flow of saliva
    -dilates the bronchi
    -increases heart rate and metabolic rate
    -decreases digestive activities
    -constricts visceral blood vessels

          

  239. anticonvulsants (antiepileptics)composed of many smaller structures, including the thalamus and the hypothalamus

          

  240. partial seizures-only a portion of the brain is involved
    -there is a short alteration of consciousness of about 10-30 seconds with repetitive, unusual movements and confusion

          

  241. schwann cell-wraps tightly around the axon
    -its exterior surface forms a thin tube called the neurilemma or neurolemma

          

  242. nodes of Ranvier-short, unmylelinated spaces between adjacent segments of the myelin sheath
    -they help speed the transmission of impulses down the axon

          

  243. analgesiaabsence of (a normal sense of) pain

          

  244. descending tract of the spinal cord-motor nerve tracts
    -carry impulses in a downward direction to muscles and organs

          

  245. mixed nervesproduce partial or complete loss of sensation, with or without loss of consciousness

          

  246. radicul/onerve root

          

  247. dystoniafeeling

          

  248. neurolysis-additional external myelin sheath that is formed by Schwann cells and found only on axons in the peripheral nervous system
    -because the neurilemma does not disintegrate after injury to the axon, its enclosed hollow tube that provides an avenue for regeneration of injured axons

          

  249. ventriculperitoneal shuntingrelieves intracranial pressure due to hydrocephalus by diverting (shunting) excess cerebrospinal fluid from the ventricles into the peritoneal or throacic cavity