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  1. muscle weakness
  2. -located in the subarachnoid space
    -a colorless fluid that contains proteins, glucose, urea, salts, and some white blood cells
    -circulates around the spinal cord and brain and through ventricles located within the inner portion of the brain
    -provides nutritive substances to the CNS and adds protection for the brain and spinal cord by acting as a shock absorber
  3. enlarged structure of the neuron that contains the nucleus
  4. connects the midbrain to the medulla
  5. -emerge from the intervertebral spaces in the spinal column and extend to various locations in the body
    -has afferent and efferent qualities
    -all 31 pairs are mixed nerves
    -each of them is identified according to the vertebra which they exit
    -each has two points of attachment to the spinal cord,the anterior and posterior root
  6. -paralysis of one side of the body
    -can result from stroke
  7. -precisely focused (stereotactic) radiation beams are used to treat tumors and other abnormal growths in the brain, spinal column and other body sites,and delivers high doses of radiation to the tumor with minimal exposure to surrounding healthy tissue
    -used to treat variety of brain tumors that are malignant(gliomas, metastastes) or benign (meningiomas, pituitary adenomas)
    -it also has an enhanced ability to control intracranial disease coupled with reduction in the risk of side effects from radiation therapy
  8. -additional external myelin sheath that is formed by Schwann cells and found only on axons in the peripheral nervous system
    -because the neurilemma does not disintegrate after injury to the axon, its enclosed hollow tube that provides an avenue for regeneration of injured axons
  9. order, coordination
  10. partial paralysis of one-half (of the body)
  11. excessive movement;also called hyperactivity
  12. -the functional connection between two neurons or between a neuron and its effector organ (muscle or gland)
    -is a gap or space
  13. -is the largest, uppermost portion of the brain
    -consists of two hemispheres divided by a deep longitudinal fissure, or groove
    -the fissure does not completely separate the hemispheres
    -major functions include sensory perception and interpretation, language, voluntary movement, and memory
  14. act upon nerves or nerve tracts to affect only a local area
  15. inner gray (cell bodies and dendrites)
    outer white(myelinated tissue of ascending and descending tracts)
    H or butterfly shaped
  16. 1.cerebrum
  17. -recording of electrical activity of the brain , whose cells emit distinct patterns of rhythmic electrical impulses
    -helps with diagnose of tumors, infections, and locate seizure focus and inactivity
  18. motor impulses transmitted to muscles under conscious control (walking and talking)
  19. -consists of the brain and spinal cord
    -unmyelinated fibers, dendrites, and nerve cell bodies make up the gray matter
    -the myelin sheath covering the axons is formed by oligodendrocytes
    -injury to the CNS is irreparable
  20. -short, unmylelinated spaces between adjacent segments of the myelin sheath
    -they help speed the transmission of impulses down the axon
  21. -literally means "nerve glue"
    -cells that support neurons and bind them to other tissues of the body
    -they do not transmit impulses, but they provide a variety of activities essential to the proper functioning of neurons
    -they supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons band assist in other metabolic activities
    -they also play an important role when the nervous system suffers injury or infection
  22. type of regional anesthetic to block pain from the area supplied by that nerve
  23. nerve
  24. inflammation of the nerve root
  25. seizure
  26. -joined (referred) pain
    -pain experienced in a part of the body other than the place of pathology. For example- right shoulder pain is commonly associated with gallstones
  27. sensory fibers
  28. inflammation of the ventricles (of the heart or brain)
  29. fear
  30. branch of medicine concerned with neurological diseases
  31. -is a life-threatening emergency
    -tonic-clonic seizures follow one after another without an intervening period of recovery
    -involves the entire cortex
  32. optic disc in the back of the eyeball swells
  33. -chemical substance that is released at the end of its axon
    -impulses within the transmitting axon causes the chemical substance to release
  34. treat multiple symptoms of depression by increasing levels of specific neurotransmitters
  35. radiographic examination to detect pathology of the spinal cord, including the location of a spinal cord injury, cysts, and tumors following injection of a contrast medium
  36. furrows or fissures
  37. -Paralysis of one side of the body, typically as a result of stroke,
    - unilateral paralysis
  38. strength
  39. -somewhat enlarged, often club-shaped endings of an axon
    -impulses must travel from the axon terminal of one neuron to the dendrite of the next neuron or its effector organ by crossing the synapse
  40. Hydrocephalus that develops at birth or anytime afterwards as a result of injury or disease
  41. abnormally deep unconsciousness with an absence of voluntary response to stimuli
  42. act upon the brain to produce complete loss of feeling with loss of consciousness
  43. chronic or recurring seizure disorders
  44. -recording of electrical signals(action potentials) that occur in a muscle when it is at rest and during contraction to assess muscular disease or nerve damage
    -an electrode inserted into a muscle transmits electrical activity of the muscle and displays it on the monitor
  45. -innermost meninx
    -directly adheres to the brain and spinal cord
    -contains blood vessels and lymphatics that nourish the underlying tissue
    -passes over the brain and the contours of the gyri and sulci
  46. nonpsychotic mental illness that triggers feelings of distress and anxiety and impairs normal behavior
  47. -Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, commonly resulting in a spinal deformity and paralysis
    -is preventable with vaccinations in children
  48. -motor nerve tracts
    -carry impulses in a downward direction to muscles and organs
  49. - weakness in one-half of body
    -can result from stroke
  50. -destruction of a nerve
    -is sometimes performed using cryablation or radio- frequency techniques to relieve intractable pain as a temporary or permanent measure
  51. disease or inflammation of the neck
  52. -receives all sensory stimuli except olfactory and processes and transmits them to the appropriate centers in the cerebral cortex
    -also receives impulses from the cerebrum and relays them to efferent nerves
  53. motor impulses transmitted to glands and muscles not under conscious control (heart rate, respiration, digestion, pupil diameter)
  54. -outermost covering
    -it is tough , fibrous, and dense
    -composed primarily of connective tissue
  55. technique that exposes abnormal tissue to extreme cold to destroy it
  56. tumor (composed of) neuroglial tissue
  57. false beliefs
  58. -Injury to the brain occasionally with transient loss of consciousness as a result of trauma to the head
    -delayed symptoms include headache, nausea, vomiting, and blurred vision
  59. pain in the nerve root
  60. composed of many smaller structures, including the thalamus and the hypothalamus
  61. disorder affecting children and adults characterized by impulsiveness, over-activity, and the inability to remain focused on task
  62. -Congenital deformity of the neural tube which fails to close during fetal development, also called neural tube deficit
    -most common forms are meninocele, meningomyelocele, and occulta
  63. motor fibers
  64. poor (muscle) tone
  65. -organ chamber or cavity that receives or holds fluid
    -In the nervous system, cerebrospinal fluid flows through the ventricles into the spinal cavity and back toward the brain, where it is absorbed into the blood
  66. collection of fluid in the brain because of an interference with the cerebrospinal fluid absorption
  67. Depressed CNS functions, Promotes sedation and sleep, and relieve aggregation, anxiousness and restlessness. They may be non-barbiturates , or barbiturates that carry the risk of addiction
  68. -Facial paralysis caused by a functional disorder of the seventh cranial nerve
    -usually resolves in 3-5 weeks
    -ass. with herpes virus
  69. cranium (skull)
  70. responsible for developing myelin on axons of neurons in the CNS
  71. individuals trained in evaluating human behavior, intelligence, and personality
  72. developmental disorder characterized by extreme withdrawal and an abnormal absorption in fantasy, usually accompanied by an inability to communicate even on a basic level
  73. softening of the cranium
  74. -prevent uncontrolled neuron activity associated with seizures by altering electrical transmission along neurons or altering the chemical composition of neurotransmitters
    -commonly used for mood stabilizers
  75. 1. cell body
    2. axon
    3. dentrites
  76. -A stroke caused by the sudden rupture of an artery within the brain
    - After the rupture, released blood compresses brain structures and destroys them
  77. a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating mental illnesses
  78. separates the cerebrum from the brainsteam
  79. -mental disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, emotion, energy, and the ability to function
    -also called manic depressive illness
  80. arteries of the neck
  81. the term used for the arachnoid and pia mater because of its thinness and delicacy
  82. -increased feeling
    -involves a marked sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli
  83. union, together, joined
  84. Paralysis of both arms and legs, commonly resulting in bowel, bladder, and sexual disfunction
  85. -weakness, debility, or loss of strength
    -characterized as MS
  86. -star shaped neuroglia
    -provide three- dimensional mechanical support for neurons and form tight sheaths around the capillaries of the brain
    -these sheaths provide an obstruction, called the blood-brain barrier, that keeps large molecular substances from entering the brian
    -perform mildly phagocytic functions in the brain and spinal cord
  87. -noninvasive neuroimaging technique to pinpoint the specific location where seizure activity originates and enable custom surgical treatment for tumor and epileptic tissue resection
    -medically necessary for presurgical evaluation of persons with epilepsy to identify and localize areas of epileptic activity
  88. absence of (a normal sense of) pain
  89. speech
  90. cell that transmits impulses throughout the nervous system
  91. -involuntary movements
    -painful or difficult movement
  92. disease of structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible deterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability, and death
  93. mood disorder associated with sadness, despair, discouragement, and, commonly, feelings of low self esteem , guilt, and withdrawal
  94. An eating disorder characterized by an obstinate and willful refusal to eat, a distorted body image, and an intense fear of being fat
  95. -composed 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
    -located outside the spinal column and skull
    -consists of afferent and efferent neurons
    -formed by a neuroglia cell called schwann cells
  96. -injury to the head in which the dura mater remains intact and brain tissue is not exposed
    -may occur at the inside of the skull(coup) or at the rebound site, where the opposite side of teh brain strike the skull(contrecoup)
  97. pain
  98. Hydrocephalus caused by factors that occur during fetal development or as a result of genetic abnormalities
  99. control tremors and muscle rigidity associated with Parkinson disease by increasing dopamine in the brain
  100. sudden, intense feeling of fear that comes without warning and is not attributable to any immediate danger
  101. -inability to comprehend auditory, visual, spatial, olfactory, or other sensations even though the sensory sphere is intact
    -is common in parietal lobe tumors
  102. partial paralysis
  103. -sympathetic division (fight or flight)
    -parasympathetic division (rest and digest)
  104. word, phrase
  105. movement
  106. referred pain
  107. -A stroke resulting from bleeding into the space surrounding the brain
    - example: ruptured aneurysm and is usually fatal
  108. carry or move impulses away from the central nervous system to muscles or glands
  109. Stupor,numbness,sleep
  110. Congenital deformity in which some or all of fetal brain is missing
  111. -most common type of stroke
    -caused by narrowing of the arteries of the brain of arteries of the neck which causes insufficient oxygen delivery to the brain tissue and within a few minutes the tissues begin to die
  112. Form of spina bifida in which one or more vertebra are malformed and the spinal cord is covered with a layer of skin
  113. CT scan of the lumbar region after injection of a contrast medium to detect problems with the spine and spinal nerve roots
  114. -cavity located beneath the dura mater
    -filled with serous fluid
  115. feeling
  116. Reduce impulsive behavior by increasing the level of neurotransmitters. Treats ADHD and narcolepsy
  117. -completes the last major section of the brain
    -composed of the midbrain, medulla, and pons
    -is the pathway for impulse conduction between the brain and spinal cord
    -origin of 10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves
    -controls respiration, blood pressure, and heart rate
    - is the site that controls the beginning of life
    (initiation of the heart beating in a fetus) and the end of life ( the cessation of respiration and heart activity)
  118. -middle covering
    -spider-web appearance
    -fits loosely over the underlying structures
  119. -test that measures the speed at which impulses travel through a nerve
    -one electrode stimulates a nerve while the other electrodes, placed over different areas of the nerve record an electrical signal as it travels through the nerve
    -used to diagnose MD and neurological disorders that destroy myelin
  120. -inability to speak
    -can result from a stroke
  121. -herniation of the brain
    -is a condition in which portions of the brain and meninges protrude through a bony midline defect in the skull
  122. -ciliated cells that line fluid- filled cavities of the CNS, especially the ventricles of the brain
  123. near, beside; beyond
  124. needle puncture of the spinal cavity to extract spinal fluid for diagnostic purposes, introduce anesthetic agents into the spinal canal, or remove fluid to allow other fluids (such as radiopaque substances) to be injected
  125. pressure applied
  126. -psychological disorders that are characterized by an abnormal mood
    -mania or depression
  127. -carry impulses to the cell body
    -resembles tiny branches on a tree, providing additional surface area for receiving impulses from other neurons
  128. Inability to learn and process written language, despite adequate intelligence, sensory ability , and exposure
  129. ventricle (of the heart or brain)
  130. tension
  131. -are efferent
    -conduct impulses to muscles and glands
  132. cerebrum
  133. -angiography in combination with a CT scan produce high-resolution, three- dimensional vascular images of the blood vessels
    -identifies blocked blood vessels,aneurysms, and buildup of plaque in a blood vessel
    -aids in differentiating hemorrhagic stroke and ischemic stroke
  134. -Autoimmune condition that causes acute inflammation of the peripheral nerves in which myelin sheaths on the axons are destroyed resulting in decreased nerve impulses, loss of reflex response and sudden muscle weakness
    -usually occurs after infection, stress, or trauma
  135. slow movement
  136. -cranial nerves that are composed of sensory and motor fibers
    -example is facial nerve, it acts in a motor capacity by transmitting impulses for smiling or frowning and acts in a sensory capacity by transmitting taste impulses from the tongue to the brain
  137. -only a portion of the brain is involved
    -there is a short alteration of consciousness of about 10-30 seconds with repetitive, unusual movements and confusion
  138. branch of medicine concerned with mental illness
  139. computed tomography that records the positrons (positively charged particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical and procedures a cross sectional image of metabolic activity of body tissues to determine
  140. -difficulty using words
    -difficulty with reading or tendency to reverse letters or words when reading or writing
  141. -12 pairs of cranial nerves
    -31 pairs of spinal nerves
  142. procedure intended to relieve pain from pressure or compression of the spinal column
  143. -lack of muscle coordination in the execution of voluntary movement
    -may result from head injury, stroke, MS, alcoholism, or a variety of hereditary disorders
  144. -dilates the pupils to increase the amount of light entering the eye to optimize vision
    -decreases the flow of saliva
    -dilates the bronchi
    -increases heart rate and metabolic rate
    -decreases digestive activities
    -constricts visceral blood vessels
  145. -A Temporary stroke that resolves within 24 hours
    -affects about 1/3 of all strokes
  146. Loss of voluntary motion in one or more muscle groups with it without loss of sensation
  147. 4 are named for the bones that lie directly above them
    5.insula;is hidden from view and can be seen only upon dissection
  148. eating disorder characterized by binging (overeating) and purging (vomiting or use of laxatives)
  149. Paralysis, usually partial, and commonly characterized by weakness and shaking or uncontrolled tremor
  150. without speech
  151. bone marrow; spinal cord
  152. -lack of muscle coordination
    -can result from a stroke
  153. thin, slender
  154. -wraps tightly around the axon
    -its exterior surface forms a thin tube called the neurilemma or neurolemma
  155. carry or move impulses toward the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system)
  156. -relating to sleep
    -depresses the central nervous system, thus relieving pain and producing sleep
  157. inner layer is white
    outer layer is gray
  158. -sensory nerve tracts
    -upward impulse
  159. sheath (usually refers to meninges)
  160. A chronic disease of the central nervous system marked by damage to the myelin sheath. Plaques occur in the brain and spinal cord causing tremor, weakness, incoordination, paresthesia, and disturbances in vision and speech
  161. paralysis of four (extremities)
  162. brain
  163. specialist in the study of the nervous system
  164. nerve root
  165. transmits sensory impulses from the body to the brain and motor impulses from the brain to muscles and organs of the body
  166. seizure of sleep
  167. Inherited disease of the CNS characterized by quick, involuntary movements, speech disturbances and mental deterioration
  168. 1. astrocytes
    2. oligodendrocytes
    3. microglia
    4. ependyma
  169. thalamus
  170. tumors that originate directly in brain tissue
  171. -are afferent
    -receive impulses from the sense organs, including the eyes, nose, tongue, and skin and transmit them to the CNS
  172. -condition of progressive neurological disorder affecting the portion of the brain that is responsible for movement
    - dopamine (a chemical neurotransmitter necessary for proper movement)is lacking in the brain
    -patient develops uncontrollable nodding of the head,slow movement(bradykinesia,hypokinesia), tremors, large joint stiffness, and a shuffling gait
    -sometimes experiences "pill rolling",rubbing the thumb against the index finger
    -muscle rigidity causes facial expressions
    -no cure
  173. 1. center of thought and emotion, interpretation of sensory stimuli, and coordination of body functions

    2. main pathway for transmission between the brain and body
  174. Accumulation of fluid in the ventricles of the brain causing increased intracranial pressure thinning of the brain tissue and separation of cranial bones
  175. attaches to the spinal cord
  176. glue; neuroglial tissue
  177. thick
  178. Brief loss of consciousness and posture caused by a temporary decrease of blood flow to the brain, also called fainting
  179. white, lipoid covering of the axon that acts as an electrical insulator that reduces the possibility of an impulse stimulating adjacent nerves
  180. treat psychosis, paranoia, and schizophrenia by altering chemicals in the brain, including the limbic system (group of brain structures), which controls emotions
  181. laboratory test to examine a sample of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord; used to diagnose disorders of the CNS, including viral and bacterial infections, tumors, and hemorrhage
  182. Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord
  183. condition of excessive strength
  184. reflexive behavior
  185. -includes an array of psychological disorders, syndromes, and behavioral patterns that causes alterations in mood, behavior, and thinking
    -commonly result in a diminished capacity to cope with ordinary demands of life
  186. pertaining to one side
  187. -psychological "worry" disorder characterized by excessive pondering or thinking "what if"
    -worry, dread, lack of energy, and loss of interest in life are common signs
  188. hear voices and see visions that are not present
  189. incision of the thalamus
  190. -folds or convolutions
    -they are separated by sulci
  191. meninges (membranes covering the brain and spinal cord)
  192. - the second largest structure of the brain
    -occupies the posterior portion of the skull
    -most functions include movement, posture, or balance
    -it coordinates and refines muscular movement initiated by the cerebrum
  193. technique that cuts a circular opening into the skull to reveal brain tissue and decrease intracranial pressure
  194. Broad term that refers to cognitive deficit, including memory impairment
  195. Form of spina bifida in which the spinal cord develops properly but the meninges protrude the spine
  196. 1. 12 pairs of nerves that emerge from the base of the skull and may act in a motor capacity, sensory, capacity, or both

    2. 31 pairs of nerves that emerge from the spine and act in both motor and sensory capacities
  197. -the smallest of the neuroglia
    -posses phagocytic properties and may become very active during times of infection
  198. -carry impulses away from cell body
    -threadlike extensions of nerve cells that transmit impulses to dendrites of other neurons as well as muscle and glands
  199. clot buster medication administered 3 hours if symptom onset
  200. paralysis of the lower body and limbs
  201. mood disorder characterized by mental and physical hyperactivity, disorganized behavior, and excessively elevated mood
  202. -inflammation of the dura mater
    -the dura mater is a thick membrane that provides protection for the brain and spinal cord
  203. -radiographic image (angiogram) of the inside of a blood vessel after injection of a contrast medium
    -used to diagnose vascular disorders, especially blockages, narrowed areas, and aneurysms
  204. cerebrovascular disease
  205. -complex neural system located beneath the cerebrum that controls basic emotions and drives and plays an important role in memory
    -is primarily related to survival and includes such emotions as fear, anger, and pleasure
    (food or sexual behavior)
  206. relieves intracranial pressure due to hydrocephalus by diverting (shunting) excess cerebrospinal fluid from the ventricles into the peritoneal or throacic cavity
  207. -excision of a ganglion
    -a ganglion is a mass of nerve cell bodies (gray matter) in the PNS
  208. herniation of the meninges
  209. transection of a nerve tract in the brain stem or spinal cord
  210. paralysis
  211. -the most common type of generalized seizures
    -in the tonic phase, the entire body becomes rigid
    -in the clonic phase, there is uncontrolled jerking caused by alternative muscle contraction and relaxation
  212. -decreases or increases the diameter of the pupils in response to changing levels of light
    -increases the flow of saliva
    -constricts the bronchi
    -decreases heart rate, blood pressure,and metabolic rate
    -increases digestive activities
    -dilates visceral blood vessels
  213. -without coordination
    -refers to poor muscle coordination, especially when voluntary movements are attempted
  214. uncontrolled performance of ritualistic actions for fear or a dire consequence
  215. -Type of paralysis that affects movement and body position and sometimes, speech and learning ability
    -commonly occurs as the result of trauma to the brain during the delivery process
  216. Paralysis of both lower limbs, as a result of trauma or disease of the lower spinal cord
  217. -regulates involuntary activities, such as heart rate, body temperature, and fluid balance
    -also controls many endocrine functions
  218. major emotional disorder in which contact with reality is lost to the point that the individuls is incapable of meeting the challenges of daily life
  219. pertaining to the space within the sheath
  220. ganglion (knot or knotlike mass)
  221. -Acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of the liver and possibly the pancreas, heart, kidney, spleen and lymph nodes
    -seen in children younger than 15 who has had acute viral infection
    -mortality rate may be as high as 80%
    -aspirin may induce it
  222. incision of the cerebrum
  223. loss of myelin
  224. A cell organelle that contains the chromosomes and directs cell activities.
  225. protective mechanism that blocks specific substances found in the bloodstream from entering delicate brain tissue
  226. tumor in the meninges
  227. -disease of the thin meninges
    -includes the pia mater and arachnoid, both of which are thin and delicate in structure, as opposed to the dura mater
  228. weakness, debility
  229. -joins the hemispheres of the cerebrum
    -permits communication between the right and left sides of the brain
  230. -a thin layer that covers the entire cerebrum
    -composed of gray matter
    -where most information processing occurs
  231. -Sensation of numbness, tingling, or heightened sensitivity
    -caused by disorders that affect the CNS
  232. -protective coverings of the brain and spinal cord
    -includes dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater
  233. -ultrasound technique used to study intracranial structures of the brain and diagnose conditions that cause a shift in the midline structures of the brain
    -bedside procedure is especially useful in detecting hemorrhage and hydrocephalus in children less than 2 years of age and infants in the neonatal unit, CT used for older children and adults
  234. Abnormal inactivity or lack of response to normal stimuli
  235. Movement
  236. disease or inflammation of the lower back
  237. entire brain is involved
  238. arachnoid and pia mater
  239. warning signal
  240. -Acute inflammatory eruption of highly painful vesicles on the trunk of the body or occasionally the face
    -also called shingles
  241. produce partial or complete loss of sensation, with or without loss of consciousness
  242. partial destruction of the thalamus to treat intractable pain;involuntary movements, including tremors in Parkinson disease; or emotional disturbances
  243. condition of slow movement
  244. is any functional abnormality of the cerebrum caused by disorders that affect the blood vessels supplying the brain, which may result in a stroke
  245. characterized by sudden changes in behavior or consciousness as a result of uncontrolled electrical activity within the brain
  246. contains cerebrospinal fluid
  247. one
  248. Most severe form of spina bifida in which the spinal cord and meninges protrude through the spine
  249. Any sudden and violent contraction of one or more voluntary muscles