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244 Matching questions

  1. tonic-clonic seizure
    (grand mal seizure)
  2. hypersthenia
  3. ascending tracts of the spinal cord
  4. (DC)
    Meningocele spina bifida
  5. CNS
    1.Brain
    2.Spinal cord
  6. intrathecal
  7. multiple sclerosis
  8. (DC)
    Syncope
  9. mental illness
  10. narcotic
  11. brainsteam
  12. (DC)
    Palsy
  13. (DC)
    Hydrocephalus
  14. myel/o
  15. -esthesia
  16. radicul/o
  17. diencephalon (interbrain)
  18. ataxia
  19. dura mater (pachymeninges)
  20. psychiatric antipsychotics
  21. (DC)
    coma
  22. ependyma
  23. sthen/o
  24. Alzheimer disease
  25. encephalocele
  26. myelin sheath
  27. bipolar disorder
  28. echoencephalography
  29. ventricle
  30. ventricul/o
  31. delusions
  32. lept/o
  33. quadriplegia
  34. axon terminal
  35. aura
  36. meningioma
  37. neuroglia
  38. central nervous system (CNS)
  39. sulci
  40. carotid
  41. local anesthetics
  42. lex/o
  43. dyskinesia
  44. neur/o
  45. cervical radiculpathy
  46. PNS
    1.Cranial nerves
    2.Spinal nerves
  47. cerebrospinal fluid CSF analysis
  48. thalamotomy
  49. pia mater
  50. (DC)
    Spina bifida
  51. schwann cell
  52. glioma
  53. syn-
  54. encephal/o
  55. affective disorder
  56. thalam/o
  57. somatic nervous system of the PNS
  58. motor nerves
  59. posterior (dorsal)root of spinal nerves
  60. tractotomy
  61. sympathetic division of the ANS
  62. (DC)
    Guillain-Barré syndrome
  63. hemiplegia
  64. dystonia
  65. -lepsy
  66. sensory nerves
  67. antipakinsonian agents
  68. papilledema
  69. (DC)
    Cerebral palsy
  70. microglia
  71. (DC)
    Huntington chorea
  72. the types of neuroglia
  73. (DC)
    Lethargy
  74. leptomeningopathy
  75. para-
  76. pachymeningitis
  77. generalized seizures
  78. obsessive- compulsive disorder
  79. Parkinson disease
    (shaking palsy)
  80. hydrocephalus
  81. Epilepsies
  82. discography
  83. -paresis
  84. (DC)
    Dyslexia
  85. ventriculperitoneal shunting
  86. Ischemia stroke
  87. mening/o meningi/o
  88. (DC)
    Occulta spina bifida
  89. (DC)
    Reye syndrome
  90. ventriculitis
  91. brain matter
  92. angiography (arteriography)
  93. dyslexia
  94. psychiatrist
  95. (DC)
    Bell palsy
  96. spinal cord
  97. 4 major structures of the brain
  98. compression
  99. trephination
  100. (DC)
    Acquired hydrocephalus
  101. thrombolytic medication
  102. cerebrovascular disease
  103. cerebr/o
  104. neurotransmitter
  105. analgesia
  106. Hypnotics
  107. cerebrospinal fluid
  108. anticonvulsants (antiepileptics)
  109. anesthetics
  110. (DC)
    asthenia
  111. mixed nerves
  112. synapse
  113. cerebrotomy
  114. mania
  115. nodes of Ranvier
  116. midbrain (mesencephalon)
  117. cerebral cortex
  118. (DC)
    Congenital hydrocephalus
  119. kinesi/o
  120. neurosis
  121. efferent
    (motor neurons)
  122. dentrites
  123. axons
  124. gangliectomy
  125. subarachnoid hemorrhage
  126. thec/o
  127. leptomomeninges
  128. hypothalamus
  129. anxiety
  130. gyri
  131. hysterias
  132. myelography
  133. (DC)
    agnosia
  134. poliomyelitis
  135. cerebellum
  136. psychiatry
  137. psychosis
  138. lumbar puncture(LP)
    spinal puncture or spinal tap
  139. astrocytes
  140. bradykinesia
  141. radiculopathy (radiculitis)
  142. narc/o
  143. (DC)
    ataxia
  144. Neurology
  145. myasthenia
  146. -asthenia
  147. meningocele
  148. gli/o
  149. stroke(cerebrovascular accident)CVA
  150. limbic sysytem (emotional brain)
  151. stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)
  152. corpus callosum
  153. autism
  154. computed tomography angiography(CTA)
  155. -algesia -algia
  156. nerve conduction velocity(NCV)
  157. oligodendrocytes (oligodendroglia)
  158. (DC)
    Myelomeningocele
    spina bifida
  159. primary intracranial tumors
  160. spinal nerves
  161. (DC)
    Poliomyelitis
  162. aphasia
  163. psychostimulants
  164. anorexia nervosa
  165. narcolepsy
  166. crani/o
  167. subarachnoid space
  168. bradykinesia;hypokinesia
  169. (DC)
    Paralysis
  170. decompression surgery
  171. somatic nervous system
  172. parasympathetic division of the ANS
  173. leptomenings
  174. (DC)
    Paraplegia
  175. subdural space
  176. (DC)
    Concussion
  177. craniomalacia
  178. depression
  179. neurologist
  180. electromyography (EMG)
  181. demyelination
  182. hyperkinesia
  183. peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  184. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHA)
  185. magnetic source imaging (MS)
    magnetoencephalography(MEG)
  186. transient ischemic attack(TIA)
  187. unilateral
  188. bulimia nervosa
  189. thalamus
  190. (DC)
    Convulsion
  191. (DC)
    Hemiplegia
    (unilateral paralysis)
  192. -taxia
  193. blood-brain barrier
  194. -phasia
  195. -kinesia
  196. antidepressants
  197. autonomic nervous system of PNS
  198. autonomic nervous system
  199. lumbar radiculopathy, (sciatica)
  200. phobias
  201. neuron
  202. (DC)
    closed head trauma
  203. descending tract of the spinal cord
  204. neurolysis
  205. nucleus
  206. pons (bridge)
  207. cerebrum
  208. hallucinations
  209. panic attack
  210. -plegia
  211. afferent
    (sensory neurons)
  212. nerve block anesthetics
  213. gangli/o
  214. intracerebral hemorrhage
  215. cryosurgery
  216. radiculalgia
  217. (DC)
    Herpes zoster
    (shingles)
  218. positron emission tomography(PET)
  219. paraplegia
  220. status epilepticus
  221. meninges (singular,meninx)
  222. each hemisphere is divided into five lobes
  223. hemiparesis
  224. (DC)
    Quadriplegia
  225. general anesthetic
  226. (DC)
    Dementia
  227. cell body
  228. uni-
  229. arachnoid
  230. synalgia
  231. the 3 major structures of the neuron
  232. medulla
  233. (DC)
    Paresthesia
  234. ton/o
  235. pachy-
  236. hyperesthesia
  237. anterior(ventral) root of spinal nerves
  238. clinical psychologists
  239. (DC)
    Anencephaly
  240. neurilemma
  241. electrocephalography (EEG)
  242. partial seizures
  243. seizure disorders
  244. spinal cord matter
  1. a -A stroke caused by the sudden rupture of an artery within the brain
    - After the rupture, released blood compresses brain structures and destroys them
  2. b -joins the hemispheres of the cerebrum
    -permits communication between the right and left sides of the brain
  3. c strength
  4. d union, together, joined
  5. e treat psychosis, paranoia, and schizophrenia by altering chemicals in the brain, including the limbic system (group of brain structures), which controls emotions
  6. f eating disorder characterized by binging (overeating) and purging (vomiting or use of laxatives)
  7. g -decreases or increases the diameter of the pupils in response to changing levels of light
    -increases the flow of saliva
    -constricts the bronchi
    -decreases heart rate, blood pressure,and metabolic rate
    -increases digestive activities
    -dilates visceral blood vessels
  8. h -excision of a ganglion
    -a ganglion is a mass of nerve cell bodies (gray matter) in the PNS
  9. i carry or move impulses away from the central nervous system to muscles or glands
  10. j tension
  11. k one
  12. l -prevent uncontrolled neuron activity associated with seizures by altering electrical transmission along neurons or altering the chemical composition of neurotransmitters
    -commonly used for mood stabilizers
  13. m sensory fibers
  14. n major emotional disorder in which contact with reality is lost to the point that the individuls is incapable of meeting the challenges of daily life
  15. o Congenital deformity in which some or all of fetal brain is missing
  16. p pressure applied
  17. q -recording of electrical activity of the brain , whose cells emit distinct patterns of rhythmic electrical impulses
    -helps with diagnose of tumors, infections, and locate seizure focus and inactivity
  18. r nonpsychotic mental illness that triggers feelings of distress and anxiety and impairs normal behavior
  19. s disorder affecting children and adults characterized by impulsiveness, over-activity, and the inability to remain focused on task
  20. t -paralysis of one side of the body
    -can result from stroke
  21. u entire brain is involved
  22. v seizure
  23. w warning signal
  24. x incision of the cerebrum
  25. y inflammation of the nerve root
  26. z muscle weakness
  27. aa furrows or fissures
  28. ab Inability to learn and process written language, despite adequate intelligence, sensory ability , and exposure
  29. ac movement
  30. ad -Injury to the brain occasionally with transient loss of consciousness as a result of trauma to the head
    -delayed symptoms include headache, nausea, vomiting, and blurred vision
  31. ae loss of myelin
  32. af referred pain
  33. ag -are afferent
    -receive impulses from the sense organs, including the eyes, nose, tongue, and skin and transmit them to the CNS
  34. ah optic disc in the back of the eyeball swells
  35. ai specialist in the study of the nervous system
  36. aj -A Temporary stroke that resolves within 24 hours
    -affects about 1/3 of all strokes
  37. ak near, beside; beyond
  38. al -inability to comprehend auditory, visual, spatial, olfactory, or other sensations even though the sensory sphere is intact
    -is common in parietal lobe tumors
  39. am weakness, debility
  40. an -carry impulses away from cell body
    -threadlike extensions of nerve cells that transmit impulses to dendrites of other neurons as well as muscle and glands
  41. ao -ciliated cells that line fluid- filled cavities of the CNS, especially the ventricles of the brain
  42. ap -the functional connection between two neurons or between a neuron and its effector organ (muscle or gland)
    -is a gap or space
  43. aq uncontrolled performance of ritualistic actions for fear or a dire consequence
  44. ar -outermost covering
    -it is tough , fibrous, and dense
    -composed primarily of connective tissue
  45. as procedure intended to relieve pain from pressure or compression of the spinal column
  46. at -increased feeling
    -involves a marked sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli
  47. au speech
  48. av tumor in the meninges
  49. aw -relating to sleep
    -depresses the central nervous system, thus relieving pain and producing sleep
  50. ax Loss of voluntary motion in one or more muscle groups with it without loss of sensation
  51. ay fear
  52. az -receives all sensory stimuli except olfactory and processes and transmits them to the appropriate centers in the cerebral cortex
    -also receives impulses from the cerebrum and relays them to efferent nerves
  53. ba -Acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of the liver and possibly the pancreas, heart, kidney, spleen and lymph nodes
    -seen in children younger than 15 who has had acute viral infection
    -mortality rate may be as high as 80%
    -aspirin may induce it
  54. bb Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord
  55. bc Paralysis of both lower limbs, as a result of trauma or disease of the lower spinal cord
  56. bd -angiography in combination with a CT scan produce high-resolution, three- dimensional vascular images of the blood vessels
    -identifies blocked blood vessels,aneurysms, and buildup of plaque in a blood vessel
    -aids in differentiating hemorrhagic stroke and ischemic stroke
  57. be carry or move impulses toward the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system)
  58. bf false beliefs
  59. bg individuals trained in evaluating human behavior, intelligence, and personality
  60. bh motor impulses transmitted to glands and muscles not under conscious control (heart rate, respiration, digestion, pupil diameter)
  61. bi -the smallest of the neuroglia
    -posses phagocytic properties and may become very active during times of infection
  62. bj laboratory test to examine a sample of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord; used to diagnose disorders of the CNS, including viral and bacterial infections, tumors, and hemorrhage
  63. bk Form of spina bifida in which one or more vertebra are malformed and the spinal cord is covered with a layer of skin
  64. bl needle puncture of the spinal cavity to extract spinal fluid for diagnostic purposes, introduce anesthetic agents into the spinal canal, or remove fluid to allow other fluids (such as radiopaque substances) to be injected
  65. bm -only a portion of the brain is involved
    -there is a short alteration of consciousness of about 10-30 seconds with repetitive, unusual movements and confusion
  66. bn bone marrow; spinal cord
  67. bo condition of slow movement
  68. bp word, phrase
  69. bq -protective coverings of the brain and spinal cord
    -includes dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater
  70. br Hydrocephalus that develops at birth or anytime afterwards as a result of injury or disease
  71. bs paralysis of the lower body and limbs
  72. bt absence of (a normal sense of) pain
  73. bu brain
  74. bv composed of many smaller structures, including the thalamus and the hypothalamus
  75. bw -cavity located beneath the dura mater
    -filled with serous fluid
  76. bx -ultrasound technique used to study intracranial structures of the brain and diagnose conditions that cause a shift in the midline structures of the brain
    -bedside procedure is especially useful in detecting hemorrhage and hydrocephalus in children less than 2 years of age and infants in the neonatal unit, CT used for older children and adults
  77. by clot buster medication administered 3 hours if symptom onset
  78. bz -mental disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, emotion, energy, and the ability to function
    -also called manic depressive illness
  79. ca branch of medicine concerned with mental illness
  80. cb Paralysis, usually partial, and commonly characterized by weakness and shaking or uncontrolled tremor
  81. cc transmits sensory impulses from the body to the brain and motor impulses from the brain to muscles and organs of the body
  82. cd -lack of muscle coordination in the execution of voluntary movement
    -may result from head injury, stroke, MS, alcoholism, or a variety of hereditary disorders
  83. ce -folds or convolutions
    -they are separated by sulci
  84. cf -destruction of a nerve
    -is sometimes performed using cryablation or radio- frequency techniques to relieve intractable pain as a temporary or permanent measure
  85. cg -difficulty using words
    -difficulty with reading or tendency to reverse letters or words when reading or writing
  86. ch -emerge from the intervertebral spaces in the spinal column and extend to various locations in the body
    -has afferent and efferent qualities
    -all 31 pairs are mixed nerves
    -each of them is identified according to the vertebra which they exit
    -each has two points of attachment to the spinal cord,the anterior and posterior root
  87. ci A chronic disease of the central nervous system marked by damage to the myelin sheath. Plaques occur in the brain and spinal cord causing tremor, weakness, incoordination, paresthesia, and disturbances in vision and speech
  88. cj responsible for developing myelin on axons of neurons in the CNS
  89. ck -somewhat enlarged, often club-shaped endings of an axon
    -impulses must travel from the axon terminal of one neuron to the dendrite of the next neuron or its effector organ by crossing the synapse
  90. cl -test that measures the speed at which impulses travel through a nerve
    -one electrode stimulates a nerve while the other electrodes, placed over different areas of the nerve record an electrical signal as it travels through the nerve
    -used to diagnose MD and neurological disorders that destroy myelin
  91. cm thin, slender
  92. cn thalamus
  93. co -short, unmylelinated spaces between adjacent segments of the myelin sheath
    -they help speed the transmission of impulses down the axon
  94. cp contains cerebrospinal fluid
  95. cq arteries of the neck
  96. cr technique that exposes abnormal tissue to extreme cold to destroy it
  97. cs -12 pairs of cranial nerves
    -31 pairs of spinal nerves
  98. ct cranium (skull)
  99. cu ventricle (of the heart or brain)
  100. cv the term used for the arachnoid and pia mater because of its thinness and delicacy
  101. cw Depressed CNS functions, Promotes sedation and sleep, and relieve aggregation, anxiousness and restlessness. They may be non-barbiturates , or barbiturates that carry the risk of addiction
  102. cx thick
  103. cy white, lipoid covering of the axon that acts as an electrical insulator that reduces the possibility of an impulse stimulating adjacent nerves
  104. cz developmental disorder characterized by extreme withdrawal and an abnormal absorption in fantasy, usually accompanied by an inability to communicate even on a basic level
  105. da 4 are named for the bones that lie directly above them
    1.frontal
    2.parietal
    3.temporal
    4.occipital
    5.insula;is hidden from view and can be seen only upon dissection
  106. db slow movement
  107. dc A cell organelle that contains the chromosomes and directs cell activities.
  108. dd Stupor,numbness,sleep
  109. de -chemical substance that is released at the end of its axon
    -impulses within the transmitting axon causes the chemical substance to release
  110. df - weakness in one-half of body
    -can result from stroke
  111. dg poor (muscle) tone
  112. dh -weakness, debility, or loss of strength
    -characterized as MS
  113. di -without coordination
    -refers to poor muscle coordination, especially when voluntary movements are attempted
  114. dj -Congenital deformity of the neural tube which fails to close during fetal development, also called neural tube deficit
    -most common forms are meninocele, meningomyelocele, and occulta
  115. dk produce partial or complete loss of sensation, with or without loss of consciousness
  116. dl radiographic examination to detect pathology of the spinal cord, including the location of a spinal cord injury, cysts, and tumors following injection of a contrast medium
  117. dm An eating disorder characterized by an obstinate and willful refusal to eat, a distorted body image, and an intense fear of being fat
  118. dn connects the midbrain to the medulla
  119. do Form of spina bifida in which the spinal cord develops properly but the meninges protrude the spine
  120. dp -injury to the head in which the dura mater remains intact and brain tissue is not exposed
    -may occur at the inside of the skull(coup) or at the rebound site, where the opposite side of teh brain strike the skull(contrecoup)
  121. dq separates the cerebrum from the brainsteam
  122. dr sheath (usually refers to meninges)
  123. ds pertaining to one side
  124. dt order, coordination
  125. du -motor nerve tracts
    -carry impulses in a downward direction to muscles and organs
  126. dv pain
  127. dw protective mechanism that blocks specific substances found in the bloodstream from entering delicate brain tissue
  128. dx -complex neural system located beneath the cerebrum that controls basic emotions and drives and plays an important role in memory
    -is primarily related to survival and includes such emotions as fear, anger, and pleasure
    (food or sexual behavior)
  129. dy -psychological disorders that are characterized by an abnormal mood
    -mania or depression
  130. dz -wraps tightly around the axon
    -its exterior surface forms a thin tube called the neurilemma or neurolemma
  131. ea Accumulation of fluid in the ventricles of the brain causing increased intracranial pressure thinning of the brain tissue and separation of cranial bones
  132. eb treat multiple symptoms of depression by increasing levels of specific neurotransmitters
  133. ec mood disorder characterized by mental and physical hyperactivity, disorganized behavior, and excessively elevated mood
  134. ed -herniation of the brain
    -is a condition in which portions of the brain and meninges protrude through a bony midline defect in the skull
  135. ee Reduce impulsive behavior by increasing the level of neurotransmitters. Treats ADHD and narcolepsy
  136. ef -Paralysis of one side of the body, typically as a result of stroke,
    - unilateral paralysis
  137. eg collection of fluid in the brain because of an interference with the cerebrospinal fluid absorption
  138. eh cell that transmits impulses throughout the nervous system
  139. ei -is a life-threatening emergency
    -tonic-clonic seizures follow one after another without an intervening period of recovery
    -involves the entire cortex
  140. ej softening of the cranium
  141. ek -middle covering
    -spider-web appearance
    -fits loosely over the underlying structures
  142. el -Facial paralysis caused by a functional disorder of the seventh cranial nerve
    -usually resolves in 3-5 weeks
    -ass. with herpes virus
  143. em CT scan of the lumbar region after injection of a contrast medium to detect problems with the spine and spinal nerve roots
  144. en sudden, intense feeling of fear that comes without warning and is not attributable to any immediate danger
  145. eo disease or inflammation of the lower back
  146. ep transection of a nerve tract in the brain stem or spinal cord
  147. eq tumors that originate directly in brain tissue
  148. er 1. cell body
    2. axon
    3. dentrites
  149. es -additional external myelin sheath that is formed by Schwann cells and found only on axons in the peripheral nervous system
    -because the neurilemma does not disintegrate after injury to the axon, its enclosed hollow tube that provides an avenue for regeneration of injured axons
  150. et nerve
  151. eu computed tomography that records the positrons (positively charged particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical and procedures a cross sectional image of metabolic activity of body tissues to determine
  152. ev characterized by sudden changes in behavior or consciousness as a result of uncontrolled electrical activity within the brain
  153. ew mood disorder associated with sadness, despair, discouragement, and, commonly, feelings of low self esteem , guilt, and withdrawal
  154. ex paralysis
  155. ey -inability to speak
    -can result from a stroke
  156. ez -located in the subarachnoid space
    -a colorless fluid that contains proteins, glucose, urea, salts, and some white blood cells
    -circulates around the spinal cord and brain and through ventricles located within the inner portion of the brain
    -provides nutritive substances to the CNS and adds protection for the brain and spinal cord by acting as a shock absorber
  157. fa inflammation of the ventricles (of the heart or brain)
  158. fb is any functional abnormality of the cerebrum caused by disorders that affect the blood vessels supplying the brain, which may result in a stroke
  159. fc -the most common type of generalized seizures
    -in the tonic phase, the entire body becomes rigid
    -in the clonic phase, there is uncontrolled jerking caused by alternative muscle contraction and relaxation
  160. fd Inherited disease of the CNS characterized by quick, involuntary movements, speech disturbances and mental deterioration
  161. fe chronic or recurring seizure disorders
  162. ff Brief loss of consciousness and posture caused by a temporary decrease of blood flow to the brain, also called fainting
  163. fg partial paralysis
  164. fh feeling
  165. fi 1. center of thought and emotion, interpretation of sensory stimuli, and coordination of body functions

    2. main pathway for transmission between the brain and body
  166. fj Most severe form of spina bifida in which the spinal cord and meninges protrude through the spine
  167. fk pain in the nerve root
  168. fl -A stroke resulting from bleeding into the space surrounding the brain
    - example: ruptured aneurysm and is usually fatal
  169. fm seizure of sleep
  170. fn Movement
  171. fo pertaining to the space within the sheath
  172. fp - the second largest structure of the brain
    -occupies the posterior portion of the skull
    -most functions include movement, posture, or balance
    -it coordinates and refines muscular movement initiated by the cerebrum
  173. fq -disease of the thin meninges
    -includes the pia mater and arachnoid, both of which are thin and delicate in structure, as opposed to the dura mater
  174. fr condition of excessive strength
  175. fs -Type of paralysis that affects movement and body position and sometimes, speech and learning ability
    -commonly occurs as the result of trauma to the brain during the delivery process
  176. ft -condition of progressive neurological disorder affecting the portion of the brain that is responsible for movement
    - dopamine (a chemical neurotransmitter necessary for proper movement)is lacking in the brain
    -patient develops uncontrollable nodding of the head,slow movement(bradykinesia,hypokinesia), tremors, large joint stiffness, and a shuffling gait
    -sometimes experiences "pill rolling",rubbing the thumb against the index finger
    -muscle rigidity causes facial expressions
    -no cure
  177. fu relieves intracranial pressure due to hydrocephalus by diverting (shunting) excess cerebrospinal fluid from the ventricles into the peritoneal or throacic cavity
  178. fv herniation of the meninges
  179. fw -regulates involuntary activities, such as heart rate, body temperature, and fluid balance
    -also controls many endocrine functions
  180. fx paralysis of four (extremities)
  181. fy inner layer is white
    outer layer is gray
  182. fz -recording of electrical signals(action potentials) that occur in a muscle when it is at rest and during contraction to assess muscular disease or nerve damage
    -an electrode inserted into a muscle transmits electrical activity of the muscle and displays it on the monitor
  183. ga cerebrum
  184. gb Any sudden and violent contraction of one or more voluntary muscles
  185. gc -star shaped neuroglia
    -provide three- dimensional mechanical support for neurons and form tight sheaths around the capillaries of the brain
    -these sheaths provide an obstruction, called the blood-brain barrier, that keeps large molecular substances from entering the brian
    -perform mildly phagocytic functions in the brain and spinal cord
  186. gd -composed 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
    -located outside the spinal column and skull
    -consists of afferent and efferent neurons
    -formed by a neuroglia cell called schwann cells
  187. ge abnormally deep unconsciousness with an absence of voluntary response to stimuli
  188. gf -consists of the brain and spinal cord
    -unmyelinated fibers, dendrites, and nerve cell bodies make up the gray matter
    -the myelin sheath covering the axons is formed by oligodendrocytes
    -injury to the CNS is irreparable
  189. gg -psychological "worry" disorder characterized by excessive pondering or thinking "what if"
    -worry, dread, lack of energy, and loss of interest in life are common signs
  190. gh branch of medicine concerned with neurological diseases
  191. gi disease of structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible deterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability, and death
  192. gj Broad term that refers to cognitive deficit, including memory impairment
  193. gk disease or inflammation of the neck
  194. gl reflexive behavior
  195. gm -literally means "nerve glue"
    -cells that support neurons and bind them to other tissues of the body
    -they do not transmit impulses, but they provide a variety of activities essential to the proper functioning of neurons
    -they supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons band assist in other metabolic activities
    -they also play an important role when the nervous system suffers injury or infection
  196. gn -innermost meninx
    -directly adheres to the brain and spinal cord
    -contains blood vessels and lymphatics that nourish the underlying tissue
    -passes over the brain and the contours of the gyri and sulci
  197. go technique that cuts a circular opening into the skull to reveal brain tissue and decrease intracranial pressure
  198. gp 1. astrocytes
    2. oligodendrocytes
    3. microglia
    4. ependyma
  199. gq act upon nerves or nerve tracts to affect only a local area
  200. gr nerve root
  201. gs -Acute inflammatory eruption of highly painful vesicles on the trunk of the body or occasionally the face
    -also called shingles
  202. gt -organ chamber or cavity that receives or holds fluid
    -In the nervous system, cerebrospinal fluid flows through the ventricles into the spinal cavity and back toward the brain, where it is absorbed into the blood
  203. gu -is the largest, uppermost portion of the brain
    -consists of two hemispheres divided by a deep longitudinal fissure, or groove
    -the fissure does not completely separate the hemispheres
    -major functions include sensory perception and interpretation, language, voluntary movement, and memory
  204. gv excessive movement;also called hyperactivity
  205. gw -sensory nerve tracts
    -upward impulse
  206. gx -most common type of stroke
    -caused by narrowing of the arteries of the brain of arteries of the neck which causes insufficient oxygen delivery to the brain tissue and within a few minutes the tissues begin to die
  207. gy a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating mental illnesses
  208. gz -dilates the pupils to increase the amount of light entering the eye to optimize vision
    -decreases the flow of saliva
    -dilates the bronchi
    -increases heart rate and metabolic rate
    -decreases digestive activities
    -constricts visceral blood vessels
  209. ha -a thin layer that covers the entire cerebrum
    -composed of gray matter
    -where most information processing occurs
  210. hb motor fibers
  211. hc -Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, commonly resulting in a spinal deformity and paralysis
    -is preventable with vaccinations in children
  212. hd -Autoimmune condition that causes acute inflammation of the peripheral nerves in which myelin sheaths on the axons are destroyed resulting in decreased nerve impulses, loss of reflex response and sudden muscle weakness
    -usually occurs after infection, stress, or trauma
  213. he act upon the brain to produce complete loss of feeling with loss of consciousness
  214. hf tumor (composed of) neuroglial tissue
  215. hg enlarged structure of the neuron that contains the nucleus
  216. hh 1.cerebrum
    2.cerebellum
    3.diencephalon
    4.brainstem
  217. hi -carry impulses to the cell body
    -resembles tiny branches on a tree, providing additional surface area for receiving impulses from other neurons
  218. hj inner gray (cell bodies and dendrites)
    outer white(myelinated tissue of ascending and descending tracts)
    H or butterfly shaped
  219. hk cerebrovascular disease
  220. hl control tremors and muscle rigidity associated with Parkinson disease by increasing dopamine in the brain
  221. hm Paralysis of both arms and legs, commonly resulting in bowel, bladder, and sexual disfunction
  222. hn -completes the last major section of the brain
    -composed of the midbrain, medulla, and pons
    -is the pathway for impulse conduction between the brain and spinal cord
    -origin of 10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves
    -controls respiration, blood pressure, and heart rate
    - is the site that controls the beginning of life
    (initiation of the heart beating in a fetus) and the end of life ( the cessation of respiration and heart activity)
  223. ho -radiographic image (angiogram) of the inside of a blood vessel after injection of a contrast medium
    -used to diagnose vascular disorders, especially blockages, narrowed areas, and aneurysms
  224. hp hear voices and see visions that are not present
  225. hq partial destruction of the thalamus to treat intractable pain;involuntary movements, including tremors in Parkinson disease; or emotional disturbances
  226. hr -precisely focused (stereotactic) radiation beams are used to treat tumors and other abnormal growths in the brain, spinal column and other body sites,and delivers high doses of radiation to the tumor with minimal exposure to surrounding healthy tissue
    -used to treat variety of brain tumors that are malignant(gliomas, metastastes) or benign (meningiomas, pituitary adenomas)
    -it also has an enhanced ability to control intracranial disease coupled with reduction in the risk of side effects from radiation therapy
  227. hs 1. 12 pairs of nerves that emerge from the base of the skull and may act in a motor capacity, sensory, capacity, or both

    2. 31 pairs of nerves that emerge from the spine and act in both motor and sensory capacities
  228. ht -are efferent
    -conduct impulses to muscles and glands
  229. hu ganglion (knot or knotlike mass)
  230. hv arachnoid and pia mater
  231. hw -noninvasive neuroimaging technique to pinpoint the specific location where seizure activity originates and enable custom surgical treatment for tumor and epileptic tissue resection
    -medically necessary for presurgical evaluation of persons with epilepsy to identify and localize areas of epileptic activity
  232. hx Hydrocephalus caused by factors that occur during fetal development or as a result of genetic abnormalities
  233. hy -involuntary movements
    -painful or difficult movement
  234. hz -cranial nerves that are composed of sensory and motor fibers
    -example is facial nerve, it acts in a motor capacity by transmitting impulses for smiling or frowning and acts in a sensory capacity by transmitting taste impulses from the tongue to the brain
  235. ia -inflammation of the dura mater
    -the dura mater is a thick membrane that provides protection for the brain and spinal cord
  236. ib meninges (membranes covering the brain and spinal cord)
  237. ic motor impulses transmitted to muscles under conscious control (walking and talking)
  238. id -sympathetic division (fight or flight)
    -parasympathetic division (rest and digest)
  239. ie type of regional anesthetic to block pain from the area supplied by that nerve
  240. if -includes an array of psychological disorders, syndromes, and behavioral patterns that causes alterations in mood, behavior, and thinking
    -commonly result in a diminished capacity to cope with ordinary demands of life
  241. ig -Sensation of numbness, tingling, or heightened sensitivity
    -caused by disorders that affect the CNS
  242. ih attaches to the spinal cord
  243. ii glue; neuroglial tissue
  244. ij Abnormal inactivity or lack of response to normal stimuli