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120 True/False questions

  1. Addison diseaseany steroid hormone that increases masculinization

          

  2. hyposecretionpituitary disorder from low blood sodium levels

          

  3. glucosuriaexcretion of glucose into the urine

          

  4. (DC)
    Acromegaly
    -Rare hormonal disorder in adulthood, usually caused by a GH- secreting pituitary tumor (adenoma) that promotes the soft tissue and bones of the face, hands, and feet to grow larger than normal
    -Tx includes radiation, pharmacological agents, or surgery, to supress secretion of GH
    -This surgery involves partial resection of the pituitary gland

          

  5. (IP)
    radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU)
    -administration of a radioactive iodine (RAI) in pill or liquid form is used as a tracer to test how quickly the thyroid gland takes up (uptake) iodine from the blood
    -test is used determine thyroid function and thyroid abnormalities , especially hyperthyroidism
    -test can be taken at the same time as a thyroid scan

          

  6. Hyperthyroidismcondition of excessive thyroid gland function

          

  7. -toxicpertaining to poison

          

  8. Hypoglycemiahigh blood glucose (blood sugar)

          

  9. Crin/oSecrete

          

  10. antithyroids-treat hyperthyroidism by impeding the formation of T3 and T4 hormone
    -are administered in preparation for a thyroidectomy and in thyrotoxic crisis

          

  11. (IP)
    thyroid scan
    -images of the thyroid gland are obtained after oral or intravenous administration of a small dose of radioactive iodine
    -is used to identify such pathologies as nodules and tumors, or to determine the cause of an overactive thyroid
    -may also be performed with a radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) to check thyroid gland function

          

  12. growth hormone (GH)hormone that stimulates growth

          

  13. toxic goiterhyperthyroidism that causes an enlargement of the thyroid gland because overstimulation of TSH

          

  14. exo-good, normal

          

  15. (DC)
    glycosuria
    -lower than normal level of sodium in the blood
    -is caused by an excessive amount of fluid in the body, thereby diluting the amount of sodium when exercising (especially in the heat) without replacing the water and electrolytes lost through perspiration

          

  16. -crine-secretes outside of bloodstream
    -Exocrine glands sweat and oil glands secrete their products outwardly through excretory ducts
    -Endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream

          

  17. (IP)
    magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    -diagnostic test in which insulin is injected into the vein to assess pituitary function, adrenal function, and to determine insulin sensitivity
    -insulin injections are used to evaluate pituitary function
    -the symptoms of low blood sugar will cause the release of growth hormone and cortisol
    -the growth hormone and cortisol will be measured at different intervals through blood work

          

  18. thyroid supplements-replace or supplement thyroid hormones
    -contains T3, T4, or a combination of both
    -are used to treat some types of thyroid cancer

          

  19. Type 2 diabetes
    (associated with being overweight and family history)
    -type 2 diabetes can be remembered by the mnemonic DIABETES
    *Drowsiness
    *Itching
    *A family history of diabetes
    *Blurred vision
    *Excessive weight
    *Tingling, numbness, and pain in the extremities
    *Easily fatigue
    *Skin infections and slow healing of cuts and scrapes, especially of the feet

          

  20. (DC)
    morbid obesity
    -excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal weight
    -may be due to excessive intake of food (exogenous) or metabolic or endocrine abnormalities (endogenous)

          

  21. (DC)
    panhypopituitarism
    total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormone activity

          

  22. Calc/opotassium
    (an electrolyte)

          

  23. Toxic/opertaining to poison

          

  24. Polyuria-excessive thirst
    -Polydipsia is one of the three "polys" as well as polyphagia and polyuria, associated with diabetes

          

  25. hypoparathyroidismexcessive production of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)

          

  26. (SP)
    thyroidectomy
    -excision of the thymus gland
    -is used to remove tumors of the thymus
    -it is also performed in tx of myasthenia gravis (MG) as this disease commonly causes abnormalities of the thymus
    -once thymus is removed , remission of MG is common

          

  27. (DC)
    hyperkalemia
    -condition in which the potassium level in the blood is higher than normal
    -potassium is a critical nutrient in the proper functioning of nerve and muscle cells, including the heart
    -it also is important for normal transmission of electrical signals throughout the nervous system
    -severe hyperkalemia requires immediate tx because it is potentially life threatening illness that can lead to cardiac arrest and death

          

  28. Thyrotoxicthymus gland

          

  29. -dipsia-excessive thirst
    -Polydipsia is one of the three "polys" as well as polyphagia and polyuria, associated with diabetes

          

  30. adenoma-tumor of the gland
    -majority of pituitary tumors are adenomas

          

  31. (DC)
    hyponatremia
    -lower than normal level of sodium in the blood
    -is caused by an excessive amount of fluid in the body, thereby diluting the amount of sodium when exercising (especially in the heat) without replacing the water and electrolytes lost through perspiration

          

  32. Androgenany steroid hormone that increases masculinization

          

  33. ketosispertaining to poison

          

  34. Hypercalcemiaexcessive calcium in the blood

          

  35. Euthyroid-tumor of the thymus gland
    -A thymoma is rare neoplasm of the thymus gland
    -Tx includes surgical removal, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy

          

  36. Thyr/o
    Thyroid/o
    -excision of the entire thyroid gland (thyroidectomy), a part of it (subtotal thyyroidectomy), or a single lobe (thyroid lobectomy)
    -is performed for goiter, tumors, or hyperthyroidism that does not respond to iodine therapy and antithyroid drugs

          

  37. (SP)
    thymectomy
    -excision of the thymus gland
    -is used to remove tumors of the thymus
    -it is also performed in tx of myasthenia gravis (MG) as this disease commonly causes abnormalities of the thymus
    -once thymus is removed , remission of MG is common

          

  38. Polydipsia-excessive thirst
    -Polydipsia is one of the three "polys" as well as polyphagia and polyuria, associated with diabetes

          

  39. osteoporosisstate of equilibrium in the internal environment of the body

          

  40. endocrinologistspecialist in treating disorders of the endocrine system

          

  41. Thyromegalyenlargement of the thyroid gland

          

  42. (LP)
    fasting blood sugar
    -test that measures glucose levels in a blood sample following fast of at least 8 hours
    -this test helps diagnose diabetes and monitor glucose levels in diabetic patients

          

  43. (DC)
    virilism
    masculinization or development of male secondary sex characteristics in a woman

          

  44. Home/othymus gland

          

  45. thyroid carcinomacancer of the thyroid gland

          

  46. insulins-secretes outside of bloodstream
    -Exocrine glands sweat and oil glands secrete their products outwardly through excretory ducts
    -Endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream

          

  47. transsphenoidalsurgery to remove pituitary tumor through the nose and sphenoid sinuses

          

  48. Parathyroid/oparathyroid glands

          

  49. (DC)
    Graves disease
    Multisystem autoimmune disorder characterized by pronounced hyperthyroidism usually associated with enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) and exophthalmos (abnormal protrusion of the eyeball)

          

  50. Diabetesenlarged thyroid gland

          

  51. myxedemahypothyroidism develops in adulthood

          

  52. Kal/ipotassium
    (an electrolyte)

          

  53. von Recklinghausen diseasespecialist in treating disorders of the endocrine system

          

  54. (MP)
    exophthalmometry
    -measures the degree of forward displacement of the eyeball (exophthalmos)as seen in graves disease
    -is performed with an instrument called an exophthalmometer, which enables measurement of the distance from the center of the cornea to the lateral orbital rim

          

  55. Adrenomegalybenign glandular tumor

          

  56. Cushing Syndromehypothyroidism that develops in infants

          

  57. corticosteroids-replaces hormones lost in adrenal insufficiency
    (Addison Disease)
    -are also widely used to suppress inflammation, control allergic reactions, reduce rejection in transplantation, and treat some cancers

          

  58. (LP)
    insulin tolerance test (ITT)
    -test that detects an increase or decrease in thyroid function
    -The test measures levels of thyroid- stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodinthyroidonine (T3), and thyroxine (T4)

          

  59. hyperparathyroidismexcessive production of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)

          

  60. tetanynoncancerous
    -majority of pituitary tumors are benign

          

  61. cretinismSecrete

          

  62. (DC)
    thyroid storm
    -excision of the entire thyroid gland (thyroidectomy), a part of it (subtotal thyyroidectomy), or a single lobe (thyroid lobectomy)
    -is performed for goiter, tumors, or hyperthyroidism that does not respond to iodine therapy and antithyroid drugs

          

  63. pheochromocytoma-small chromaffin cell tumor, usually located in the adrenal medulla, causing elevated heart rate and blood
    -may be life threatening if not treated

          

  64. (LP)
    glucose tolerance test (GTT)
    -diagnostic test in which insulin is injected into the vein to assess pituitary function, adrenal function, and to determine insulin sensitivity
    -insulin injections are used to evaluate pituitary function
    -the symptoms of low blood sugar will cause the release of growth hormone and cortisol
    -the growth hormone and cortisol will be measured at different intervals through blood work

          

  65. diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA)hormone that stimulates growth

          

  66. Hyperglycemia-excessive glucose in the blood
    -usually found in patients with diabetes mellitus or those treated with such drugs as prednisone

          

  67. hypo-excessive, above normal

          

  68. insulin pumpsmall device that administers insulin via a portable pump, which infuses insulin continuously in small amounts through a needle under the skin

          

  69. Kalemiapotassium in the blood

          

  70. hyper-same, alike

          

  71. antidiureticreduce or control excretion of urine

          

  72. Thymoma-tumor of the thymus gland
    -A thymoma is rare neoplasm of the thymus gland
    -Tx includes surgical removal, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy

          

  73. (DC)
    diuresis
    masculinization or development of male secondary sex characteristics in a woman

          

  74. Glucogenesisany steroid hormone that increases masculinization

          

  75. exophthalmosbulging or protruding eyeball or eyeballs

          

  76. (IP)
    computed tomography (CT)
    -excision of the thymus gland
    -is used to remove tumors of the thymus
    -it is also performed in tx of myasthenia gravis (MG) as this disease commonly causes abnormalities of the thymus
    -once thymus is removed , remission of MG is common

          

  77. hyponatremiaexcessive calcium in the blood

          

  78. Thym/opoison

          

  79. osteitis fibrosa cystica-small chromaffin cell tumor, usually located in the adrenal medulla, causing elevated heart rate and blood
    -may be life threatening if not treated

          

  80. (DC)
    obesity
    -excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal weight
    -may be due to excessive intake of food (exogenous) or metabolic or endocrine abnormalities (endogenous)

          

  81. Toxicologistspecialist in treating disorders of the endocrine system

          

  82. Adrenalectomybenign glandular tumor

          

  83. Parathyroidectomycondition of excessive thyroid gland function

          

  84. adenocarinomas-tumor of the gland
    -majority of pituitary tumors are adenomas

          

  85. benignoutside, outward

          

  86. hypersecretionoverproduction secretion

          

  87. Homeostasis-a condition caused by increase levels of ketone bodies in the blood
    -associated with fat metabolism (produces ketones) and diabetes mellitus

          

  88. (DC)
    hypercalcemia
    -abnormmal increase in the volume of blood plasma (liquid part of the blood and lymphatic fluid) in the body
    -commonly results from retention of large amounts of sodium and water by the kidneys

          

  89. (SP)
    parathyroidectomy
    excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands, usually to control hyperparathyroidism

          

  90. (LP)
    thyroid function test (TFT)
    -test that detects an increase or decrease in thyroid function
    -The test measures levels of thyroid- stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodinthyroidonine (T3), and thyroxine (T4)

          

  91. -uriasecrete

          

  92. Gluc/o
    Glyc/o
    Glycos/o
    sugar,sweetness

          

  93. oral antidiabetics-treat type 2 diabetes mellitus by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin and decrease peripheral resistance to insulin
    -is not insulin and is not used in treating type1 diabetes mellitus

          

  94. Adren/o
    Adrenal/o
    Adrenal glands

          

  95. Pancreat/opancreas

          

  96. Type 1 diabetes (juvenile diabetes)excessive production of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)

          

  97. Exocrine-secretes outside of bloodstream
    -Exocrine glands sweat and oil glands secrete their products outwardly through excretory ducts
    -Endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream

          

  98. EndocrinologyStudy of endocrine glands and their functions

          

  99. glucometerenlarged thyroid gland

          

  100. (DC)
    insulinoma
    tumor of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas

          

  101. goitersecrete

          

  102. Pancreatotomyincision of the pancreas

          

  103. hypocalcemiadecreased blood calcium levels

          

  104. growth hormone replacementhigh blood glucose (blood sugar)

          

  105. endocrinologystudy of endocrine disorders

          

  106. antidiurectic hormone(ADH)-treat hyperthyroidism by impeding the formation of T3 and T4 hormone
    -are administered in preparation for a thyroidectomy and in thyrotoxic crisis

          

  107. Endocrine-secretes outside of bloodstream
    -Exocrine glands sweat and oil glands secrete their products outwardly through excretory ducts
    -Endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream

          

  108. hyperglycemiahigh blood glucose (blood sugar)

          

  109. (SP)
    transsphenoidal hypophysectomy
    -excision of the entire thyroid gland (thyroidectomy), a part of it (subtotal thyyroidectomy), or a single lobe (thyroid lobectomy)
    -is performed for goiter, tumors, or hyperthyroidism that does not respond to iodine therapy and antithyroid drugs

          

  110. adenomas-tumor of the gland
    -majority of pituitary tumors are adenomas

          

  111. (DC)
    hisutism
    -excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal weight
    -may be due to excessive intake of food (exogenous) or metabolic or endocrine abnormalities (endogenous)

          

  112. poly-many, much

          

  113. Glycosuria-excessive urination
    -Some causes of polyuria are diabetes, use of diuuretics, excessive fluid intake, and hypercalcemia

          

  114. Gestational diabetes-treat type 2 diabetes mellitus by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin and decrease peripheral resistance to insulin
    -is not insulin and is not used in treating type1 diabetes mellitus

          

  115. (DC)
    hypervolemia
    -abnormmal increase in the volume of blood plasma (liquid part of the blood and lymphatic fluid) in the body
    -commonly results from retention of large amounts of sodium and water by the kidneys

          

  116. eu-outside, outward

          

  117. (LP)
    total calcium test
    -test that measures calcium to detect bone and parathyroid disorders
    -hypercalcemia can indicate primary hyperparathyroidism
    - hypocalcemia can indicate hypoparathyroidism

          

  118. Hypoinsulinism-condition of deficiency secretion of insulin
    -hypoinsulinism is a characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus

          

  119. -genforming, producing, origin

          

  120. nephrolithiasisbulging or protruding eyeball or eyeballs