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  1. -lower blood glucose levels by promoting its entrance into the body cells and converting glucose to glycogen
    (a starch- storage form of glucose)
    -Type 1 diabetes must always be treated with insulin which can be administered through an implanted pump that infuses the drug continuously
    -Type 2 diabetes that cannot be controlled with oral antidiabetics may require insulin to maintain a normal level of glucose in the blood
  2. medical device in which the skin is pricked and then blood is placed on the glucometer to determine the glucose levels
  3. Study of endocrine glands and their functions
  4. many, much
  5. Multisystem autoimmune disorder characterized by pronounced hyperthyroidism usually associated with enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) and exophthalmos (abnormal protrusion of the eyeball)
  6. hypothyroidism that develops in infants
  7. excision of one or both adrenal glands
  8. -images of the thyroid gland are obtained after oral or intravenous administration of a small dose of radioactive iodine
    -is used to identify such pathologies as nodules and tumors, or to determine the cause of an overactive thyroid
    -may also be performed with a radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) to check thyroid gland function
  9. -diagnostic test in which insulin is injected into the vein to assess pituitary function, adrenal function, and to determine insulin sensitivity
    -insulin injections are used to evaluate pituitary function
    -the symptoms of low blood sugar will cause the release of growth hormone and cortisol
    -the growth hormone and cortisol will be measured at different intervals through blood work
  10. parathyroid glands
  11. benign glandular tumor
  12. -replaces hormones lost in adrenal insufficiency
    (Addison Disease)
    -are also widely used to suppress inflammation, control allergic reactions, reduce rejection in transplantation, and treat some cancers
  13. benign tumors affect all bones caused by hyperthyroidism
  14. excretion of glucose into the urine
  15. -body mass index (BMI) of 40% or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight
    -is a disease with serious psychological, social, and medical ramifications and one that threatens necessary body functions such as respiration
  16. -type 2 diabetes can be remembered by the mnemonic DIABETES
    *Drowsiness
    *Itching
    *A family history of diabetes
    *Blurred vision
    *Excessive weight
    *Tingling, numbness, and pain in the extremities
    *Easily fatigue
    *Skin infections and slow healing of cuts and scrapes, especially of the feet
  17. overproduction secretion
  18. -Rare hormonal disorder in adulthood, usually caused by a GH- secreting pituitary tumor (adenoma) that promotes the soft tissue and bones of the face, hands, and feet to grow larger than normal
    -Tx includes radiation, pharmacological agents, or surgery, to supress secretion of GH
    -This surgery involves partial resection of the pituitary gland
  19. decreased blood calcium levels
  20. good, normal
  21. -refers to diabetes mellitus (DM)
    -most common pancreatic disorder
    -chronic metabolic disorder caused from insufficient production of insulin or body's inability to use insulin properly
  22. urine
  23. -Specialist in the study of poison
    -Toxicologist also study the effects of toxins and antidotes used for Tx of toxic disorders
  24. -abnormally low level of glucose in the blood
    -Hypoglycemia is usually caused by administration of too much insulin, excessive secretion of insulin by the islet cells of the pancreas, or dietary deficiency
  25. -crisis of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism caused by the release into the bloodstream of an increased amount of thyroid hormone
    -also called thyroid crisis or thyrotoxic crisis
    -may occur spontaneously or be precipitated by infection, stress, or thyroidectomy performed on a patient who is inadequately prepared with antithyroid drugs
    -is considered a medical emergency and, if left untreated, may be fatal
  26. -secretes outside of bloodstream
    -Exocrine glands sweat and oil glands secrete their products outwardly through excretory ducts
    -Endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream
  27. reduce or control excretion of urine
  28. bulging or protruding eyeball or eyeballs
  29. -increased formation and secretion of urine
    -occurs in such conditions as diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, and acute renal failure
    -alcohol and coffee are common diuretics that increase formation and secretion of urine
  30. insufficient production of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  31. forming or producing glucose
  32. high blood glucose (blood sugar)
  33. -lower than normal level of sodium in the blood
    -is caused by an excessive amount of fluid in the body, thereby diluting the amount of sodium when exercising (especially in the heat) without replacing the water and electrolytes lost through perspiration
  34. tumor of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas
  35. enlarged thyroid gland
  36. -imaging technique that rotates an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measures the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
    -the computer generates a detailed cross- sectional image that appears as a slice
    -may be used with or without a contrast medium
  37. -excision of the thymus gland
    -is used to remove tumors of the thymus
    -it is also performed in tx of myasthenia gravis (MG) as this disease commonly causes abnormalities of the thymus
    -once thymus is removed , remission of MG is common
  38. pertaining to poison associated with the thyroid gland
  39. -tumor of the thymus gland
    -A thymoma is rare neoplasm of the thymus gland
    -Tx includes surgical removal, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy
  40. -excision of the entire thyroid gland (thyroidectomy), a part of it (subtotal thyyroidectomy), or a single lobe (thyroid lobectomy)
    -is performed for goiter, tumors, or hyperthyroidism that does not respond to iodine therapy and antithyroid drugs
  41. any steroid hormone that increases masculinization
  42. secrete
  43. -excessive glucose in the blood
    -usually found in patients with diabetes mellitus or those treated with such drugs as prednisone
  44. poison
  45. -excessive urination
    -Some causes of polyuria are diabetes, use of diuuretics, excessive fluid intake, and hypercalcemia
  46. under, below
  47. muscle twitches and spasm caused by decrease calcium levels
  48. surgery to remove pituitary tumor through the nose and sphenoid sinuses
  49. -Excessive distribution of body hair, especially in women
    -is usually caused by abnormalities of androgen production or metabolism in women
  50. state of equilibrium in the internal environment of the body
  51. -screening test in which a dose of glucose is administered and blood samples are taken afterward at regular intervals to determine how quickly glucose is cleared from the blood
    -is performed after the patient has fasted at least 8 hours
    -it is used to diagnose pre-diabetes and gestational diabetes
  52. pituitary hormone that acts to promote the retention of water by the kidneys and increase blood pressure
  53. -measures the degree of forward displacement of the eyeball (exophthalmos)as seen in graves disease
    -is performed with an instrument called an exophthalmometer, which enables measurement of the distance from the center of the cornea to the lateral orbital rim
  54. Secrete
  55. noncancerous
    -majority of pituitary tumors are benign
  56. outside, outward
  57. -small chromaffin cell tumor, usually located in the adrenal medulla, causing elevated heart rate and blood
    -may be life threatening if not treated
  58. -body does not produce sufficient insulin
    -insulin dependent
    -type 1 diabetes can be remembered by the mnemonic CAUTION
    *Constant urination (polyuria) and glycouria
    *Abnormal thirst (polydipsia)
    *Unusual hunger (polyphagia)
    *The rapid loss of weight
    *Irritability
    *Obvious weakness and fatigue
    *Nausea and vomiting
  59. excessive production of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  60. underproduction of secretion
  61. bones become weak and brittle (porous)
  62. -excessive thirst
    -Polydipsia is one of the three "polys" as well as polyphagia and polyuria, associated with diabetes
  63. thirst
  64. -endoscopic procedure to surgically remove a pituitary tumor through an incision in the sphenoid sinus (transsphenoid) without disturbing brain tissue
  65. pertaining to poison
  66. excessive calcium in the blood
  67. -uncommon chronic disorder caused by deficiency of cortical hormones
    -results when the adrenal cortex is damaged or atropied
  68. same, alike
  69. -malignant tumor formed from the glandular structures in the epithelial tissue
    -most carcinomas of the pancreas arise from epithelial tissue
  70. demineralization of bones caused by increase PTH
  71. potassium
    (an electrolyte)
  72. incision of the pancreas
  73. study of endocrine disorders
  74. Calcium
  75. -test that measures glucose levels in a blood sample following fast of at least 8 hours
    -this test helps diagnose diabetes and monitor glucose levels in diabetic patients
  76. kidney stones
  77. -treat hyperthyroidism by impeding the formation of T3 and T4 hormone
    -are administered in preparation for a thyroidectomy and in thyrotoxic crisis
  78. hyperthyroidism that causes an enlargement of the thyroid gland because overstimulation of TSH
  79. -test that measures calcium to detect bone and parathyroid disorders
    -hypercalcemia can indicate primary hyperparathyroidism
    - hypocalcemia can indicate hypoparathyroidism
  80. thyroid gland
  81. hypothyroidism develops in adulthood
  82. small device that administers insulin via a portable pump, which infuses insulin continuously in small amounts through a needle under the skin
  83. specialist in treating disorders of the endocrine system
  84. develop of diabetes(high blood sugar) during pregnancy
  85. -test that detects an increase or decrease in thyroid function
    -The test measures levels of thyroid- stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodinthyroidonine (T3), and thyroxine (T4)
  86. hormone that stimulates growth
  87. pancreas
  88. noninvasive imaging technique that uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field, rather than an x-ray beam, to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images
  89. total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormone activity
  90. enlargement of the adrenal glands
  91. -increase skeletal growth in children and growth hormone deficiencies in adults
    -will increase spinal bone density and help manage growth failure in children
  92. excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands, usually to control hyperparathyroidism
  93. -abnormmal increase in the volume of blood plasma (liquid part of the blood and lymphatic fluid) in the body
    -commonly results from retention of large amounts of sodium and water by the kidneys
  94. resembling a normal thyroid function
  95. enlargement of the thyroid gland
  96. forming, producing, origin
  97. -excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal weight
    -may be due to excessive intake of food (exogenous) or metabolic or endocrine abnormalities (endogenous)
  98. -replace or supplement thyroid hormones
    -contains T3, T4, or a combination of both
    -are used to treat some types of thyroid cancer
  99. masculinization or development of male secondary sex characteristics in a woman
  100. -condition in which the calcium level in the blood is higher than normal
    -is caused mainly because of overactivity in one or more parathyroid glands (which regulate blood calcium levels)
    -other causes include cancer, other medical disorders, medications, and excessive use of calcium and vitamin D supplements
  101. condition of excessive thyroid gland function
  102. potassium in the blood
  103. -treat type 2 diabetes mellitus by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin and decrease peripheral resistance to insulin
    -is not insulin and is not used in treating type1 diabetes mellitus
  104. -tumor of the gland
    -majority of pituitary tumors are adenomas
  105. -condition of deficiency secretion of insulin
    -hypoinsulinism is a characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus
  106. -condition in which the potassium level in the blood is higher than normal
    -potassium is a critical nutrient in the proper functioning of nerve and muscle cells, including the heart
    -it also is important for normal transmission of electrical signals throughout the nervous system
    -severe hyperkalemia requires immediate tx because it is potentially life threatening illness that can lead to cardiac arrest and death
  107. -administration of a radioactive iodine (RAI) in pill or liquid form is used as a tracer to test how quickly the thyroid gland takes up (uptake) iodine from the blood
    -test is used determine thyroid function and thyroid abnormalities , especially hyperthyroidism
    -test can be taken at the same time as a thyroid scan
  108. excessive, above normal
  109. sugar,sweetness
  110. excision of one or more of the parathyroid gland
  111. -primary complication of type 1 diabetes
    -the body produces excess ketones into the blood
    -also referred to as diabetic acidosis or diabetic coma
  112. cancer of the thyroid gland
  113. pituitary disorder from low blood sodium levels
  114. Adrenal glands
  115. abnormal amount of glucose in the urine
  116. -a condition caused by increase levels of ketone bodies in the blood
    -associated with fat metabolism (produces ketones) and diabetes mellitus
  117. secrete within
  118. thymus gland
  119. -is a cluster of symptoms produced by excessive amounts of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or both circulating in the blood
    -adrenal cortex is associated with cushing syndrome
  120. abnormal amount of glucose in the urine