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117 True/False questions

  1. Hematuria-a presence of ketone bodies in the urine
    -(commonly found in diabetes mellitus,starvation, and excessive dieting)

          

  2. Urgency(D&C)involuntary urination;also called incontinence
    -occurs at night called nocturnal enuresis
    -occurs during the day called diurnal enuresis

          

  3. pyeloplastysurgical repair of the renal pelvis

          

  4. Renal nuclear scan(IP)-Nuclear scan of the kidneys used to determine their size, shape, and position
    -also used to determine the amount of blood the kidneys are able to filter over time, renal artery hypertension, and evaluate a kidney transplant to identify signs of rejection

          

  5. lithogenesisabnormal condition of stones or calculi

          

  6. oliguriascanty (decreased production) urine

          

  7. urolithstone in the urinary tract

          

  8. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy(PCNL)Incision of a urethral stricture

          

  9. end-stage renal disease(ESRD)(D&C)-any type of kidney disease in which there is little or no remaining kidney function,requiring the patient to undergo dialysis or kidney transplant for survival
    -(2 most common types-diabetes and hypertension)

          

  10. glomerul/orenal pelvis

          

  11. Teletherapyuses high energy beams directed at the malignancy through "seeds" planted within the tumor

          

  12. polycystic kidney disease(D&C)a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys

          

  13. Nuclear scan(IP)-Nuclear scan of the kidneys used to determine their size, shape, and position
    -also used to determine the amount of blood the kidneys are able to filter over time, renal artery hypertension, and evaluate a kidney transplant to identify signs of rejection

          

  14. Kidney transplant(SP)Replacement of a diseased kidney with one that is supplied by a compatible donor

          

  15. enuresis(D&C)involuntary urination;also called incontinence
    -occurs at night called nocturnal enuresis
    -occurs during the day called diurnal enuresis

          

  16. Diuretics-separation across
    -(renal dialysis is a procedure that uses a membrane to separate and selectively remove waste products from blood when kidneys are unable to complete this function)

          

  17. Oliguriascanty(decrease) urine production

          

  18. renalthrough, across

          

  19. pyorrheapus in urine

          

  20. Glomerulonephritisglomerulus

          

  21. Proteinuriabacteria within urine

          

  22. azotemia-nitrogenous compounds in the blood
    -(are toxic and death will occur if not removed from the body)

          

  23. nephropexy(SP)the surgical fixation of a floating or mobile kidney

          

  24. Pyuriapus in urine

          

  25. Culture and sensitivity (C&S)
    (LP)
    lab test the determines the causative organism of an infection and identifies how the organism responds to various antibiotics

          

  26. electromyography(EMG)(DP)-visual examination of the urinary bladder for evidence of pathology,obtaining biopsies of tumors or other growths, and removal of polyps using a specialized endoscope
    - a catheter can be inserted to collect tissue samples

          

  27. polyuria-much (excertion of) urine
    -(is generally considered excretion 2.5L per 24 hrs.)

          

  28. cystocele(D&C)-prolapsing or downward displacement of the bladder due to weakening of the supporting tissues between a woman's bladder and vagina
    -commonly a result of childbirth, straining with constipation,or heavy lifting

          

  29. ureterectasisdilation of the ureter

          

  30. AntibioticsDecrease spasms in the urethra and bladder by relaxing the smooth muscles lining their walls, thus allowing normal emptying of the bladder

          

  31. Intravesicalsubstance delivered directly into the bladder

          

  32. vesicocele-hernia of the bladder
    -also called cystocele

          

  33. py/opus

          

  34. Ureteroscopic stone removalprocedure in which a thin viewing instrument (ureteroscope)is inserted into the urethra (the tube that leads from the outside of the body to the bladder)
    Then the doctor passes the ureteroscope through the bladder and the ureter, to get to where the kidney stone is located.

          

  35. noct/orenal pelvis

          

  36. nephr/o
    ren/o
    the surgical fixation of a floating or mobile kidney

          

  37. Calculiurine

          

  38. Urolithiasisabnormal condition of stones or calculi

          

  39. hypercalcemiaabnormally low concentration of potassium in the blood

          

  40. Retroperitonealpertaining to (the area) behind the peritoneum

          

  41. neurogenic bladder(D&C)Sensation of the need to void immediately(UTI)

          

  42. albuminoidalbumin, protein

          

  43. urethrostenosisurethra

          

  44. dysuria(D&C)-difficult or painful urination,commonly described as a "burning sensation"
    -commonly caused by UTI

          

  45. ketonuria-a presence of ketone bodies in the urine
    -(commonly found in diabetes mellitus,starvation, and excessive dieting)

          

  46. Acute necrosis (ATN)Tubular portion of the nephron is injured by a decrease in blood supply(ischemic ATN) or after injeston of toxic chemicals(nephrotoxic ATN)

          

  47. Colicpotassium (an electrolyte)

          

  48. Cystectomyinstrument for examining the bladder

          

  49. Ultrasonography (US)
    (IP)
    -High frequency waves are directed at soft tissue and reflected as "echos" to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure
    - also called ultrasound, sonography, and echo

          

  50. hydronephrosis (D&C)-abnormal condition of water in the kidney due from an accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract
    -when dilation affects the ureter,it is called hydroureter

          

  51. lith/onight

          

  52. dialysis(SP)-a procedure to remove waste products from the blood of a patient whose kidneys no longer function
    -nitrogenous waste products are collected in a solution called dialysate

          

  53. ureter/ourine, urinary tract

          

  54. Hypertensionabnormally low concentration of potassium in the blood

          

  55. blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
    (LP)
    -a blood test that measures the amount of nitrogen in blood that comes from urea
    - used to determine kidney function
    -An increase in this may indicate renal dysfuction

          

  56. meatotomy-incision of the urinary meatus
    -(performed to relieve stenosis of the urethra)

          

  57. nephrostomy(SP)Incision of a urethral stricture

          

  58. Ischemic ATN-nitrogenous compounds in the blood
    -(are toxic and death will occur if not removed from the body)

          

  59. dialysis-separation across
    -(renal dialysis is a procedure that uses a membrane to separate and selectively remove waste products from blood when kidneys are unable to complete this function)

          

  60. albumin/oalbumin, protein

          

  61. nephropexyStudy of diseases of the kidneys, electrolyte imbalance, renal transplantation, and dialysis therapy

          

  62. Urinalysis(UA)
    (LP)
    -separation across
    -(renal dialysis is a procedure that uses a membrane to separate and selectively remove waste products from blood when kidneys are unable to complete this function)

          

  63. lithiasisStones in the urinary tract

          

  64. nephrotic syndrome(D&C)-a condition in which very high levels of plasma protein, usually albumin,are lost in the urine due to an increased permeability of the glomerular membrane
    -hypoproteinemia,edema,and hyperlipidemia are commonly ass. with this syndrome

          

  65. keton/oketone bodies (acids and acetones)

          

  66. AntispasmodicsDecrease spasms in the urethra and bladder by relaxing the smooth muscles lining their walls, thus allowing normal emptying of the bladder

          

  67. cystoscope-visual examination of the urinary bladder for evidence of pathology,obtaining biopsies of tumors or other growths, and removal of polyps using a specialized endoscope
    - a catheter can be inserted to collect tissue samples

          

  68. retro-ureter

          

  69. peritoneal dialysis(SP)an artificial machine receives waste-filled blood,filters the blood,and returns the dialyzed(clean) blood to the patient's bloodstream

          

  70. pyel/orenal pelvis

          

  71. -iasisabnormal condition (produced by something specified)

          

  72. Potassium Supplementsinstrument for examining the bladder

          

  73. Fistula(D&C)-abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another
    -most common type-vesicovaginal fistula(a passage forms between the bladder and vagina)

          

  74. Intravenous pyelography (IVP)
    (IP)
    -radiographic image of the urinary tract (with contrast medium injected intravenously)
    -also called excretory urography (EU)
    -detects kidney stones,enlarged prostate,internal injuries,tumors in the kidneys,ureters, and bladder

          

  75. cyst/o
    vesic/o
    bladder

          

  76. immunotherapystimulate the immune symptom to attack bad cells

          

  77. Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy(ESWL)-Toxic substances are removed from the body by using the perioneal membrane as the filter by perfusing(flushing) the peritoneal cavity with a warm,sterile chemical solution
    -the solution remains in the peritoneal cavity for 1-2 hrs. and then removed

          

  78. NephrologistsSpecialist that treats kidney diseases

          

  79. Stent placement(SP)Incision of a urethral stricture

          

  80. hypokalemiaPain in the kidneys

          

  81. NephrologyPain in the kidneys

          

  82. -uriaurine

          

  83. Brachytherapybacteria in urine

          

  84. nocturia-much (excertion of) urine
    -(is generally considered excretion 2.5L per 24 hrs.)

          

  85. interstitial cystitis (D&C)-a condition in which very high levels of plasma protein, usually albumin,are lost in the urine due to an increased permeability of the glomerular membrane
    -hypoproteinemia,edema,and hyperlipidemia are commonly ass. with this syndrome

          

  86. glomerulopathydisease of the glomerulus

          

  87. NephralgiaStudy of diseases of the kidneys, electrolyte imbalance, renal transplantation, and dialysis therapy

          

  88. meat/oopening, meatus

          

  89. DysuriaPainful urination

          

  90. dia-through, across

          

  91. urethr/ourethra

          

  92. bacteriuriabacteria in urine

          

  93. Bladder Ultrasonography(IP)Measures the contraction of muscles that control urination using electrodes placed in the rectum and urethra

          

  94. Pyelonephritis-Also called kidney infection or nephritis
    -Inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis

          

  95. Lithotripsy-crushing of a stone
    -(most common method is extracorporeal shock-wavelithotripsy (ESWL),Percutaneous nephrolithotomy or ureteroscopic stone removal are alternatives when stones are large)

          

  96. Bacteriuriabacteria (singular, bacterium)

          

  97. ur/ourine, urinary tract

          

  98. Voiding cystourethrography(VCUG)
    (IP)
    -X-ray imaging of the bladder and urethra performed before, during, and after voiding using a contrast medium to enhance imaging
    -To determine cause of repeated infections or stress incontinence and to identify congenital or acquired structural abnormalities of the bladder and urethra

          

  99. kal/ipotassium (an electrolyte)

          

  100. Vesicoureteral reflux(VUR)(D&C)-Disorder caused by the failure of urine to pass through the ureters to the bladder
    -VUR may result in hydronephrosis if obstruction is in the proximal portion of ureter or hydroureter and hydronephrosis if obstruction is at the distal end of ureter

          

  101. Urethrotomy(SP)ureter

          

  102. nephrotoxic ATNThe passage of a tube through the skin and into the renal pelvis to drain urine to a collecting receptacle outside the body when the ureters are unable to do so

          

  103. cystoscopy(DP)removal of the bladder

          

  104. Bladder neck obstruction(BNO)(D&C)-a chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder that is not caused by bacterial infection and is not responsive to conventional antibiotic therapy
    -also called painful bladder syndrome

          

  105. azot/onitrogenous compounds

          

  106. UrologySpecialist who treat urinary disorders

          

  107. hemodialysis dialysis(SP)an artificial machine receives waste-filled blood,filters the blood,and returns the dialyzed(clean) blood to the patient's bloodstream

          

  108. Intravenoussubstance delivered through a vein

          

  109. bacteri/oopening, meatus

          

  110. Refluxesbackward, behind

          

  111. olig/oscanty

          

  112. -genesisabnormal condition (produced by something specified)

          

  113. urethral stent placement(SP)narrowing or stricture of the urethra

          

  114. Wilms tumor(D&C)-abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another
    -most common type-vesicovaginal fistula(a passage forms between the bladder and vagina)

          

  115. Anuria(D&C)-without (producing) urine
    -Obstructive-blockage proximal to the bladder or unobstructed-severe damage to the nephrons of the kidneys

          

  116. UrologistSpecialist that treats kidney diseases

          

  117. Nephrolithiasisabnormal condition of stones or calculi