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117 Multiple choice questions

  1. through, across
  2. uses high energy beams directed at the malignancy from a machine outside the body
  3. -abnormal condition of water in the kidney due from an accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract
    -when dilation affects the ureter,it is called hydroureter
  4. urethra
  5. The passage of a tube through the skin and into the renal pelvis to drain urine to a collecting receptacle outside the body when the ureters are unable to do so
  6. Specialist that treats kidney diseases
  7. high blood pressure
  8. -urine screening test that includes physical observation, chemical tests, and microscopic evaluation
    -UA may also be the 1st indicator of diabetes,liver, and gallbladder disaese
  9. fixation of kidney
  10. -crushing of a stone
    -(most common method is extracorporeal shock-wavelithotripsy (ESWL),Percutaneous nephrolithotomy or ureteroscopic stone removal are alternatives when stones are large)
  11. bacteria within urine
  12. pertaining to the kidney
  13. -Toxic substances are removed from the body by using the perioneal membrane as the filter by perfusing(flushing) the peritoneal cavity with a warm,sterile chemical solution
    -the solution remains in the peritoneal cavity for 1-2 hrs. and then removed
  14. pertaining to (the area) behind the peritoneum
  15. backward, behind
  16. -blockage at the base of the bladder that reduces or prevents urine from passing into the urethra
    -can be caused by benign prostatic hyper-plasia,bladder stones, bladder tumors , or tumors in the pelvic cavity
  17. Measures the contraction of muscles that control urination using electrodes placed in the rectum and urethra
  18. potassium (an electrolyte)
  19. Stones
  20. the surgical fixation of a floating or mobile kidney
  21. -X-ray imaging of the bladder and urethra performed before, during, and after voiding using a contrast medium to enhance imaging
    -To determine cause of repeated infections or stress incontinence and to identify congenital or acquired structural abnormalities of the bladder and urethra
  22. Replacement of a diseased kidney with one that is supplied by a compatible donor
  23. -abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another
    -most common type-vesicovaginal fistula(a passage forms between the bladder and vagina)
  24. -a procedure to remove waste products from the blood of a patient whose kidneys no longer function
    -nitrogenous waste products are collected in a solution called dialysate
  25. stone, calculus
  26. -incision of the urinary meatus
    -(performed to relieve stenosis of the urethra)
  27. Painful urination
  28. urine, urinary tract
  29. pus in urine
  30. -separation across
    -(renal dialysis is a procedure that uses a membrane to separate and selectively remove waste products from blood when kidneys are unable to complete this function)
  31. disease of the glomerulus
  32. abnormal condition (produced by something specified)
  33. narrowing or stricture of the urethra
  34. scanty(decrease) urine production
  35. Replace potassium due to depletion caused by diuretics
  36. Sensation of the need to void immediately(UTI)
  37. glomerulus
  38. forming, producing, origin
  39. flow or discharge of pus
  40. procedure in which a thin viewing instrument (ureteroscope)is inserted into the urethra (the tube that leads from the outside of the body to the bladder)
    Then the doctor passes the ureteroscope through the bladder and the ureter, to get to where the kidney stone is located.
  41. involuntary urination;also called incontinence
    -occurs at night called nocturnal enuresis
    -occurs during the day called diurnal enuresis
  42. substance delivered through a vein
  43. surgical repair of the renal pelvis
  44. substance delivered directly into the bladder
  45. Intense pain
  46. albumin, protein
  47. renal pelvis
  48. abnormal condition of stones or calculi
  49. ketone bodies (acids and acetones)
  50. Study of urinary disorders and diseases of the male reproductive system
  51. forming or producing stones
  52. Promote and increase the excretion of urine
  53. bacteria (singular, bacterium)
  54. -a condition in which very high levels of plasma protein, usually albumin,are lost in the urine due to an increased permeability of the glomerular membrane
    -hypoproteinemia,edema,and hyperlipidemia are commonly ass. with this syndrome
  55. -High frequency waves are directed at soft tissue and reflected as "echos" to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure
    - also called ultrasound, sonography, and echo
  56. -a presence of ketone bodies in the urine
    -(commonly found in diabetes mellitus,starvation, and excessive dieting)
  57. -a blood test that measures the amount of nitrogen in blood that comes from urea
    - used to determine kidney function
    -An increase in this may indicate renal dysfuction
  58. Protein in urine
  59. uses concentrated ultrasound waves (shock waves) directed at the stones from a machine outside the body
  60. stone in the urinary tract
  61. stimulate the immune symptom to attack bad cells
  62. -Disorder caused by the failure of urine to pass through the ureters to the bladder
    -VUR may result in hydronephrosis if obstruction is in the proximal portion of ureter or hydroureter and hydronephrosis if obstruction is at the distal end of ureter
  63. urine
  64. -visual examination of the urinary bladder for evidence of pathology,obtaining biopsies of tumors or other growths, and removal of polyps using a specialized endoscope
    - a catheter can be inserted to collect tissue samples
  65. Insertion of thin narrow tube into the ureter to prevent or treat obstruction of urine flow from the kidney
  66. -a chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder that is not caused by bacterial infection and is not responsive to conventional antibiotic therapy
    -also called painful bladder syndrome
  67. night
  68. Specialist who treat urinary disorders
  69. nitrogenous compounds
  70. -Also called kidney infection or nephritis
    -Inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis
  71. stones in the kidneys
  72. Inflammation of the glomerular membrane in the nephrons, causing it to become '"leaky" (permeable)
  73. -without (producing) urine
    -Obstructive-blockage proximal to the bladder or unobstructed-severe damage to the nephrons of the kidneys
  74. US produces images of the bladder to measure pre- and postvoid residual urine, thus determining bladder volume and, potentially, identifying incomplete bladder emptying
  75. Treat bacterial infections of the urinary tract by acting on the bacterial membrane or one of its metabolic processes
  76. bacteria in urine
  77. Blood in urine
  78. Pain in the kidneys
  79. bladder
  80. -nitrogenous compounds in the blood
    -(are toxic and death will occur if not removed from the body)
  81. Decrease spasms in the urethra and bladder by relaxing the smooth muscles lining their walls, thus allowing normal emptying of the bladder
  82. increased blood levels of calcium
  83. scanty (decreased production) urine
  84. injected toxic chemical
  85. Study of diseases of the kidneys, electrolyte imbalance, renal transplantation, and dialysis therapy
  86. a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys
  87. kidney
  88. Tubular portion of the nephron is injured by a decrease in blood supply(ischemic ATN) or after injeston of toxic chemicals(nephrotoxic ATN)
  89. uses high energy beams directed at the malignancy through "seeds" planted within the tumor
  90. -Technique in which radio-pharmaceutical called tracer is introduced into the body (inhaled, ingested, or injected) and a specialized camera (gamma camera) is used to produce images of organs and structures
    -radiation comes from the inside of the body
  91. -prolapsing or downward displacement of the bladder due to weakening of the supporting tissues between a woman's bladder and vagina
    -commonly a result of childbirth, straining with constipation,or heavy lifting
  92. instrument for examining the bladder
  93. abnormally low concentration of potassium in the blood
  94. ureter
  95. -a surgery in which a small incision in the skin that forms an opening in the kidney is performed, then a nephroscope is inserted into the kidney to locate and remove stones
    -If stone is large,ultrasonic or electrohydraulic is used to break apart the stones so they can be removed
  96. Insertion of a mesh tube into a natural passage conduit in the body to prevent, or counter-react a disease-induced , localized flow constriction
  97. scanty
  98. Stones in the urinary tract
  99. -any type of kidney disease in which there is little or no remaining kidney function,requiring the patient to undergo dialysis or kidney transplant for survival
    -(2 most common types-diabetes and hypertension)
  100. pus
  101. Flows backwards
  102. opening, meatus
  103. -radiographic image of the urinary tract (with contrast medium injected intravenously)
    -also called excretory urography (EU)
    -detects kidney stones,enlarged prostate,internal injuries,tumors in the kidneys,ureters, and bladder
  104. -Nuclear scan of the kidneys used to determine their size, shape, and position
    -also used to determine the amount of blood the kidneys are able to filter over time, renal artery hypertension, and evaluate a kidney transplant to identify signs of rejection
  105. Incision of a urethral stricture
  106. an artificial machine receives waste-filled blood,filters the blood,and returns the dialyzed(clean) blood to the patient's bloodstream
  107. lab test the determines the causative organism of an infection and identifies how the organism responds to various antibiotics
  108. removal of the bladder
  109. impairment of bladder control due to brain or nerve conduction
  110. -excessive and frequent urination after going to bed (ass.with prostate disease,UTI, and uncontrolled diabetes)
  111. -difficult or painful urination,commonly described as a "burning sensation"
    -commonly caused by UTI
  112. resembling albumin
  113. dilation of the ureter
  114. -much (excertion of) urine
    -(is generally considered excretion 2.5L per 24 hrs.)
  115. decrease in blood supply to the nephrons
  116. -Rapidly developing a malignant neoplasm of the kidney that occurs in children
    -diagnosis is confirmed by an excretory urogram(EU) with tomography
  117. -hernia of the bladder
    -also called cystocele