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  1. hemodialysis dialysis(SP)
  2. Ultrasonography (US)
  3. Fistula(D&C)
  4. lith/o
  5. Pyelonephritis
  6. neurogenic bladder(D&C)
  7. albuminoid
  8. noct/o
  9. Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy(ESWL)
  10. oliguria
  11. azot/o
  12. cyst/o
  13. Urinalysis(UA)
  14. Colic
  15. meatotomy
  16. Urologist
  17. Intravesical
  18. nephrotoxic ATN
  19. Urolithiasis
  20. Hypertension
  21. Renal nuclear scan(IP)
  22. Potassium Supplements
  23. Retroperitoneal
  24. urethral stent placement(SP)
  25. Acute necrosis (ATN)
  26. Intravenous pyelography (IVP)
  27. Diuretics
  28. Culture and sensitivity (C&S)
  29. dialysis
  30. Bladder Ultrasonography(IP)
  31. Ureteroscopic stone removal
  32. Intravenous
  33. Vesicoureteral reflux(VUR)(D&C)
  34. Urology
  35. ureterectasis
  36. dysuria(D&C)
  37. Voiding cystourethrography(VCUG)
  38. nocturia
  39. -genesis
  40. dia-
  41. Wilms tumor(D&C)
  42. urolith
  43. interstitial cystitis (D&C)
  44. Teletherapy
  45. dialysis(SP)
  46. albumin/o
  47. Glomerulonephritis
  48. lithiasis
  49. Kidney transplant(SP)
  50. Oliguria
  51. Refluxes
  52. hypercalcemia
  53. end-stage renal disease(ESRD)(D&C)
  54. bacteriuria
  55. electromyography(EMG)(DP)
  56. meat/o
  57. azotemia
  58. Cystectomy
  59. Ischemic ATN
  60. nephrostomy(SP)
  61. Nephrology
  62. Nephrologists
  63. urethr/o
  64. bacteri/o
  65. nephrotic syndrome(D&C)
  66. ketonuria
  67. cystoscope
  68. Pyuria
  69. ureter/o
  70. keton/o
  71. Anuria(D&C)
  72. -uria
  73. Urethrotomy(SP)
  74. Brachytherapy
  75. Lithotripsy
  76. glomerul/o
  77. urethrostenosis
  78. blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
  79. peritoneal dialysis(SP)
  80. Hematuria
  81. enuresis(D&C)
  82. cystocele(D&C)
  83. Antispasmodics
  84. glomerulopathy
  85. Nuclear scan(IP)
  86. Stent placement(SP)
  87. pyel/o
  88. py/o
  89. ur/o
  90. Dysuria
  91. kal/i
  92. polyuria
  93. nephropexy(SP)
  94. pyeloplasty
  95. hypokalemia
  96. hydronephrosis (D&C)
  97. immunotherapy
  98. retro-
  99. pyorrhea
  100. Antibiotics
  101. vesicocele
  102. lithogenesis
  103. Bladder neck obstruction(BNO)(D&C)
  104. Urgency(D&C)
  105. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy(PCNL)
  106. Calculi
  107. Nephrolithiasis
  108. renal
  109. olig/o
  110. Bacteriuria
  111. cystoscopy(DP)
  112. -iasis
  113. nephropexy
  114. nephr/o
  115. Nephralgia
  116. polycystic kidney disease(D&C)
  117. Proteinuria
  1. a -a surgery in which a small incision in the skin that forms an opening in the kidney is performed, then a nephroscope is inserted into the kidney to locate and remove stones
    -If stone is large,ultrasonic or electrohydraulic is used to break apart the stones so they can be removed
  2. b albumin, protein
  3. c bladder
  4. d stimulate the immune symptom to attack bad cells
  5. e ureter
  6. f -visual examination of the urinary bladder for evidence of pathology,obtaining biopsies of tumors or other growths, and removal of polyps using a specialized endoscope
    - a catheter can be inserted to collect tissue samples
  7. g -a presence of ketone bodies in the urine
    -(commonly found in diabetes mellitus,starvation, and excessive dieting)
  8. h high blood pressure
  9. i Replace potassium due to depletion caused by diuretics
  10. j substance delivered directly into the bladder
  11. k -abnormal condition of water in the kidney due from an accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract
    -when dilation affects the ureter,it is called hydroureter
  12. l abnormal condition of stones or calculi
  13. m Painful urination
  14. n Replacement of a diseased kidney with one that is supplied by a compatible donor
  15. o -Also called kidney infection or nephritis
    -Inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis
  16. p renal pelvis
  17. q -nitrogenous compounds in the blood
    -(are toxic and death will occur if not removed from the body)
  18. r lab test the determines the causative organism of an infection and identifies how the organism responds to various antibiotics
  19. s stones in the kidneys
  20. t -Rapidly developing a malignant neoplasm of the kidney that occurs in children
    -diagnosis is confirmed by an excretory urogram(EU) with tomography
  21. u Protein in urine
  22. v Intense pain
  23. w -hernia of the bladder
    -also called cystocele
  24. x resembling albumin
  25. y Decrease spasms in the urethra and bladder by relaxing the smooth muscles lining their walls, thus allowing normal emptying of the bladder
  26. z -incision of the urinary meatus
    -(performed to relieve stenosis of the urethra)
  27. aa -separation across
    -(renal dialysis is a procedure that uses a membrane to separate and selectively remove waste products from blood when kidneys are unable to complete this function)
  28. ab Sensation of the need to void immediately(UTI)
  29. ac bacteria in urine
  30. ad -Disorder caused by the failure of urine to pass through the ureters to the bladder
    -VUR may result in hydronephrosis if obstruction is in the proximal portion of ureter or hydroureter and hydronephrosis if obstruction is at the distal end of ureter
  31. ae Flows backwards
  32. af scanty (decreased production) urine
  33. ag -High frequency waves are directed at soft tissue and reflected as "echos" to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure
    - also called ultrasound, sonography, and echo
  34. ah Tubular portion of the nephron is injured by a decrease in blood supply(ischemic ATN) or after injeston of toxic chemicals(nephrotoxic ATN)
  35. ai a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys
  36. aj -much (excertion of) urine
    -(is generally considered excretion 2.5L per 24 hrs.)
  37. ak Inflammation of the glomerular membrane in the nephrons, causing it to become '"leaky" (permeable)
  38. al uses high energy beams directed at the malignancy from a machine outside the body
  39. am potassium (an electrolyte)
  40. an uses concentrated ultrasound waves (shock waves) directed at the stones from a machine outside the body
  41. ao kidney
  42. ap decrease in blood supply to the nephrons
  43. aq Treat bacterial infections of the urinary tract by acting on the bacterial membrane or one of its metabolic processes
  44. ar pertaining to the kidney
  45. as -Nuclear scan of the kidneys used to determine their size, shape, and position
    -also used to determine the amount of blood the kidneys are able to filter over time, renal artery hypertension, and evaluate a kidney transplant to identify signs of rejection
  46. at -a procedure to remove waste products from the blood of a patient whose kidneys no longer function
    -nitrogenous waste products are collected in a solution called dialysate
  47. au urine
  48. av impairment of bladder control due to brain or nerve conduction
  49. aw increased blood levels of calcium
  50. ax involuntary urination;also called incontinence
    -occurs at night called nocturnal enuresis
    -occurs during the day called diurnal enuresis
  51. ay pus in urine
  52. az Promote and increase the excretion of urine
  53. ba substance delivered through a vein
  54. bb procedure in which a thin viewing instrument (ureteroscope)is inserted into the urethra (the tube that leads from the outside of the body to the bladder)
    Then the doctor passes the ureteroscope through the bladder and the ureter, to get to where the kidney stone is located.
  55. bc abnormally low concentration of potassium in the blood
  56. bd -a condition in which very high levels of plasma protein, usually albumin,are lost in the urine due to an increased permeability of the glomerular membrane
    -hypoproteinemia,edema,and hyperlipidemia are commonly ass. with this syndrome
  57. be uses high energy beams directed at the malignancy through "seeds" planted within the tumor
  58. bf nitrogenous compounds
  59. bg -blockage at the base of the bladder that reduces or prevents urine from passing into the urethra
    -can be caused by benign prostatic hyper-plasia,bladder stones, bladder tumors , or tumors in the pelvic cavity
  60. bh -excessive and frequent urination after going to bed (ass.with prostate disease,UTI, and uncontrolled diabetes)
  61. bi glomerulus
  62. bj bacteria within urine
  63. bk -abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another
    -most common type-vesicovaginal fistula(a passage forms between the bladder and vagina)
  64. bl Specialist that treats kidney diseases
  65. bm instrument for examining the bladder
  66. bn backward, behind
  67. bo US produces images of the bladder to measure pre- and postvoid residual urine, thus determining bladder volume and, potentially, identifying incomplete bladder emptying
  68. bp through, across
  69. bq urine, urinary tract
  70. br abnormal condition (produced by something specified)
  71. bs stone in the urinary tract
  72. bt -any type of kidney disease in which there is little or no remaining kidney function,requiring the patient to undergo dialysis or kidney transplant for survival
    -(2 most common types-diabetes and hypertension)
  73. bu scanty
  74. bv Study of diseases of the kidneys, electrolyte imbalance, renal transplantation, and dialysis therapy
  75. bw Incision of a urethral stricture
  76. bx Stones in the urinary tract
  77. by urethra
  78. bz surgical repair of the renal pelvis
  79. ca flow or discharge of pus
  80. cb pertaining to (the area) behind the peritoneum
  81. cc -Toxic substances are removed from the body by using the perioneal membrane as the filter by perfusing(flushing) the peritoneal cavity with a warm,sterile chemical solution
    -the solution remains in the peritoneal cavity for 1-2 hrs. and then removed
  82. cd Insertion of a mesh tube into a natural passage conduit in the body to prevent, or counter-react a disease-induced , localized flow constriction
  83. ce scanty(decrease) urine production
  84. cf Stones
  85. cg ketone bodies (acids and acetones)
  86. ch -crushing of a stone
    -(most common method is extracorporeal shock-wavelithotripsy (ESWL),Percutaneous nephrolithotomy or ureteroscopic stone removal are alternatives when stones are large)
  87. ci forming, producing, origin
  88. cj disease of the glomerulus
  89. ck -without (producing) urine
    -Obstructive-blockage proximal to the bladder or unobstructed-severe damage to the nephrons of the kidneys
  90. cl -difficult or painful urination,commonly described as a "burning sensation"
    -commonly caused by UTI
  91. cm stone, calculus
  92. cn Measures the contraction of muscles that control urination using electrodes placed in the rectum and urethra
  93. co injected toxic chemical
  94. cp Pain in the kidneys
  95. cq fixation of kidney
  96. cr Specialist who treat urinary disorders
  97. cs Insertion of thin narrow tube into the ureter to prevent or treat obstruction of urine flow from the kidney
  98. ct the surgical fixation of a floating or mobile kidney
  99. cu opening, meatus
  100. cv -urine screening test that includes physical observation, chemical tests, and microscopic evaluation
    -UA may also be the 1st indicator of diabetes,liver, and gallbladder disaese
  101. cw -a blood test that measures the amount of nitrogen in blood that comes from urea
    - used to determine kidney function
    -An increase in this may indicate renal dysfuction
  102. cx -Technique in which radio-pharmaceutical called tracer is introduced into the body (inhaled, ingested, or injected) and a specialized camera (gamma camera) is used to produce images of organs and structures
    -radiation comes from the inside of the body
  103. cy narrowing or stricture of the urethra
  104. cz Blood in urine
  105. da night
  106. db pus
  107. dc -X-ray imaging of the bladder and urethra performed before, during, and after voiding using a contrast medium to enhance imaging
    -To determine cause of repeated infections or stress incontinence and to identify congenital or acquired structural abnormalities of the bladder and urethra
  108. dd an artificial machine receives waste-filled blood,filters the blood,and returns the dialyzed(clean) blood to the patient's bloodstream
  109. de -radiographic image of the urinary tract (with contrast medium injected intravenously)
    -also called excretory urography (EU)
    -detects kidney stones,enlarged prostate,internal injuries,tumors in the kidneys,ureters, and bladder
  110. df -a chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder that is not caused by bacterial infection and is not responsive to conventional antibiotic therapy
    -also called painful bladder syndrome
  111. dg -prolapsing or downward displacement of the bladder due to weakening of the supporting tissues between a woman's bladder and vagina
    -commonly a result of childbirth, straining with constipation,or heavy lifting
  112. dh The passage of a tube through the skin and into the renal pelvis to drain urine to a collecting receptacle outside the body when the ureters are unable to do so
  113. di Study of urinary disorders and diseases of the male reproductive system
  114. dj removal of the bladder
  115. dk dilation of the ureter
  116. dl bacteria (singular, bacterium)
  117. dm forming or producing stones