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  1. -Also called thoracic cage
    -protect the internal organs
  2. forms the lower part of the nasal septum(1)
  3. -upper arm bone
    -articulates with radius and ulna at the elbow
  4. Lattice-like arrangement of bony plates occurring at the ends of long bones
  5. -most common type of muscular dystrophy
    -affects children, mostly boys
    -Transmitted as a sex-linked disease passed from the mother
    -Progression causes loss of muscle function in the skeletal and cardiac muscle
    -no cure
    -most die before 30 years of age
  6. -abnormal condition of stiffness
    -Results immobility and stiffness of a joint, commonly occurs from rheumatoid artritis
  7. A place of union between 2 or more bones; also called joints
  8. pertaining to the tibia and femur
  9. condition of joined fingers or toes
  10. Dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture of joint destruction,crackling sound
  11. -Includes 8 carpals
    -wrist
  12. Broken bone injures an internal organ
  13. Sites for blood vessels, nerve, and duct passage(Foramen of the skull, Fissure of the sphenoid bone, External auditory meatus of the temporal bone, Cavity of the frontal sinus)
  14. -Surgical procedure to replace a hip joint damaged by a degenerative disease, commonly arthritis
    -the femoral head and the acetabulum are replaced with a metal ball and stem(prosthesis)
  15. Series of radiographs taken after injection of contrast material into a joint cavity, especially the knee or shoulder, to outline the contour of the joint
  16. Inflammation of a joint
  17. abnormal loss of bone density that may lead to an increase in fractures of the ribs, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, hips, and wrists after slight trauma
  18. 1. Non-articulating surfaces (greater trochanter of the femur)
    2.Sites for muscle and ligament attachments (Tubercle of the femur and Tuberosity of the humerus)
  19. union;together;joined
  20. paired ribs 8-12
  21. Phalanges (Bones of fingers an toes)
  22. To break;surgical fracture
  23. -Thigh
    -largest, longest, and strongest bone in the body
  24. Ribs
  25. metatarsus(foot bones)
  26. surgical binding or fixation of a tendon
  27. pertaining to the radius
  28. relating to the humerus and scapula
  29. Straight
  30. line of fracture does not completely transverse the entire bone
  31. fingers;toes
  32. Movement away from the body
  33. -ankle bones
    -Consist of 7 bones
  34. Movement toward the body
  35. 2 parallel bones that form the leg
  36. decrease in bone mineral density
  37. arm
  38. -the last 2 pairs of ribs
    -does not join to the sternum
    -connects posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae
  39. an elongated contractile cell that forms the muscles of the body
  40. tumor composed of bone
  41. above;excessive;superior
  42. Surgery repeated to correct problems of a previous unsuccessful surgery or to replace a worn-out prosthesis
  43. Softening
  44. Forms the anterior portion of the skull (forehead) and the roof of the cavities that contain eyeball(1)
  45. -Degeneration of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and related tissues
    -may cause pressure on nerve roots with subsequent pain or paresthesia in the extremities
  46. -Most common form of arthritis
    -It is a progressive,degenerative disease that occurs when the protective cartilage at the end of the bones wear down
  47. malignancies that develops from primitive nerve cells in bone marrow
    -It usually affects the shaft of long bones but may occur in the pelvis or other bones of arms and legs
    -affects boys 10-20
  48. -deep socket of the hip joint that articulates with the head of the femur
    -connects inferiorly to the ilium an medially to the pubis
  49. Fragment of necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue
  50. treatment of the feet
  51. Replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute, such as an artificial extremity
  52. Malignancies that originate from bone, fat, muscle, cartilage, bone marrow, and cells of the lymphatic system
  53. Rupture of a vertebral disk's center through its outer edge and back toward the spinal canal with pressure on the adjacent spinal nerve that results in pain, numbness, or weakness in one or both legs.
  54. -Elastic CT that provides a smooth surface for movement of joints
    -Also reduces friction and absorbs shock at the freely movable joints.
  55. -Cube-shaped bones. The core is spongy bone(cancellous bone), enclosed in a thin layer of compact bone
    -Ex. wrists, ankles, and toes
  56. Visual examination of the interior of a joint and its structure using a thin, flexible scope called an arthroscope that contains a magnifying lens, fiberoptic light, and miniature camera that projects images on a monitor
  57. head
  58. Excision of bursa
  59. pain in the chest
  60. Procedures used to restrict movement, stabilize and protect a fracture, and facilitate the healing process
  61. -instrument for recording the foot
    -imprint of the foot and studying the gait(manner of walking)
  62. relieve muscle spasms and stiffness
  63. bone is broken and 1 end is wedged into the interior of another bone
  64. -Bone is broken and external wound occurs
    -Bone protrudes through the skin
  65. excision of phalanges
  66. -Fingers
    -10 radiating
  67. Pertaining to the clavicle
  68. pertaining to the femur
  69. Increase the angle at the joint
  70. stones in kidney
  71. clavicle(collar bone)
  72. fluid that lubricates and reduce friction
  73. Perceived sensation, following amputation of a limb, that the limb still exists
  74. -Porous bone
    -Decrease in bone density with an increase in porosity, causing bones to become brittle and increasing the risk of hairline fractures
  75. pain in the arm
  76. surgical repair of the fascia
  77. Consists of the
    1. ilium
    2.ischium
    3.pubis
  78. Treat rheumatoid arthritis by inhibiting activity within the immune system
  79. -Inner layer of growing bones
    -Embryonic cell bone
    -(Bone-forming cells)
  80. Immovable joints
  81. the part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle and the upper and lower limbs, which attach to the axial skeleton
  82. -Noninvasive procedure that uses low-energy x-ray absorption to measure bone material density and usually measures bones of the spine, hip, and forearm
    -measures calcium and other minerals in the bone
  83. -abnormal bending of the spine
    -lateral curvature of the spine, either to the right or left
    -Some rotation of the vertebral column may occur
  84. Consists of 3 parts
    1.Thigh
    2.leg
    3. foot
  85. care of feet
  86. Form of osteomalacia in children caused by vitamin D deficiency
  87. -A neuromuscular disorder, causing fluctuating weakness of certain skeletal muscle groups(eyes,face, an sometimes limbs)
    -destructs receptors in the synaptic region that respond to acetylcholine
  88. -Excision of the posterior arch of a vertebra
    -Performed to relieve the symptoms of a ruptured(slipped) intervertebral disk
  89. pertaining to the muscles
  90. -There is an incomplete break of a soft bone
    - partially bend & partially broken (common in children)
  91. -abnormal condition of humpback
    posture
    -Abnormal curvature of the upper portion of the spine
    -hunchback or humpback
  92. under, below
  93. Pain in the lower back
  94. Loins (lower back)
  95. Any slipping of a vertebra from its normal position in relationship to the one beneath it
  96. vertebrae(backbone)
  97. incision of the cranium
  98. -The 1st 7 vertebrates
    -Form the skeletal framework of the neck
    -Curves forward
  99. mouth
  100. Consist of of 5 small long bones numbered 1-5 and beginning with the great toe on the medial side of the foot
  101. Chronic inflammation of bones, resulting in thickening and softening of bones
  102. Bending the foot or toes upward
  103. bone has broken or splintered into pieces
  104. Loss of muscular tone or a diminished resistance to passive stretching
  105. Carpus (Wrist bones)
  106. -anterior to the bladder
    -connects pubis
  107. -12 vertebrates (#8-19)
    -support the chest and serve as point of articulation for the ribs
  108. Sternum (Breastbone)
  109. pertaining to the acromion
  110. bacteria within the bloodsteam
  111. tumor of fibrous tissue
  112. -The 1st cervical vertebrae
    -supports the skull
    -yes motion
  113. Muscle
  114. embryonic cell
  115. pelvis bone(anterior part of the pelvic bone)
  116. Ligaments that cross each other, forming an X within the notch between the femoral condyles (help secure and stabilize the knee)
  117. toward the sternum
  118. Lameness, limping
  119. The 1st- 7 pairs of ribs
  120. inflammation of cartilage
  121. Forms most of the bony area between the nasal cavity and parts of the orbits of the eyes
  122. chest
  123. Smooth Muscle (Visceral)
  124. The CT converges at the end of the muscle to become continuous and indistinguishable from the peritoneum.
  125. points where bones meet
  126. toward the head
  127. -malignancies that arise in other regions of the body and metastasize
    -prevalent
  128. Cranium (Skull)
  129. development of new bone growth
  130. fracture caused by a disease process such as neoplasm or osteoporosis
  131. -malignancies that develops in bone tissue and generally affects the knees,upper arms,and upper legs
    -affects ages 20-25
  132. inflammation of the vertebrae
  133. metabolic disease in which an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood causes sodium urate crystals to be deposited in the joints, especially that of the great toe, producing arthritis
  134. Treat and prevent hypocalcemia
  135. Pain in the head
  136. Implantation or transplantation of bone tissue from another part of the body or from another person to serve as replacement for damaged or missing bone tissue
  137. visual examination
  138. excision of metacarpal bone(s)
  139. -malignancies that arise directly from bone or bone tissue
    -rare
  140. forms the shape and bridge of the nose (2)
  141. -Palm
    -10 radiating
  142. -A break of of the lower end of the radius, which occurs just above the wrist causing displacement of the hand
    -Occurs as result of flexing of a hand to cushion a fall
  143. -Radiation, x-ray;
    -Radius; lower arm bone, thumb side
  144. Bone is broken but no external wound occurs
  145. Porous
  146. Radiography of the spinal cord after injection of a contrast medium to identify and study spinal distortions caused by tumors, cysts, herniated intervertebral disks, or other lesions
  147. -consists of 2 bones, the anterior clavicle(collar bone)and the posterior scapula(shoulder blade)
    -Attaches the bones of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton and provide attachments for muscles hat aid upper limb movements
  148. located at the corner of the eye, thin small bones form the groove for the lacrimal sac and canals through which the tear ducts pass into the nasal cavity(2)
  149. -downward displacement of the wrist
    - also called wrist drop
  150. pertaining to above the ribs
  151. Bone immobilization by application of a solid, stiff dressing formed with plaster of Paris or similar material
  152. resembling a rod
  153. disorder caused by defective nutrition or metablism
  154. Reduction in which fractured bones are realigned by manipulation rather than surgery
  155. -Found in the appendages (extremities)
    -Ex. fingers, arms and legs. Includes 3 main parts; diaphysis,proximal and distal epiphysis
  156. Turns the palms up
  157. weakness,debility
  158. Malignant tumor of connective tissue
  159. -Provides an attachment for several neck muscles
    -Projects downward from the temporal bone
  160. weakness of a muscle(and abnormal fatigue)
  161. Fluid-filled tumor that most commonly develops along the tendons or joints of the wrist or hands, but may also appear in the feet
  162. -basin shaped structure that attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton
    -Supports the trunk of the body and provides protection for the visceral organs of the pelvis
  163. -1 vertebra (#25)
    -5 sacral vertebrae fused into 1 bone. Referred to as sacrum in adults
  164. softening of cartilage
  165. Stiffening and immobility of a joint as a result of disease, trauma, surgery, or abdominal bone fusion.
  166. A systemic disease characterized by inflammatory changes in joints and their related structures,results in crippling deformities
  167. Any body part attached to a main structure (Ex. include arms and legs)
  168. -5 vertebrates (#20-24)
    -lower back area and carries most of the weight of the torso
  169. rod-shaped(striated)
  170. Revision surgery to correct misalignment of bones, broken prostheses, and bone fractures occurring around the prosthesis
  171. Inflammation of a tendon
  172. Cavities located within the cranial and facial bones that open into the septum cavities and are lined with ciliary epithelium
  173. When the CT fibers form a strap or cord that attaches muscle to bone
  174. Moving the sole of the foot inward
  175. A surgical repair of a tendon
  176. -1 vertebra (#26)
    -4 or 5 fragmented fused vertebrae
    tail bone
  177. -3 major regions-skull, rib cage, and vertebral column
    -Include(skull, maxilla, mandible, sternum,ribs, vertebral column,sacrum, coccyx)
  178. Growth
  179. Effusion of blood into a joint cavity
  180. surrounds the inside of the capsule and secretes synovial fluid within the joint capsule
  181. Excision of a sequestrum(dead bone)
  182. -The shaft or central section of a long bone
    -Contains compact bone that surrounds the central canal and the medullary cavity(marrow cavity) that contains fatty yellow marrow
  183. a broken bone
  184. bone marrow cell
  185. without,not
  186. -Located in the middle part of the base of the skull
    -forms the central wedge that joins with all other cranial bones(2)
  187. pain in the ischium
  188. -malignancies that develops in cartilage and generally affects the pelvis,upper legs, and shoulders
    - affects ages 50-60
  189. inflammation of fingers and toes
  190. ischium(lower portion of the hip bone)
  191. all bone components
  192. muscles whose action is under voluntary control.
    some examples of vountary muscles are muscles that move the eyeballs,tongue, and bones
  193. Bone immobilization by application of weights and pulleys to align or immobilize a fracture
  194. humpback
  195. Moving the sole of the foot outward
  196. specialist in treatment of musculoskeletal disorders
  197. acromion(projection of the scapula)
  198. -The 2 ends of bones to provide attachments
    - Covered with articular cartilage and mostly spongy bone(red bone marrow)covered by a layer of compact bone.
  199. -Forms part of the lower cranium
    - One on each side above the ear (2)
  200. tumor of the muscle(tissue)
  201. Metacarpus (Hand bones)
  202. Genetic disease that causes atrophy(decreased nourishment) and weakening of the muscle tissue
  203. Calcaneum (Heel bone)
  204. binding together a joint
  205. areas of devitalized infected bone
  206. Forms the back and base of the skull (1)
  207. Partial or incomplete disloaction
  208. Neck; Cervix uteri (Neck of Uterus)
  209. Consist of 8 bones that enclose and protect the brain and the organs of hearing and equilibrium
  210. Turns the palm down
  211. study of musculoskeletal disorders
  212. Femur (Thigh bone)
  213. Tendon
  214. tumor composed of striated muscular tissue
  215. pertaining to the pubis and the coccyx
  216. Lamina; part of vertebral arch
  217. abnormal condition of swayback posture
  218. Production and development of blood cells, normally in the bone marrow
  219. situated on each side of the skull just behind the frontal bone (2)
  220. pain in the metatarsus
  221. physician that maintains proper alignment to bones, muscles, ligaments, and nerves
  222. without nourishment
  223. surgical fracture of a bone;intentional fracture to treat a deformity
  224. Binding, fixation; of bone of joint
  225. Partial or complete removal of an extremity due to trauma or a circulatory disease
  226. Abnormal ,inward curvature of a portion of the lower portion of the spine
  227. forearm
  228. act of measuring the pelvis
  229. Located in the curve of the sacrum and coccyx
  230. -a space between the cranial bones of the skull in an infant,will fuse in early childhood
    -Allows the bones to move as the fetus passes through the birth canal
  231. -composed of 26 bones called vertebrae(singular,vertebra) in adults
    -supports the body and provides a protective bony canal for the spinal canal
  232. -Certain bones of the middle ear and the bones of the vertebrae
    -Complex shapes
  233. Fibrosis of connective tissue in the skin, fascia, muscle, or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint
  234. Freely movable joints
  235. foot;child
  236. -Cartilage that attaches the true ribs to the sternum
    -Costal cartilage does not fasten the false ribs directly to the sternum
  237. Is only found in the heart and forms most of the wall of the heart. It's striated like skeletal muscle, but produces rhythmic involuntary contractions like smooth muscle
  238. Decrease pain and suppress inflammation
  239. cheekbone(2)
  240. chest
  241. Bony enlargements
  242. pain in the heel
  243. visual examination of a joint
  244. Stiffness; bent, crooked
  245. -Kneecap
    -located anterior to the knee joint
  246. -Use of electrical stimulation to diagnosis the health of muscles and the nerve cells that control them
    -Motor neurons transmit electrical signals that cause muscles to contract
  247. Flat, rounded structures that separate the vertebrates
    composed of fibrocartilaginous substance with a gelatinous mass in the center (nucleus pulposus)
  248. synovial membrane,synovial fluuid
  249. tumor of smooth muscle
  250. A congenital defect caused by the maxillary not fusing together properly before birth
  251. embryonic cell that develops into the muscle
  252. Tearing of ligament tissue that may be slight, moderate, or complete
  253. Moves a bone around its own body
  254. bone infection
  255. Humerus (Upper arm bone)
  256. -Procedure that restores a bone to its normal position
    -following reduction the bone is immobilized to maintain proper alignment during the healing process
  257. ilium(lateral,flaring portion of the hip bone)
  258. Puncture of a joint space using a needle to remove accumulated fluid
  259. Bone marrow; Spinal cord
  260. -Scintigraphy in which the radionuclide is injected intravenously and taken up into the bone
    -used to detect bone disorders
  261. Increase in severity of a disease or any of its symptoms (Flare)
  262. A substance that transmits nerve impulses (neurotransmitter)
  263. removal of the patella
  264. specialist in treating joint disease
  265. sleevelike extension of the peristeum
  266. -Radiological examination of the intervertebral disk structures with injection of a contrast medium
    -used to diagnose suspected cases of herniated disk
  267. Actions are involuntary. Located principally in the visceral organs,walls of arteries and respiratory passages. and urinary and reproductive ducts. Contractions are controlled by the ANS
  268. excision of a rib
  269. Malignant tumor of plasma cells in the bone marrow;can spread and cause soft spots of holes in the bone
  270. band,fascia(fibrous membrane supporting and separating muscles)
  271. foot
  272. -(multi-nucleated cell that) breaks down bone
    -destroys matrix of the bone
  273. attaches the frontal and parietal bones
  274. -Adult consists of 206 bones
    --Divided into the Axial Skeleton and Appendicular skeleton
  275. Radiography of the five lumbar vertebrae and the fused sacral vertebrae, including anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views of the lower spine
  276. Congenital deformity of one or both feet in which the foot is pulled downward and laterally to the side (clubfoot)
  277. attachment of fibrous that spans a large area of the bone;strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach muscle to bone
  278. Bending the foot or toes downward
  279. Painful condition resulting from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel.
  280. joints that allow movement
  281. Excision of a synovial membrane
  282. minor fracture in which all portions of the bone are in perfect alignment
  283. pertaining to below the patella
  284. bone death
  285. Joint
  286. crooked,bent
  287. bad;painful;difficult
  288. Toes
  289. -A dense, white, fibrous membrane structure that covers the bone
    -Contains blood, lymph, and nerves
  290. Bone immobilization by application of an orthopedic device to the injured body part,made from wood, metal,or plaster
  291. Cartilage
  292. -Lower jaw bone, are joins together with sutures and are immovable
    -movement needed for speaking and chewing(mastication)(2)
  293. pertaining to the fibula and calcaneus
  294. -paired upper jawbones , are fused in the midline by a suture
    -They form the upper jaw and hard palate(roof of the mouth)(2)
  295. intravenously
  296. may be congenital, caused by chronic poor posture during childhood,or the result of 1 leg being longer than the other
  297. patella(kneecap)
  298. -Nuclear medicine procedure that visualizes various tissues and organs after administration of a radionuclide
    -uses a gamma camera to detect areas of uptake, called hot spots
  299. -Deformity characterized by lateral deviation of the great toe as it turns in toward the second toe, which may cause the tissues surrounding the joint to become swollen and tender
    -The term is used to refer to the pathological bump on the side of the great toe joint
  300. -Unossified membrane
    -Incomplete bone formation
    -Infants skull
  301. Pelvis
  302. Fibula; smaller outer bone of the lower leg
  303. Fiber, fibrous tissue
  304. -Tibia
    -Larger bone of the lower leg
  305. -Broad surfaces for muscle attach. or protection for internal organs
    - Ex. bones of the skull, shoulder blades, and sternum
  306. muscle fibers that arise directly from the bone. They are weaker than a fibrous attachment.
  307. rod-shaped(striated) muscle
  308. growth upon(the end of a long bone)
  309. Reduction in which fractured bones are placed in their proper position during surgery
  310. Projections that form joints
    (Condyle of the humerous and head of the femur)
  311. relating to the area between 2 vertebrae
  312. 1. larger and heavier and possess larger surface markings
    2. shallower, but wider,supports the enlarged uterus during pregnancy, provides a large opening to allow for child birth
  313. Relieve mild to moderate pain and reduce inflammation
  314. Bone
  315. Surrounded by a layer of compact bone and contains red bone marrow( immature and mature blood cells)
  316. Flexible bands of fibrous tissue that are highly adapted for resisting strains and holds bones close together in a synovial joint
  317. Slightly movable joints
  318. -The 2nd cervical vertebrae
    -makes rotation possible
    -no motion
  319. -Malignant tumor from cartilage(cells)
    - 2nd most common bone cancer
  320. Surgical breaking of an ankylosed joint to provide movement
  321. Decrease the angle at the joint
  322. pertaining to the iliac area of the pelvis
  323. curve,swayback