Medical terminology Systems;Chapter 12;Female Reproductive System flashcards |

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amni/o

amnion (amniotic sac)

amniocentesis

-surgical puncture of the amniotic sac
-is a transabdominal puncture performed under ultrasound guidance using a needle and syringe to remove amniotic fluid

cervic/o

neck; cervix uteri (neck of uterus)

cervicitis

inflammation of the cervix

colp/o
vagin/o

vagina

colposcopy

visual examination of the vagina

vaginocele

-vaginal hernia
- also called colpocele

galact/o
lact/o

milk

galactopoiesis

production of milk

lactogen

forming or producing milk (refers to any substance that stimulates milk production, such as a hormone)

gynec/o

woman, female

gynecologist

physician specializing in treating disorders of the female reproductive system

hyster/o
metri/o
uter/o

uterus (womb)

hysterectomy

excision of the uterus

endometrial

pertaining to the lining of the uterus

uterovaginal

relating to the uterus and vagina

mamm/o
mast/o

breast

mammogram

radiograph of the breast

mastopexy

-surgical fixation of the breast(s)
-is reconstructive , cosmetic surgery

men/o

menses, menstruation

menorrhagia

-bursting forth of the menses
-excessive amount of menstrual flow over a longer duration than normal

metr/o

uterus (womb); measure

metroptosis

prolapse or downward displacement of the uterus

nat/o

birth

prenatal

pertaining to (the time period) before birth

oophor/o
ovari/o

ovary

oophoroma

ovarian tumor

ovariorrhexis

rupture of an ovary

perine/o

perineum

perineorrhaphy

suture of the perineum

salping/o

tube (usually fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tubes)

salpingoplasty

surgical repair of a fallopian tube

-arche

beginning

menarche

beginning of menstruation

-cyesis

pregnancy

pseudocyesis

false pregnancy

-gravida

pregnant woman

multigravida

woman who has been pregnant more than once

-para

to bear (offspring)

nullipara

woman who has never produced a viable offspring

-salpinx

tube (usually fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tubes)

hemosalpinx

blood in a fallopian tube; also called hematosalpinx

-tocia

childbirth, labor

dystocia

difficult childbirth

-version

turning

retroversion

-tipping or turning back (of an organ)
-usually occurs in 1 of 4 healthy women

ante-

before, in front of

anteversion

tipping or turning forward of an organ

dys-

bad; painful; difficult

dysmenorrhea

painful menstruation

endo-

in, within

endometritis

inflammation of (tissue) within the uterus

multi-

many, much

multipara

woman who has delivered more than one viable infant regardless of whether the offspring was born alive

post-

after

postnatal

occuring after birth

primi-

first

primigravida

woman during her first pregnancy

gynecology (GYN)

the branch of medicine concerned with diseases of the female reproductive organs and breasts

obstetrics

-the branch of medicine that manages the health of a woman and her fetus during pregnancy and childbirth
-includes the puerperium

Puerperium

-the period of adjustment after childbirth during which the reproductive organs of the mother return to their normal nonpregnant state
-generally lasts 6 to 8 weeks and ends with the first ovulation and the return of normal menstrutation

obstetrician/gynecologist (OB/GYN)

the physician who simultaneously practices the specialties of both gynecology and obstetrics

dysmenorrhea

-menstrual pain and tension
-may be the result of uterine contractions, pathological growths, or such chronic disorders as anemia, fatigue, diabetes, and tuberculosis

metrorrhagia

menstrual periods

menorrhagia (hypermenorrhea)

-profuse or prolonged bleeding during regular menstruation
-may, in early life, be caused by endocrine disturbances
-in later life, it is usually due to inflammatory diseases, fibroids, tumors, or emotional disturbances

premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

-a disorder with signs and symptoms that range from complaints of headache and fatigue to mood changes, anxiety, depression, uncontrolled crying spells, and water retention
-occurs several days before the onset of menstruation and ends when menses begins or a short time after

Endometrial tissue

-develops into implants,lesions, or growths and cause pain, infertility, and other problems

pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

-general term for inflammation of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and adjacent pelvic structures

Pathogens

disease producing organisms

septicemia

bacteria in the blood that often occurs with severe infections

vaginitis

-localized infections and inflammations confined to the vagina, occurring from viruses, bacteria, or yeast
-2 most common types: candidiasis and trichomoniasis

urethritis

urethral inflammation

Candidiasis(monoiliasis)

-caused by Candida albicans, a yeast that is present as part of the normal flora
-If normal flora is disrupted by steroid therapy, diabetes, or pregnancy it will promote overgrowth of yeast
-results in a yeast (fungal) infection

mycostatics

antifungal agents that suppress the growth of fungi, used to treat candidiasi

Trichomoniasis

-caused by protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis
-Most commonly sexual transmitted infections in the lower genital tract

Carcinoma of the breast

-breast cancer
-most common malignancy of women in the US
-ass. with ovarian hormonal functions,family history, and hormone replacement therapy(HRT)

Nulliparous

women who have never borne children

atresia(D&C)

congenital absence or closure of a normal body opening, such as the vagina

choriocarcinoma(D&C)

-malignant neoplasm of the uterus or at the site of an ectopic pregnancy
-rare tumor that may occur after pregnancy or abortion
-its actual cause is unknown

dyspareunia(D&C)

occurrence of pain during sexual intercourse

endocervicitis(D&C)

-inflammation of the mucous lining of the cervix uteri
-usually, chronic, commonly due to infection, and accompanied by cervical erosion

retroversion(D&C)

turning or state of being turned back, especially an entire organ, such as the uterus, being tipped from its normal position

uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) (myomas) (fibroids)(D&C)

-benign tumors com-posed of muscle and fibrous tissue that develop in the uterus myomectomy or hysterectomy may be indicated if they grow too large
-cause such symptoms as metrorrhagia,pelvic pain,and menorrhagia

sterility(D&C)

inability of the female to become pregnant or the male to impregnate the female

abortion(D&C)

termination of pregnancy before the embryo or fetus is capable of surviving outside the uterus

abruptio placentae (placental abruption)(D&C)

-premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall before the third stage of labor-results in uterine hemorrhage and threatens the life of the mother
-disrupts blood flow and oxygen through the umbilical cord and threatens the life of the fetus

breech presentation(D&C)

common abnormality of delivery in which the fetal buttocks or feet present rather than the head

Down syndrome (trisomy 21)
(D&C)

-genetic condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46-occurs
-when there is an extra copy it causes delays in the way a child develops mentally and physically

eclampsia(D&C)

-most serious form of toxemia during pregnancy
-signs include high blood pressure, edema, convulsions, renal dysfunction, proteinuria, and, in severe cases, coma

ectopic pregnancy (D&C)

-pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum does not reach the uterine cavity but becomes implanted on any tissue other than the lining of the uterine cavity, such as the fallopian tube, an ovary, the abdomen, or even the cervix uteri
-kinds include abdominal pregnancy, ovarian pregnancy, and tubal pregnancy

placenta previa(D&C)

-obstetric complication in which the placenta is attached close to or covers the cervical canal that results in bleeding during labor when the cervix dilates
-leading cause of vaginal bleeding (spotting) that may lead to other complications
-may also necessitate a cesarean delivery

IUD (intrauterine device)
(MP)

-small t-shaped device inserted by a physician inside the uterus to prevent pregnancy
-Copper IUD,which releases copper particles to prevent pregnancy
-hormonal IUD,which releases progestin to prevent pregnancy

cerclage (SP)
(purse-string procedure)

suturing of the cervix to prevent it from dilating prematurely during pregnancy, thus decreasing the chance of a spontaneous abortion

cesarean section (SP)

-incision of the abdomen and uterus to remove the fetus -also called c-section

colpocleisis (SP)

surgical closure of the vaginal canal

conization (SP)

excision of a cone shaped piece of tissue, such as mucosa or the cervix for histological examination

cordocentesis (SP)

sampling of fetal blood drawn from the umbilical vein and performed under ultrasound guidance

cryosurgery (SP)

-process of freezing tissue to destroy cells
-also called cryocautery

(D&C)-dialation and curettage (SP)

widening of the cervical canal with dialator and scraping of the uterine endometrium with curette

Subtotal hysterectomy (SP)

Hysterectomy where the cervix, ovaries, and fallopian tubes remain

Total hysterectomy (SP)

-Hysterectomy where the cervix is removed but the ovaries and fallopian tubes remain
- also called complete hysterectomy

Total plus bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (SP)

Total (complete) hysterectomy, including removal of the uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, and ovaries

laparscopy (SP)

visual examination of the abdominal cavity with a elaparoscope through one or more small incision in the abdominal wall, usually at the umbilicus

lumpectomy (SP)

excision of small primary breast tumor or lumps and some of the normal tissue that surrounds it

mammoplasty (SP)

surgical reconstruction of the breast to change the size, shape, or position

mammoplasty (augmentation) (SP)

insertion of a breast prosthesis (filled iwth silicone gel or saline) beneath the skin or beneath the pectoralis major muscle

mammoplasty (reduction) (SP)

breast reduction to reduce the size of a large, pendulous breast

mastectomy (SP)

excision of the entire breast

mastectomy (total-simple) (SP)

excision of the entire breast, nipple, areolar, and the involved overlying skin, also called simple mastectomy

mastectomy- (modified radical) (SP)

excision of the entire breast, inculuding the lymph nodes in the underarm axiallry dissection

mastectomy (radical) (SP)

excision of the entrire breast, all underarm lymph nodes, and chest wall muscles under the breast

reconstructive breast surgery (SP)

creation of a breast shaped mound to replace a breas tthat has been removed due to cancer or other disease

tissue (skin) expansion (SP)

common breast reconstruction technique in which a balloon expander is inserted beneath the skin and chest muscle, saline solution is gradually injected to increase size, and the expander is then replaces with a more permanent implant

TRAM - transverserectus abdominis muscle flap (SP)

surgical creation of a skin flap using skin and fat from the lower half of the abdomen, which is passed under the skin to the breast area, and then shaping the abdominal tissue flap into a natural looking breast and suturing it into place

tubal ligation (SP)

-procedure that ties ( ligates) the fallopian tubes to prevent pregnancy
-form of sterilization surgery usually performed during laparoscopy

amniocentesis(CP)

trans-abdominal puncture of the amniotic sac under ultrasound guidance using a needle position is verified by US on a monitor screen and syringe to remove amniotic fluid and enables transfusion of blood and instillation of drugs to the fetus

colposcopy(CP)

visual examination of the vagina and cervix with an optical magnifying instrument (colposcope)

insufflation(CP)

-delivery of a pressurized air or gas into a cavity, chamber, or organ to allow visual examination, remove an obstruction, or apply medication
- Increases distance between structures

insufflation (tubal)(CP)

-test for patency of the uterine tubes made by transuterine insufflation with carbon dioxide
-also called Rubin test

pelvimetry(CP)

measurement of the pelvic dimensions to determine whether the head of the fetus will be able to pass through the bony pelvis to allow delivery

CVS- chorionic villus sampling(LP)

-sampling of placental tissues for prenatal diagnosis of potential genetic defects
-involves insertion of a catheter into the uterus to obtain sample
-can be undertaken in the 1st trimester of pregnancy

endometrial biopsy(LP)

-removal of a sample of uterine endometrium for microscopic study
-used in fertility assessment and to determine dysfunctional and postmenopausal bleeding

papanicolaou (pap) test(LP)

-cytological study used to detect abnormal cells sloughed from the cervix and vagina, usually obtained during routine pelvic examination
-commonly used to scan for cervical cancer

heterosalpingography (HSG)
(IP)

-radiography and usually fluroscopy of the uterus and uterine tubes( oviducts) following injection of a contrast medium
-used to determine pathology in the uterine cavity,evaluate tubal patency, and determine the cause of infertility

mammography(IP)

radiographic examination of the breast to screen for breast cancer

ultrasonography (US)

-use of a high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) directed at soft tissue and reflected as "echoes" to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure
- also called ultrasound, sonography and echo

ultasonography ( transvaginal)(IP)

US of the pelvic area performed with a probe inserted into the vagina, which provides sharper images of pathological and normal structures within the pelvis

Antifungals

Treat vaginal yeast infection by altering the yeast cell membrane or interfering with the metabolic process

Estrogens

Treat symptoms of menopause (hot flashes, vaginal dryness, fatigue)through hormone replacement therapy(HRT)

Oral contraceptives

Synthetic hormones used to prevent pregnancy and treat menstrual disorders

Oxytocics

Induce labor at term by increasing the strength and frequency of uterine contractions

Prostaglandins

Terminate pregnancy

Spermicides

Chemically destroy sperm by creating a highly acidic environment in the uterus

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