Medical terminology Systems; Chapter 5; Integumentary Ststem flashcards |

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adip/o
lip/o
steat/o

fat

adiposis

abnormal condition of fat

lipocele

hernia containing fat

steatitis

inflammation of fatty (adipose) tissue

cutane/o
dermat/o
derm/o

skin

subcutaneous

pertaining to beneath the skin

dermatoplasty

surgical repair of the skin

hypodermic

pertaining to under the skin

hidr/o
sudor/o

sweat

hidradenitis

inflammation of the sweat glands

sudoresis (hyperhidrosis)

profuse sweating

ichthy/o

dry, scaly

ichthyosis

abnormal condition of dry or scaly skin

kerat/o

horny tissue; hard; cornea

keratosis

-abnormal of horny tissue
-is a thickened area of the epidermis or any horny growth on the skin, such as a callus or wart

melan/o

black

melanoma

-black tumor
-Is a malignant tumor of melanocytes that commonly begins in a darkly pigmented mole and can metastasize widely

myc/o

fungus (plural, fungi)

dermatomycosis

fungal infection of the skin

onych/o
ungu/o

nail

onychomalacia

softening of the nails

ungual

pertaining to the nails

pil/o
trich/o

hair

pilonidal

-pertaining to hair in a nest
-commonly develops in the skin at the base of the spine
-it develops as a growth of hair in a dermoid cyst

scler/o

hardening; sclera (white of eye)

scleroderma

-hardening of the skin
-is an autoimmune disorder that causes the skin and internal organs to become progressively hardened due to deposits of collagen

seb/o

sebum, sebaceous

seborrhea

discharge of sebum

squam/o

scale

squamous

pertaining to scales (or covered with scales)

xen/o

foreign, strange

xenograft (heterograft)

-skin transplantation from a foreign donor (usually a pig) for a human
-are used as a temporary graft to protect against infection and fluid loss

xer/o

dry

xeroderma

dry skin

-cyte

cell

lipocyte

fat cell

-derma

skin

pyoderma

-pus in the skin
-is a acute, inflammatory, purulent bacterial dermatitis
-may be primary, such as impetigo, or secondary to a previous skin condition

-logist

specialist in the study of

dermatologist

specialist in the study of skin disorders

-logy

study of

dermatology

study of the skin (and its diseases)

-therapy

treatment

cryotherapy

-use of cold in the treatment (of diseases)
-is used to destroy tissue by freezing with liquid nitrogen

an-

without, not

anhidrosis

abnormal condition of not sweating

dia-

through, across

diaphoresis (sudoresis or hyperhidrosis)

excessive or profuse sweating

epi-

above, upon

epidermis

-above the skin
-is the outer most layer of the skin

homo-

same

homograft (allograft)

transplantation of tissue between individuals of the same species

hyper-

excessive, above normal

hyperhidrosis (diaphoresis or sudoresis)

excessive or profuse sweating

sub-

under, below

subungual

pertaining to beneath the nail of a finger or toe

Dermatology

Study of the skin and its diseases

Dermatologist

Specialist in diagnosis and treatment of skin disorders

Lesions

areas of tissue that have been pathologically altered by injury, wound, or infection

localized lesion

lesion that affects tissue over an area of a definite size

systemic lesion

lesion that affects tissue throughout the body

primary skin lesions

are the initial reaction to pathologically altered tissue and may be flat or elevated

secondary skin lesions

are changes that take place in the primary lesion due to infection, scratching, trauma, or various stages of a disease

Macule Lesion

-Primary Lesion
-Flat Lesion
-flat,pigmented, circumscribed area
-examples include freckle, flat mole, or rash that occurs in rubella

Papule Lesion

-Primary Lesion
-Solid, elevated lesion
-examples include nevus, wart, pimple, ringworm, psoriasis, eczema

Nodule Lesion

-Primary Lesion
-Solid, elevated lesion
-palpable, circumscribed lesion
-examples include intradermal nevus, benign or malignant tumor

Tumor Lesion

-Primary Lesion
-Solid, elevated lesion
-lipoma, steatoma, dermatofibroma, hemangioma

Wheal Lesion

-Primary Lesion
-Solid, elevated lesion
-Elevated, firm, rounded lesion with localized skin edema (swelling) that varies in size, shape, and color
-examples include hives, insect bites, uticaria

Vesicle Lesion

-Primary Lesion
-Fluid-filled lesion
-elevated, circumscribed, fluid-filled
-examples include poison ivy, shingles, chickenpox

Pustule Lesion

-Primary Lesion
-Fluid-filled lesion
-small, raised, circumscribed lesion that contains pus
-examples include acne, furuncle, pustular psoriasis, scabies

Bulla Lesion

-Primary Lesion
-Fluid-filled lesion
-a vesicle or blister
-examples include second- degree burns, severe poison oak, poison ivy

Excoriations Lesion

-Secondary Lesion
-Depressed Lesion
-linear scratch marks or traumatized abrasions of the epidermis
-examples include scratches, abrasions, chemical or thermal burns

Fissure Lesion

-Secondary Lesion
-Depressed Lesion
-small slit or crack- like sore that extends into the dermal layer
-could be caused by continuous inflammation and drying

Ulcer Lesion

-Secondary Lesion
-Depressed Lesion
-an open sore or lesion that extends into the dermis and usually heals with scarring
-examples include pressure sore, basal cell carcinoma

First-degree (superficial) burns

-the least serious type of burn
-injures only the top layers of skin, the epidermis

thermal burn

-type of first degree burn
-brief contact with dry or moist heat

sunburn

-type of first degree burn
-caused by spending too much time in the sun

chemical burn

-type of first degree burn
-skin exposed to chemicals

erythema

skin redness

hyperesthesia

increased feeling

Second- degree (partial thickness)burns

-burns are deep burns that damage the epidermis and part of the dermis
-may be caused by contact with flames, hot liquids, or chemicals
-forms fluid- filled blisters

vesicles (bullae)

-caused from second degree burn
-fluid- filled blisters
-may heal with little or no scarring

Third- degree (full-thickness) burns

-burn in which the epidermis and dermis are destroyed and some of the connective tissue is damaged, leaving the skin waxy and charred with insensitivity to touch
-the underlying bones, muscles, and tendons may also be damaged
-may be caused by corrosive chemicals, flames, electricity, or extremely hot objects; immersion of the body in extremely hot water; or clothing that catches fire
-ulcerating wound develop and the body attempts to heal itself by forming scar tissue
-skin grafting is commonly required

dermatoplasty

-surgical repair of the skin
-skin grafting

neoplasms

are abnormal growths of new tissue that are classified as benign or malignant

benign neoplasms

noncancerous growths

malignant neoplasms

cancerous growths

matastasis

growths spread to remote areas of the body

immunotherapy (biotherapy)

-form of cancer treatment
-treatment that stimulates the body's own immune defenses to fight tumor cells

combined modality treatment

-a combination of treatments

pathologist

a specialist in diagnosis of diseases

tumor grading

a way to determine the degree of loss of cellular differentiation and function of tumors

Anaplasia

Loss of cellular differentiation and function

tumor- node- metastasis (TNM)

-staging system that classifies solid tumors by size and degree of spreading

(T)tumor- node- metastasis (TNM)

size and invasiveness of the primary tumor

(N)tumor- node- metastasis (TNM)

area lymph nodes involved

(M)tumor- node- metastasis (TNM)

invasiveness (matastastis) of the primary tumor

basal cell carcinoma

-the most common type of skin cancer
-rarely metastasizes
-is a malignancy of the basal layer of the epidermis, or hair follicles
-usually caused by overexposure to sunlight

squamous cell carcinoma

-arises from the skin that undergoes pathological hardening of epidermal cells
- invasive tumor with potential for matastasis
-occurs most commonly in fair- skinned white men over age 60

carcinogens

cancer causing agents

in situ carcinoma

cancinoma that is confined to original site

invasive carcinoma

carcinoma that penetrates the surrounding tissue

Malignant melanoma

-malignant growths of melanocytes
-Highly metastatic, with a higher mortality rate than other carcinomas
-Most lethal of the skin cancers

biopsy

tissue sample removed to determine if malignant

Abcess

Localized collection of pus at the site of an infection (characteristically a staphylococcal infection)

Acne (acne vulgaris)

Inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles of the skin with characteristic lesions that include blackheads (comedos), inflammatory papules, pustules, nodules and cysts and usually associated with seborrhea

Alopecia (baldness)

Partial or complete loss of hair resulting from normal aging, an endocrine disorder, a drug reaction, anticancer medication, or a skin disease

Bowen Disease (Bowen precancerous dermatosis)

-Form of intra-epidermal carcinoma (squamous cell) characterized by red-brown scaly or crusted lesions that resemble a patch of psoriasis or dermatitis
-treatment includes curettage and electrodesiccation

Cellulitis

-Diffuse (widespread), acute infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissues
-Characterized by a light glossy appearance of the skin, localized heat, redness, pain, swelling and, occasionally, fever, malaise, and chills

Chloasm

Pigmentary skin discoloration usually occurring in a yellowish brown patches or spots

Comedo

-Typical small skin lesion of acne caused by accumulation of keratin, bacteria, and dried sebum plugging an excretory duct of the skin
-closed form is called whitehead

Dermatomycosis

-Infection of the skin caused by fungi
-a common type is called ringworm

Ecchymosis (bruise)

Skin discoloration consisting of large, irregularly formed hemorrhagic area with colors changing from blue-black to greenish brown or yellow

Eczema (atopic dematitis)

-Chronic inflammatory skin condition that is characterized by erythema, papules, vesicles, pustules, scales, crusts and scabs and accompanied by intense itching (pruritis)

Erythema

Redness of the skin caused by swelling of the capillaries

Eschar

-Dead matter that is sloughed off from the surface of the skin, especially after a burn
-commonly is crusted or scabbed

Impetigo

Bacterial skin infection characterized by isolation pustules that become crusted and rupture

Keratosis

Thickened area of the epidermis of any horny growth on the skin (such as a callus or wart)

Lentigo

-Small brown macules , especially on the face and arms, brought on by sun exposure, usually in a middle-aged person or older
-benign pigmented lesions

Pallor

Unnatural paleness or absence of color in the skin

Pediculosis

Infestation with lice, transmitted by personal contact or common use of brushes, combs or headgear

Petechia (plural, petechiae)

Minute, pinpoint hemorrhage under the skin, small version of ecchymosis

Pressure Ulcer (decubitus ulcer)

Inflammation, sore, or skin deterioration caused by prolonged pressure from lying in one position that prevents blood flow to the tissues, usually in elderly bedridden persons

Pruitus

Intense itching

Psoriasis

Chronic skin disease characterized by circumscribed red patches covered by thick, dry, silvery adherent scales and cause by excessive development of the basal layer of the epidermis

Purpura

Any of several bleeding disorders characterized by hemorrhage into the tissues, particulary beneath the skin or mucous membranes, producing echymoses or petechiae

Scabies

Contagious skin disease transmitted by the itch mite, commonly through sexual contact

Tinea (ringworm)

Fungal skin infection whose name commonly indicated the body part affected

Urticaria (wheals or hives)

Allergic reaction of the skin characterized by the eruption of pale red, elevated patches called wheals or hives

Verruca (warts)

Epidermal growth caused by a virus

Vitiligo

Localized loss of skin pigmentation characterized by milk-white patches

Chemical Peel (chemabrasion)

Chemical removal of the outer layers of skin to treat acne scarring and general keratoses

Cyrosurgery

Use of subfreezing temperature (commonly liquid nitrogen) to destroy or eliminate abnormal tissue, such as tumors, warts, and unwanted, cancerous, or infected tissue

Debridement

Removal of necrotized tissue from a wound by surgical excision, enzymes, or chemical agents

Dermabrasion

Rubbing (abrasion) using wire brushes or sandpaper to mechanically scrape away (abrade) the epidermis. Commonly used for acne scars, tattoos, and scar tissue

Fulguration (electrodesiccation)

Tissue destruction by means of high frequency electric current

Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)

Procedure in which cells selectively treated with an agent called a photo-sensitizer are exposed to light to produce a reaction that destroys the cells

Biopsy

Representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination

Frozen Section (FS) biopsy

-Ultra-thin slice of tissue from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination. -Commonly used for a rapid diagnosis of malignancy

Needle Biopsy

Removal of a small tissue sample for examination using a hollow needle, usually attached to a syringe

Punch biopsy

Removal of a small core of tissue using a hollow punch

Shave biopsy

Removal of elevated lesions using a surgical blade

Mohs

Layers of cancer containing skin are progressively removed and examined until only cancer free tissue remains

Skin graft

Transplantation of healthy tissue to an injured site

Allograft skin graft (homograft)

Transplantation of healthy tissue from one person to another person

Autograft skin graft

Transplantation of healthy tissue from one site to another site in the same individual

Synthetic skin graft

Transplantation of artificial skin produced from collagen fibers arranged in a lattice pattern

Xenograft skin graft

Skin transplant from a foreign donor (usually a pig) for a human. Also called a heterograft. This is a temporary graft to protect against fluid loss and infection

Allergy Skin Test

Any test in which a suspected allergen or sensitizer is applied to or injected into the skin to determine the patients sensitivity to it

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