Medical Terminology Systems;Chapter 8; Cardiovascular System flashcards |

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aneurysm/o

widened blood vessel

aneurysmorrhaphy

suture of an aneurysm

angi/o
vascul/o

vessel (usually blood or lymph)

vasculitis

inflammation of (blood) vessels

-rrhaphy

suture

aort/o

aorta

aortostenosis

narrowing of the aorta

-stenosis

narrowing, stricture

arteri/o

artery

arteriorrhexis

rupture of an artery

-rrhexis

rupture

arteriol/o

arteriole

arteriolitis

inflammation of an arteriole

atri/o

atrium

artiomegaly

enlargement of the atrium

ather/o

fatty plaque

atheroma

tumor of fatty plaque

cardi/o
coron/o

heart

cardiomegaly

enlargement of the heart

coronary

pertaining to the heart (vessels)

-ary

pertaining to

electr/o

electricity

electrocardiogram

record of the electrical (impulses) of the heart

embol/o

embolus (plug)

embolectomy

removal of an embolus

hemangi/o

blood vessel

hemangioma

tumor of blood vessels

my/o

muscle

myocardial

pertaining to heart muscle

phleb/o
ven/o

vein

phlebectasis

expansion of a vein

-ectasis

dilation, expansion

venostasis (phlebostasis)

standing still of (blood in) a vein

-stasis

standing still

scler/o

hardening; sclera (white of eye)

arteriosclerosis

abnormal condition of hardening of the artery

-osis

abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)

sept/o

septum

septostomy

forming an opening in a septum

-stomy

forming an opening (mouth)

sphygm/o

pulse

sphygmoid

resembling a pulse

-oid

resembling (suffix)

sten/o

narrowing, stricture (combining form)

stenotic

pertaining to a narrowing or stricture

thromb/o

blood clot

thrombolysis

destruction of a blood clot

-lysis

separation; destruction; loosening

valv/o
valvul/o

valve

valvotomy

incision of a valve

valvuloplasty

surgical repair of a valve

vas/o

vessel; vas deferens; duct

vasography

process of recording (an image of) a vessel

ventricul/o

ventricle (of the heart or brain)

ventricular

pertaining to a ventricle (chamber of the heart or brain)

-cardia

heart condition

tachycardia

rapid heart (beat)

tachy-

rapid

-gram

record, writing

arteriogram

record of an artery

-graph

instrument for recording

electrocardiograph

instrument for recording electrical (activity) of the heart

-graphy

process of recording

angiography

process of recording (an image of) a vessel

aortostenosis

narrowing of the aorta

brady-

slow

bradycardia

slow heart (beat)

endo-

in, withing

endovascular

pertaining to (the area) withing a vessel

extra-

outside

extravascular

pertaining to (the area) outside a vessel

peri-

around

pericardial

pertaining to (the area) around the heart

trans-

across

angina

chest pain

dyspnea

difficulty breathing

arrhythmias

cardiac irregularites

syncope

loss of consciousness

cardiology

medical specialty concerned with disorders of the cardiovascular system

cardiologist

physician who treats cardiovascular disorders

embolus (plural, emboli)

a blood clot dislodges within the vascular system

diaphoresis

profuse sweating

pallor

paleness

endocarditis

is an inflammation of the inner lining of the heart and its valves

bacteremia

bacteria within the blood

vegetations

abnormal growths

regurgitation

backflow

stenosis

abnormal narrowing

insufficiency

does not work properly

prophylactic treatment

medications used to prevent diseases

incompetent

do not function properly

edema

fluid within tissues

varices

varicose veins within the esophagus

hemorrhoids

enlarged vein in the rectum area

telangiectases

spider veins

phlebitis

inflammation within the vein

myxoma

tumor composed of connective tissue

pulmonary edema

fluids in the lumgs

arthralgia

joint pain

primary tumor

is a tumor growing at the anatomical site where tumor progression began and proceeded to yield a cancerous mas

metastasized tumor

tumor that spreads to another area

malignant melanoma

dark pigmented mole or tumor of the skin

Aneurysm

localized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually an artery

fusiform aneurysm

dilation of the entire circumference of the artery

saccular aneurysm

dilation of one side of the artery

dissecting aneurysm

a tear in the inner layer causes the cavity to form between the layers of the artery that fills with blood and expands with each heartbeat

angina (angina pectoris)

mild to severe suffocating pain that typically occurs in the chest and is caused by and inadequate blood flow to the myocardium

arrhythmia (dysrhythmia)

irregularity in the rate or rhythm of the heart

bradycardia

Arrhythmia in which the heat abnormally slowly, usually fewer than 60 beats per minute and a resting adult

Fibrillation

Arrhythmia in which there is an abnormally rapid, uncoordinated quivering of the myocardium that can affect the atria or the ventricles

heart block

arrhythmia in which there is an interference with the normal transmission of electric impulses from SA node to the Purkinje fibers

tachycardia

arrhythmia in which there is a fast but regular rhythm, with the heart possibly beating up to 200 beats/minute

arteriosclerosis

hardening and narrowing of an artery along with the loss of its elasticity

atherosclerosis

form of arteriosclerosis characterized by the deposits of plaques containing cholesterol and lipids that narrows the lumen in the arteries

carotid artery disease

narrowing of the carotid arteries, usually caused by atherosclerosis; may eventually lead to thrombus formation and stroke

bruit (murmur)

soft blowing sound heard on auscultation, associated valvular action or with the movement of blood as it passes an obstruction or both

cardiomyopathy

disease or weakening of the heart muscle that diminishes cardiac function

coarctation

narrowing of a vessel, especially the aorta

embolism

condition in which a mass (commonly a blood clot) becomes lodged in a blood vessel, obstructing blood flow

hyperlipidemia

excessive amounts of lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides) in the blood

hypertension

elevated blood pressure persistently higher than 140/90 mm Hg

hypotension

low blood pressure persistently lower than 90/60 mm Hg

infarction

localized tissue necrosis due to the cessation of blood supply

ischemia

local, temporary deficiency of blood supply of an organ or tissue due to circulatory obstruction

mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

structural defect in which the mitral (bicuspid) valve leaflets prolapse into the left atrium during ventricular contraction (systole), resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood

palpitation

sensation of an irregular heartbeat, commonly described as pounding, racing, skipping a beat, or flutter

phlebitis

inflammation of a deep or superficial vein of the arms or legs

syncope (fainting)

partial or complete loss of consciousness that is usually caused by a decreased supply of blood to the brain

thrombosis

abnormal condition in which a blood clot develops in a vessel and obstructs it at the site of its formation

deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (deep venous thrombosis)

blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the body, especially those in the legs or thighs

defibrillation

-electrical shock delivered randomly during the cardiac cycle to treat emergency life-threatening arrhythmia's
- is performed when patients do not have a pulse

cardioversion

defibrillation technique using low energy shocks to treat an arrhythmia, and is usually synchronized with the large R waves of the ECG complex to restore normal heart rythm

sclerotherapy

-injection of a chemical irritant (sclerosing agent) into a vein to produce inflammation and fibrosis that destroys the lumen of the vein
-commonly preformed on varicose veins

thrombolysis

destruction of a blood clot using anticlotting agents called clot-busters, such as tissue plasminogen activator

angioplasty

any endovascular procedure that reopens narrowed blood vessel and restores forward blood flow

percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty PTCA

angioplasty of the coronary arteries in which a balloon is inserted through the skin into the right femoral artery and threaded to the site of stenosis to enlarge the lumen of the artery and restore forward blood flow

biopsy

removal of a small piece of tissue for diagnostic purposes

arterial biopsy

removal of a segment of an arterial vessel wall to confirm inflammation of the artery;arteritis, a type of vasculitis

catheter ablation

treatment of cardiac arrhythmias usually preformed under fluroscopic guidance

commissurotomy

surgical separation of the leaflets of the mitral valve which have fused together

coronary artery bypass graft CABG

placement of a vessel graft from another part of the body to bypass the blocked part of a coronary artery and restore blood flow the heart (the saphenous vein is commonly used)

embolectomy

-removal of an embolus
- is a mass including air, bacteria, tissue, or blood clot

endarterectomy

removal of fatty plaque from the interior of an occluded vessel using a specially designed catheter fitted with a grinding or cutting devic

automatic implanatble cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD) insertion

implantation of a battery powered device that monitors and corrects ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation by sending electric impulses to the heart in patients who are at risk of sudden cardiac death

laser ablation

procedure used to remove or treat varicose veins

open heart surgery

surgical procedure preformed on or within the exposed heart usually with the assistance of a heart lung machine

stent placement

placement of a mesh tube inserted into a natural passage or conduit in the body to prevent or counteract disease induced localized flow constriction

valvotomy

incision of a valve to increase the size of the opening

cardiac catheterization (CC)

passage of a catheter into the heart through a vein or artery to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the heart

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