Medical Terminology Systems;Chapter 16;Special Senses flashcards |

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ambly/o

dull, dim

amblyopia
(lazy eye syndrome)

-dimness of vision
-visual stimulation through the optic nerve of one eye (lazy eye) is impaired, thus resulting in poor or dim vision

aque/o

water

aqueous

pertaining to water

blephar/o

eyelid

blepharoptosis

prolapse or downward displacement of the eyelid

choroid/o

choroid

choroidopathy

disease of the choroid

conjunctiv/o

conjunctiva

conjunctival

pertaining to the conjunctiva

core/o
pupill/o

pupil

coreometer

instrument for measuring the pupil

pupillography

process of recording (movement of) the pupil

corne/o

cornea

corneal

pertaining to the cornea

cycl/o

ciliary body of the eye; circular; cycle

cycloplegia

paralysis of the ciliary body

dacry/o
lacrim/o

tear; lacrimal apparatus (duct, sac, or gland)

dacryoma

tumorlike swelling of the lacrimal duct

lacrimotomy

incision of the lacrimal duct or sac

dacryocyst/o

lacrimal sac

dacryocystoptosis

prolapse of the lacrimal sac

glauc/o

gray

glaucoma

-grey tumor
-if not treated, results in increased intraocular pressure (IOP) that destroys the retina and optic nerve

goni/o

angle

gonioscopy

-visual examination of the irideocorneal angle
-is used to differentiate the two forms of glucoma (open-and closed-angle)

irid/o

iris

iridoplegia

paralysis of (the sphincter of) the iris

kerat/o

horny tissue; hard; cornea

keratotomy

incision of the cornea

ocul/o
ophthalm/o

eye

oculomycosis

fungal infection of the eye (or its parts)

ophthalmologist

-specialist in the study of the eye
-specialize in the medical and surgical management of diseases and disorders of the eye

opt/o
optic/o

eye, vision

optometry

-act of measuring vision
-is the science of diagnosing, managing, and treating nonsurgical conditions and diseases of the eye and visual system

optical

pertaining to the eye or vision

phac/o

lens

phacocele

-herniation (displacement) of the lens into the interior chamber of the eye
-the usual cause is blunt trauma to the eye

phot/o

light

photophobia

-abnormal fear of (intolerance to) light
-intolerance to light is associated with people who suffer from migraines or have light- colored eyes or glaucoma
-some medications also cause a marked intolerance to light

presby/o

old age

presbyopia

-(poor) vision (associated with) old age
-a form of farsightedness
-is the loss of accommodation due to weakening of the ability of the ciliary muscles as a result of the aging process

retin/o

retina

retinosis

-abnormal condition of the retina
-includes and degenerative process of the retina not associated with imflammation

scler/o

hardening; sclera (white of eye)

scleromalacia

softening of the sclera

scot/o

darkness

scotoma

-dark, tumorlike spot
-is an area of diminished vision in the visual field

vitr/o

vitreous body (of the eye)

vitrectomy

-removal of the (contents of the) vitreous chamber
-the removal of the vitreous body allows surgical procedures that would otherwise be impossible, including repair of macular holes and tears in the retina

audi/o

hearing

audiometer

instrument for measuring hearing

labyrinth/o

labyrinth (inner ear)

labyrinthotomy

incision of the labyrinth

mastoid/o

mastoid process

mastoidectomy

removal of the mastoid process

ot/o

ear

otopyorrhea

discharge of pus from the ear

salping/o

tubes (usually fallopian or eustachia [auditory] tubes

salpingopharyngeal

pertaining to the eustachian (auditory) tube and pharynx

staped/o

stapes

stapedectomy
(stapedotomy)

-surgical removal of parts of the stapes
-is performed to improve hearing, especially in cases of otosclerosis

myring/o
tympan/o

tympanic membrane (eardrum)

myringomycosis

abnormal condition due to fungal infection of the tympanic membrane

tympanostomy

-forming an opening in the tympanic membrane
-this procedure is usually performed to insert small pressure- equalizing (PE) tubes through the tympanum

-acusia
-cusis

hearing

anacusia

not hearing (deafness)

presbycusis

-hearing (loss) associated with old age
-generally occurs in both ears and primarily affects perception of high-pitched tones

-opia
-opsia

vision

diplopia

double vision

dipl-

double, twofold

heteropsia

inequality of vision (in the two eyes)

-tropia

turning

esotropia
(convergent strabismus or crossed eyes)

turning inward (of the eyes)

exo-

outside, outward

exotropia
(divergent strabismus)

abnormal turning outward of (one or both eye)

hyper-

excessive, above normal

hyperopia
(hypermetropia)

excess (farsighted) vision

ophthalmology

medical speciality concered with disorders of the eye

ophthalmologist

specialist who treats disorders of the eye

optometrists

-doctors of optometry(O.D.) that diagnose vision problems and eye diseases, prescribe eyeglasses and contact lenses, and prescribe drugs to treat eye disorders

otolaryngology

medical specialty concerned with disorders of the ear, nose, and throat

otolaryngologist

physician who treats disorders of the ear, nose, and throat

audiologist

specializes in non- medical management of the auditory and balance systems

ametropia

an optic condition in which an error of refraction occurs

astigmatism(Ast)

-form of ametropia
-the cornea or lens has a defective curvature

laser- assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)

a procedure that changes the shape of the cornea and, in most instances changes are permanent

cataracts

are opacities that form on the lens and impair vision

phacoemulsification,phaco

a cataract procedure in which removal of the clouded lens by emulsifying it using ultrasound or laser probe is performed

glaucoma

characterized by increased intraocular pressure(IOP) caused by the failure of aqueous humor to drain from the eye through a tiny duct (canal of Schlemm)

canal of Schlemm

tiny duct of the eye

chronic form of glaucoma
(open-angle, single, or wide-angle glaucoma)

-may produce without symptoms except gradual loss of peripheral vision over the period of years
-headaches, blurred vision, and dull pain in the eye may be present
-cupping of the optic discs may occur

acute form of glaucoma
(angle-closure, narrow-angle glaucoma)

-extreme ocular pain, blurred vision, redness of the eye, and dilation of the pupil
-nausea and vomiting may occur
-if untreated, causes complete and permanent blindness within 2-5 days

open- angle glaucoma

-more common and chronic form
-slow to develop and is usually painless
-by the time patient receives Tx, it may be too late to restore vision

closed-angle glaucoma

-rarer form
-pain and rapid decrease of vision
-patient usually seeks Tx before any permanent damage occurs

miotics

medication used for glaucoma that cause pupils to constrict

strabismus
(hetertropia,tropia)

is a condition in which one eye is misaligned with the other and the eyes do not focus simultaneously when viewing an object

esotropia (ST)

inward misalignment of eyes

exotropia (XT)

outward misalignment of eyes

stereopsis

binocular perception of depth or three- dimensional space

macular degeneration

is a deterioration of the macula, the most sensitive portion of the retina

age-related macular degeneration(ARMD,AMD)

-deterioration of the macula
-leading cause of visual loss in the US
-the disease is unpredictable and progresses differently in each individual

neovascular ARMD (wet)

-less common macular degeneration, but more severe
-affects about 10% of those with the disease
-blood leaks from the vessels and destroys the visual cells, leading to severe loss of central vision and permanent visual impairment
-if identified early, laser surgery can be performed

laser photocoagulation

laser surgery used to destroy the newly forming vessels

dry ARMD

-more common form of macular degeneration
-small yellowish deposits (drusen) develop on the macula and interfere with central vision
-drusen are dried retinal pigment epithelial cells that form granules on the macula
-rarely leads to total blindness

synalgia

-pain in a part of the body
-referred pain

otitis media(OM)

-inflammation of the medial ear
-found mostly in young children

streptococcus pneumoniae

the most common form of bacterium that causes medial ear infection

mastoiditis

infection to the mastoid process

otoencephalitis

inflammation of brain tissue near the middle ear

analgesics

medications to relieve pain

myringotomy
tympanotomy

incision of the eardrum

pressure-equalizing tubes (PE tubes)

tubes that are passed through the tympanic membranes to help drain fluid from the middle ear

otosclerosis

is a disorder characterized by an abnormal hardening of bones of the middle ear that causes hearing loss

ankylosis

abnormal hardening

tinnitus

ringing sound within the ear

neoplastic diseases

account for more than 90% of all primary intracular diseases

retinoblastoma neoplastic disease

-intracular disease
-found primarily in children
-tend to be familial
-vision is impaired and in about 30% of patients, the disease is found in both eyes

melanoma neoplastic disease

-intracular disease
-found primarily in adults
-may occur in the orbit,the bony cavity of the eyeball, the iris, or the ciliary body
-most commonly arises in the pigmented cells of the choroid
-is usually asymptomatic until there is a hemorrhage into the anterior chamber

enucleation

Tx in which the affected eye is removed

basal cell carcinoma

-the most common type of ear malignancy
-usually occurs on the top of the pinna as a result of sun cancer
-more commonly in elders or those with fair skin
-looks like small, crackerlike ulcers
-does not readily metastasize

squamous cell carcinoma

-very rare, but more invasive ear malignancy
-biopsy is required for diagnosis
-grows slower the basal cell

achromatopsia
(complete color blindness)

severe congenital deficiency in color perception

chalazion

small, hard tumor developing on the eyelid, somewhat similar to a sebaceous cyst

conjunctivitis

An inflammation of the conjunctiva with vascular congestion that produces a red or pink eye and may be secondary to allergy or viral, bacterial, or fungal infections

ectropion

Abnormal eversion (outward turning) of the lower eyelid

entropion

inversion (inward turning) the edge of the lower eyelid

epiphora

-abnormal overflow of tears
-sometimes caused by obstruction of the tear ducts

hordeolum
(stye)

localized, circumscribed, inflammatory swelling of one of the several sebaceous glands of the eyeball

metamorphopsia

-visual distortion of objects
-commonly associated with errors of refraction, retinal disease, choroiditis, detachment of the retina, and tumors of the retina or choroid

nyctalopia
(Night blindness)

-impaired vision in dim light
-commonly causes include cataracts, vitamin A deficiency, certain medications, and hereditary causes

nystagmus

type of involuntary eye movements that appear jerky and may reduce vision or be associated with other, more serious conditions that limit vision

papilledema
(choked disc)

swelling and hyperemia of the optic disc,usually associated with increased intracranial pressure

photophobia

-unusual intolerance and sensitivity to light
-commonly occurs in such diseases as meningitis, inflammation of the eyes, measles, and rubella

presbyopia

loss of accommodation of the crystalline lens associated with the aging process

retinopathy

any disorder of retinal blood vessels

diabetic retinopathy

disorder that occurs in patients with diabetes and manifests as small hemorrhages, edema, and formation of new vessels on the retina, leading to scarring and eventually vision loss

trachoma

A chronic, contagious form of conjunctivitis that typically leads to blindness

anacusis
(anacusia)

complete deafness

conduction impairment

Blocking of sound waves as they pass through the external and middle ear (conduction pathway)

labyrinthitis

-inflammation of the inner ear that usually results from an acute febrile process
-may lead to progressive vertigo

Meniere disease

-disorder of the labyrinth that leads to progressive loss of hearing
-is characterized by vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus

noise induced hearing

Damage caused by exposing the hair cells to excessively loud sounds.

otitis externa

-infection of the external auditory ear canal
-causes include swimmers ear, bacterial or fungal infections, seborrhea, eczema, and allergies

presbyacusis
(presbyacusia)

-impairment of hearing resulting from old age
-generally able to hear low tones and affects speech perception

tinnitus

perception of ringing, hissing, or other sounds in the ear or head when no externall sound is present

vertigo

sensation of a spinning motion either of oneself or of the surroundings

ear irrigation

flushing of the ear canal with water or saline to dislodge foreign bodies or impacted cerumen (earwax)

slit-lamp examination (SLE)

stereoscopic magnified view of the anterior eye structures in detail, which includes the cornea, lens, iris, sclera, and vitreous humor

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