Medical Terminology Systems;Chapter 15;Nervous System flashcards |

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afferent
(sensory neurons)

carry or move impulses toward the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system)

blood-brain barrier

protective mechanism that blocks specific substances found in the bloodstream from entering delicate brain tissue

efferent
(motor neurons)

carry or move impulses away from the central nervous system to muscles or glands

limbic sysytem (emotional brain)

-complex neural system located beneath the cerebrum that controls basic emotions and drives and plays an important role in memory
-is primarily related to survival and includes such emotions as fear, anger, and pleasure
(food or sexual behavior)

neurilemma

-additional external myelin sheath that is formed by Schwann cells and found only on axons in the peripheral nervous system
-because the neurilemma does not disintegrate after injury to the axon, its enclosed hollow tube that provides an avenue for regeneration of injured axons

ventricle

-organ chamber or cavity that receives or holds fluid
-In the nervous system, cerebrospinal fluid flows through the ventricles into the spinal cavity and back toward the brain, where it is absorbed into the blood

neuron

cell that transmits impulses throughout the nervous system

the 3 major structures of the neuron

1. cell body
2. axon
3. dentrites

cell body

enlarged structure of the neuron that contains the nucleus

nucleus

A cell organelle that contains the chromosomes and directs cell activities.

dentrites

-carry impulses to the cell body
-resembles tiny branches on a tree, providing additional surface area for receiving impulses from other neurons

axons

-carry impulses away from cell body
-threadlike extensions of nerve cells that transmit impulses to dendrites of other neurons as well as muscle and glands

myelin sheath

white, lipoid covering of the axon that acts as an electrical insulator that reduces the possibility of an impulse stimulating adjacent nerves

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

-composed 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
-located outside the spinal column and skull
-consists of afferent and efferent neurons
-formed by a neuroglia cell called schwann cells

schwann cell

-wraps tightly around the axon
-its exterior surface forms a thin tube called the neurilemma or neurolemma

central nervous system (CNS)

-consists of the brain and spinal cord
-unmyelinated fibers, dendrites, and nerve cell bodies make up the gray matter
-the myelin sheath covering the axons is formed by oligodendrocytes
-injury to the CNS is irreparable

nodes of Ranvier

-short, unmylelinated spaces between adjacent segments of the myelin sheath
-they help speed the transmission of impulses down the axon

synapse

-the functional connection between two neurons or between a neuron and its effector organ (muscle or gland)
-is a gap or space

axon terminal

-somewhat enlarged, often club-shaped endings of an axon
-impulses must travel from the axon terminal of one neuron to the dendrite of the next neuron or its effector organ by crossing the synapse

neurotransmitter

-chemical substance that is released at the end of its axon
-impulses within the transmitting axon causes the chemical substance to release

neuroglia

-literally means "nerve glue"
-cells that support neurons and bind them to other tissues of the body
-they do not transmit impulses, but they provide a variety of activities essential to the proper functioning of neurons
-they supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons band assist in other metabolic activities
-they also play an important role when the nervous system suffers injury or infection

the types of neuroglia

1. astrocytes
2. oligodendrocytes
3. microglia
4. ependyma

astrocytes

-star shaped neuroglia
-provide three- dimensional mechanical support for neurons and form tight sheaths around the capillaries of the brain
-these sheaths provide an obstruction, called the blood-brain barrier, that keeps large molecular substances from entering the brian
-perform mildly phagocytic functions in the brain and spinal cord

oligodendrocytes (oligodendroglia)

responsible for developing myelin on axons of neurons in the CNS

microglia

-the smallest of the neuroglia
-posses phagocytic properties and may become very active during times of infection

ependyma

-ciliated cells that line fluid- filled cavities of the CNS, especially the ventricles of the brain

CNS
1.Brain
2.Spinal cord

1. center of thought and emotion, interpretation of sensory stimuli, and coordination of body functions

2. main pathway for transmission between the brain and body

PNS
1.Cranial nerves
2.Spinal nerves

1. 12 pairs of nerves that emerge from the base of the skull and may act in a motor capacity, sensory, capacity, or both

2. 31 pairs of nerves that emerge from the spine and act in both motor and sensory capacities

4 major structures of the brain

1.cerebrum
2.cerebellum
3.diencephalon
4.brainstem

brain matter

inner layer is white
outer layer is gray

cerebrum

-is the largest, uppermost portion of the brain
-consists of two hemispheres divided by a deep longitudinal fissure, or groove
-the fissure does not completely separate the hemispheres
-major functions include sensory perception and interpretation, language, voluntary movement, and memory

corpus callosum

-joins the hemispheres of the cerebrum
-permits communication between the right and left sides of the brain

each hemisphere is divided into five lobes

4 are named for the bones that lie directly above them
1.frontal
2.parietal
3.temporal
4.occipital
5.insula;is hidden from view and can be seen only upon dissection

gyri

-folds or convolutions
-they are separated by sulci

sulci

furrows or fissures

cerebral cortex

-a thin layer that covers the entire cerebrum
-composed of gray matter
-where most information processing occurs

cerebellum

- the second largest structure of the brain
-occupies the posterior portion of the skull
-most functions include movement, posture, or balance
-it coordinates and refines muscular movement initiated by the cerebrum

diencephalon (interbrain)

composed of many smaller structures, including the thalamus and the hypothalamus

thalamus

-receives all sensory stimuli except olfactory and processes and transmits them to the appropriate centers in the cerebral cortex
-also receives impulses from the cerebrum and relays them to efferent nerves

hypothalamus

-regulates involuntary activities, such as heart rate, body temperature, and fluid balance
-also controls many endocrine functions

brainsteam

-completes the last major section of the brain
-composed of the midbrain, medulla, and pons
-is the pathway for impulse conduction between the brain and spinal cord
-origin of 10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves
-controls respiration, blood pressure, and heart rate
- is the site that controls the beginning of life
(initiation of the heart beating in a fetus) and the end of life ( the cessation of respiration and heart activity)

midbrain (mesencephalon)

separates the cerebrum from the brainsteam

medulla

attaches to the spinal cord

pons (bridge)

connects the midbrain to the medulla

spinal cord

transmits sensory impulses from the body to the brain and motor impulses from the brain to muscles and organs of the body

ascending tracts of the spinal cord

-sensory nerve tracts
-upward impulse

descending tract of the spinal cord

-motor nerve tracts
-carry impulses in a downward direction to muscles and organs

spinal cord matter

inner gray (cell bodies and dendrites)
outer white(myelinated tissue of ascending and descending tracts)
H or butterfly shaped

meninges (singular,meninx)

-protective coverings of the brain and spinal cord
-includes dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater

dura mater (pachymeninges)

-outermost covering
-it is tough , fibrous, and dense
-composed primarily of connective tissue

subdural space

-cavity located beneath the dura mater
-filled with serous fluid

arachnoid

-middle covering
-spider-web appearance
-fits loosely over the underlying structures

subarachnoid space

contains cerebrospinal fluid

cerebrospinal fluid

-located in the subarachnoid space
-a colorless fluid that contains proteins, glucose, urea, salts, and some white blood cells
-circulates around the spinal cord and brain and through ventricles located within the inner portion of the brain
-provides nutritive substances to the CNS and adds protection for the brain and spinal cord by acting as a shock absorber

hydrocephalus

collection of fluid in the brain because of an interference with the cerebrospinal fluid absorption

pia mater

-innermost meninx
-directly adheres to the brain and spinal cord
-contains blood vessels and lymphatics that nourish the underlying tissue
-passes over the brain and the contours of the gyri and sulci

leptomenings

the term used for the arachnoid and pia mater because of its thinness and delicacy

somatic nervous system of the PNS

-12 pairs of cranial nerves
-31 pairs of spinal nerves

autonomic nervous system of PNS

-sympathetic division (fight or flight)
-parasympathetic division (rest and digest)

sensory nerves

-are afferent
-receive impulses from the sense organs, including the eyes, nose, tongue, and skin and transmit them to the CNS

motor nerves

-are efferent
-conduct impulses to muscles and glands

mixed nerves

-cranial nerves that are composed of sensory and motor fibers
-example is facial nerve, it acts in a motor capacity by transmitting impulses for smiling or frowning and acts in a sensory capacity by transmitting taste impulses from the tongue to the brain

spinal nerves

-emerge from the intervertebral spaces in the spinal column and extend to various locations in the body
-has afferent and efferent qualities
-all 31 pairs are mixed nerves
-each of them is identified according to the vertebra which they exit
-each has two points of attachment to the spinal cord,the anterior and posterior root

anterior(ventral) root of spinal nerves

motor fibers

posterior (dorsal)root of spinal nerves

sensory fibers

somatic nervous system

motor impulses transmitted to muscles under conscious control (walking and talking)

autonomic nervous system

motor impulses transmitted to glands and muscles not under conscious control (heart rate, respiration, digestion, pupil diameter)

sympathetic division of the ANS

-dilates the pupils to increase the amount of light entering the eye to optimize vision
-decreases the flow of saliva
-dilates the bronchi
-increases heart rate and metabolic rate
-decreases digestive activities
-constricts visceral blood vessels

parasympathetic division of the ANS

-decreases or increases the diameter of the pupils in response to changing levels of light
-increases the flow of saliva
-constricts the bronchi
-decreases heart rate, blood pressure,and metabolic rate
-increases digestive activities
-dilates visceral blood vessels

cerebr/o

cerebrum

cerebrotomy

incision of the cerebrum

crani/o

cranium (skull)

craniomalacia

softening of the cranium

encephal/o

brain

encephalocele

-herniation of the brain
-is a condition in which portions of the brain and meninges protrude through a bony midline defect in the skull

gangli/o

ganglion (knot or knotlike mass)

gangliectomy

-excision of a ganglion
-a ganglion is a mass of nerve cell bodies (gray matter) in the PNS

gli/o

glue; neuroglial tissue

glioma

tumor (composed of) neuroglial tissue

kinesi/o

Movement

bradykinesia

condition of slow movement

lept/o

thin, slender

leptomeningopathy

-disease of the thin meninges
-includes the pia mater and arachnoid, both of which are thin and delicate in structure, as opposed to the dura mater

lex/o

word, phrase

dyslexia

-difficulty using words
-difficulty with reading or tendency to reverse letters or words when reading or writing

mening/o meningi/o

meninges (membranes covering the brain and spinal cord)

meningocele

herniation of the meninges

meningioma

tumor in the meninges

myel/o

bone marrow; spinal cord

poliomyelitis

Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord

narc/o

Stupor,numbness,sleep

narcotic

-relating to sleep
-depresses the central nervous system, thus relieving pain and producing sleep

neur/o

nerve

neurolysis

-destruction of a nerve
-is sometimes performed using cryablation or radio- frequency techniques to relieve intractable pain as a temporary or permanent measure

radicul/o

nerve root

radiculalgia

pain in the nerve root

sthen/o

strength

hypersthenia

condition of excessive strength

thalam/o

thalamus

thalamotomy

incision of the thalamus

thec/o

sheath (usually refers to meninges)

intrathecal

pertaining to the space within the sheath

ton/o

tension

dystonia

poor (muscle) tone

ventricul/o

ventricle (of the heart or brain)

ventriculitis

inflammation of the ventricles (of the heart or brain)

-algesia -algia

pain

analgesia

absence of (a normal sense of) pain

synalgia

-joined (referred) pain
-pain experienced in a part of the body other than the place of pathology. For example- right shoulder pain is commonly associated with gallstones

-asthenia

weakness, debility

myasthenia

muscle weakness

-esthesia

feeling

hyperesthesia

-increased feeling
-involves a marked sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli

-kinesia

movement

hyperkinesia

excessive movement;also called hyperactivity

-lepsy

seizure

narcolepsy

seizure of sleep

-paresis

partial paralysis

hemiparesis

partial paralysis of one-half (of the body)

-phasia

speech

aphasia

without speech

-plegia

paralysis

quadriplegia

paralysis of four (extremities)

-taxia

order, coordination

ataxia

-without coordination
-refers to poor muscle coordination, especially when voluntary movements are attempted

pachy-

thick

pachymeningitis

-inflammation of the dura mater
-the dura mater is a thick membrane that provides protection for the brain and spinal cord

para-

near, beside; beyond

paraplegia

paralysis of the lower body and limbs

syn-

union, together, joined

synalgia

referred pain

uni-

one

unilateral

pertaining to one side

dyskinesia

-involuntary movements
-painful or difficult movement

Neurology

branch of medicine concerned with neurological diseases

neurologist

specialist in the study of the nervous system

psychiatry

branch of medicine concerned with mental illness

psychiatrist

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating mental illnesses

radiculopathy (radiculitis)

inflammation of the nerve root

compression

pressure applied

cervical radiculpathy

disease or inflammation of the neck

lumbar radiculopathy, (sciatica)

disease or inflammation of the lower back

decompression surgery

procedure intended to relieve pain from pressure or compression of the spinal column

cerebrovascular disease

is any functional abnormality of the cerebrum caused by disorders that affect the blood vessels supplying the brain, which may result in a stroke

stroke(cerebrovascular accident)CVA

cerebrovascular disease

Ischemia stroke

-most common type of stroke
-caused by narrowing of the arteries of the brain of arteries of the neck which causes insufficient oxygen delivery to the brain tissue and within a few minutes the tissues begin to die

carotid

arteries of the neck

intracerebral hemorrhage

-A stroke caused by the sudden rupture of an artery within the brain
- After the rupture, released blood compresses brain structures and destroys them

subarachnoid hemorrhage

-A stroke resulting from bleeding into the space surrounding the brain
- example: ruptured aneurysm and is usually fatal

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