Medical Terminology Systems;Chapter 14;Endocrine System flashcards |

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Adren/o
Adrenal/o

Adrenal glands

Adrenomegaly

enlargement of the adrenal glands

Adrenalectomy

excision of one or both adrenal glands

Calc/o

Calcium

Hypercalcemia

excessive calcium in the blood

Crin/o

Secrete

Endocrinology

Study of endocrine glands and their functions

Gluc/o
Glyc/o
Glycos/o

sugar,sweetness

Glucogenesis

forming or producing glucose

Hypoglycemia

-abnormally low level of glucose in the blood
-Hypoglycemia is usually caused by administration of too much insulin, excessive secretion of insulin by the islet cells of the pancreas, or dietary deficiency

Glycosuria

abnormal amount of glucose in the urine

Home/o

same, alike

Homeostasis

state of equilibrium in the internal environment of the body

Kal/i

potassium
(an electrolyte)

Kalemia

potassium in the blood

Pancreat/o

pancreas

Pancreatotomy

incision of the pancreas

Parathyroid/o

parathyroid glands

Parathyroidectomy

excision of one or more of the parathyroid gland

Thym/o

thymus gland

Thymoma

-tumor of the thymus gland
-A thymoma is rare neoplasm of the thymus gland
-Tx includes surgical removal, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy

Thyr/o
Thyroid/o

thyroid gland

Thyromegaly

enlargement of the thyroid gland

Hyperthyroidism

condition of excessive thyroid gland function

Toxic/o

poison

Toxicologist

-Specialist in the study of poison
-Toxicologist also study the effects of toxins and antidotes used for Tx of toxic disorders

-crine

secrete

Endocrine

secrete within

-dipsia

thirst

Polydipsia

-excessive thirst
-Polydipsia is one of the three "polys" as well as polyphagia and polyuria, associated with diabetes

-gen

forming, producing, origin

Androgen

any steroid hormone that increases masculinization

-toxic

pertaining to poison

Thyrotoxic

pertaining to poison associated with the thyroid gland

-uria

urine

eu-

good, normal

Euthyroid

resembling a normal thyroid function

exo-

outside, outward

Exocrine

-secretes outside of bloodstream
-Exocrine glands sweat and oil glands secrete their products outwardly through excretory ducts
-Endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream

hyper-

excessive, above normal

Hyperglycemia

-excessive glucose in the blood
-usually found in patients with diabetes mellitus or those treated with such drugs as prednisone

hypo-

under, below

Hypoinsulinism

-condition of deficiency secretion of insulin
-hypoinsulinism is a characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus

poly-

many, much

Polyuria

-excessive urination
-Some causes of polyuria are diabetes, use of diuuretics, excessive fluid intake, and hypercalcemia

hyposecretion

underproduction of secretion

hypersecretion

overproduction secretion

endocrinology

study of endocrine disorders

endocrinologist

specialist in treating disorders of the endocrine system

growth hormone (GH)

hormone that stimulates growth

antidiurectic hormone(ADH)

pituitary hormone that acts to promote the retention of water by the kidneys and increase blood pressure

hyponatremia

pituitary disorder from low blood sodium levels

cretinism

hypothyroidism that develops in infants

myxedema

hypothyroidism develops in adulthood

exophthalmos

bulging or protruding eyeball or eyeballs

goiter

enlarged thyroid gland

toxic goiter

hyperthyroidism that causes an enlargement of the thyroid gland because overstimulation of TSH

hypoparathyroidism

insufficient production of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)

hypocalcemia

decreased blood calcium levels

tetany

muscle twitches and spasm caused by decrease calcium levels

hyperparathyroidism

excessive production of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)

osteitis fibrosa cystica

demineralization of bones caused by increase PTH

osteoporosis

bones become weak and brittle (porous)

adenoma

benign glandular tumor

von Recklinghausen disease

benign tumors affect all bones caused by hyperthyroidism

nephrolithiasis

kidney stones

Addison disease

-uncommon chronic disorder caused by deficiency of cortical hormones
-results when the adrenal cortex is damaged or atropied

Cushing Syndrome

-is a cluster of symptoms produced by excessive amounts of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or both circulating in the blood
-adrenal cortex is associated with cushing syndrome

Diabetes

-refers to diabetes mellitus (DM)
-most common pancreatic disorder
-chronic metabolic disorder caused from insufficient production of insulin or body's inability to use insulin properly

ketosis

-a condition caused by increase levels of ketone bodies in the blood
-associated with fat metabolism (produces ketones) and diabetes mellitus

hyperglycemia

high blood glucose (blood sugar)

glucosuria

excretion of glucose into the urine

Type 1 diabetes (juvenile diabetes)

-body does not produce sufficient insulin
-insulin dependent
-type 1 diabetes can be remembered by the mnemonic CAUTION
*Constant urination (polyuria) and glycouria
*Abnormal thirst (polydipsia)
*Unusual hunger (polyphagia)
*The rapid loss of weight
*Irritability
*Obvious weakness and fatigue
*Nausea and vomiting

Type 2 diabetes
(associated with being overweight and family history)

-type 2 diabetes can be remembered by the mnemonic DIABETES
*Drowsiness
*Itching
*A family history of diabetes
*Blurred vision
*Excessive weight
*Tingling, numbness, and pain in the extremities
*Easily fatigue
*Skin infections and slow healing of cuts and scrapes, especially of the feet

glucometer

medical device in which the skin is pricked and then blood is placed on the glucometer to determine the glucose levels

insulin pump

small device that administers insulin via a portable pump, which infuses insulin continuously in small amounts through a needle under the skin

diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA)

-primary complication of type 1 diabetes
-the body produces excess ketones into the blood
-also referred to as diabetic acidosis or diabetic coma

Gestational diabetes

develop of diabetes(high blood sugar) during pregnancy

adenocarinomas

-malignant tumor formed from the glandular structures in the epithelial tissue
-most carcinomas of the pancreas arise from epithelial tissue

benign

noncancerous
-majority of pituitary tumors are benign

transsphenoidal

surgery to remove pituitary tumor through the nose and sphenoid sinuses

adenomas

-tumor of the gland
-majority of pituitary tumors are adenomas

thyroid carcinoma

cancer of the thyroid gland

(DC)
Acromegaly

-Rare hormonal disorder in adulthood, usually caused by a GH- secreting pituitary tumor (adenoma) that promotes the soft tissue and bones of the face, hands, and feet to grow larger than normal
-Tx includes radiation, pharmacological agents, or surgery, to supress secretion of GH
-This surgery involves partial resection of the pituitary gland

(DC)
diuresis

-increased formation and secretion of urine
-occurs in such conditions as diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, and acute renal failure
-alcohol and coffee are common diuretics that increase formation and secretion of urine

(DC)
glycosuria

abnormal amount of glucose in the urine

(DC)
Graves disease

Multisystem autoimmune disorder characterized by pronounced hyperthyroidism usually associated with enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) and exophthalmos (abnormal protrusion of the eyeball)

(DC)
hisutism

-Excessive distribution of body hair, especially in women
-is usually caused by abnormalities of androgen production or metabolism in women

(DC)
hypercalcemia

-condition in which the calcium level in the blood is higher than normal
-is caused mainly because of overactivity in one or more parathyroid glands (which regulate blood calcium levels)
-other causes include cancer, other medical disorders, medications, and excessive use of calcium and vitamin D supplements

(DC)
hyperkalemia

-condition in which the potassium level in the blood is higher than normal
-potassium is a critical nutrient in the proper functioning of nerve and muscle cells, including the heart
-it also is important for normal transmission of electrical signals throughout the nervous system
-severe hyperkalemia requires immediate tx because it is potentially life threatening illness that can lead to cardiac arrest and death

(DC)
hypervolemia

-abnormmal increase in the volume of blood plasma (liquid part of the blood and lymphatic fluid) in the body
-commonly results from retention of large amounts of sodium and water by the kidneys

(DC)
hyponatremia

-lower than normal level of sodium in the blood
-is caused by an excessive amount of fluid in the body, thereby diluting the amount of sodium when exercising (especially in the heat) without replacing the water and electrolytes lost through perspiration

(DC)
insulinoma

tumor of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas

(DC)
obesity

-excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal weight
-may be due to excessive intake of food (exogenous) or metabolic or endocrine abnormalities (endogenous)

(DC)
morbid obesity

-body mass index (BMI) of 40% or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight
-is a disease with serious psychological, social, and medical ramifications and one that threatens necessary body functions such as respiration

(DC)
panhypopituitarism

total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormone activity

pheochromocytoma

-small chromaffin cell tumor, usually located in the adrenal medulla, causing elevated heart rate and blood
-may be life threatening if not treated

(DC)
thyroid storm

-crisis of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism caused by the release into the bloodstream of an increased amount of thyroid hormone
-also called thyroid crisis or thyrotoxic crisis
-may occur spontaneously or be precipitated by infection, stress, or thyroidectomy performed on a patient who is inadequately prepared with antithyroid drugs
-is considered a medical emergency and, if left untreated, may be fatal

(DC)
virilism

masculinization or development of male secondary sex characteristics in a woman

(MP)
exophthalmometry

-measures the degree of forward displacement of the eyeball (exophthalmos)as seen in graves disease
-is performed with an instrument called an exophthalmometer, which enables measurement of the distance from the center of the cornea to the lateral orbital rim

(SP)
parathyroidectomy

excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands, usually to control hyperparathyroidism

(SP)
transsphenoidal hypophysectomy

-endoscopic procedure to surgically remove a pituitary tumor through an incision in the sphenoid sinus (transsphenoid) without disturbing brain tissue

(SP)
thymectomy

-excision of the thymus gland
-is used to remove tumors of the thymus
-it is also performed in tx of myasthenia gravis (MG) as this disease commonly causes abnormalities of the thymus
-once thymus is removed , remission of MG is common

(SP)
thyroidectomy

-excision of the entire thyroid gland (thyroidectomy), a part of it (subtotal thyyroidectomy), or a single lobe (thyroid lobectomy)
-is performed for goiter, tumors, or hyperthyroidism that does not respond to iodine therapy and antithyroid drugs

(LP)
fasting blood sugar

-test that measures glucose levels in a blood sample following fast of at least 8 hours
-this test helps diagnose diabetes and monitor glucose levels in diabetic patients

(LP)
glucose tolerance test (GTT)

-screening test in which a dose of glucose is administered and blood samples are taken afterward at regular intervals to determine how quickly glucose is cleared from the blood
-is performed after the patient has fasted at least 8 hours
-it is used to diagnose pre-diabetes and gestational diabetes

(LP)
insulin tolerance test (ITT)

-diagnostic test in which insulin is injected into the vein to assess pituitary function, adrenal function, and to determine insulin sensitivity
-insulin injections are used to evaluate pituitary function
-the symptoms of low blood sugar will cause the release of growth hormone and cortisol
-the growth hormone and cortisol will be measured at different intervals through blood work

(LP)
thyroid function test (TFT)

-test that detects an increase or decrease in thyroid function
-The test measures levels of thyroid- stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodinthyroidonine (T3), and thyroxine (T4)

(LP)
total calcium test

-test that measures calcium to detect bone and parathyroid disorders
-hypercalcemia can indicate primary hyperparathyroidism
- hypocalcemia can indicate hypoparathyroidism

(IP)
computed tomography (CT)

-imaging technique that rotates an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measures the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
-the computer generates a detailed cross- sectional image that appears as a slice
-may be used with or without a contrast medium

(IP)
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

noninvasive imaging technique that uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field, rather than an x-ray beam, to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images

(IP)
radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU)

-administration of a radioactive iodine (RAI) in pill or liquid form is used as a tracer to test how quickly the thyroid gland takes up (uptake) iodine from the blood
-test is used determine thyroid function and thyroid abnormalities , especially hyperthyroidism
-test can be taken at the same time as a thyroid scan

(IP)
thyroid scan

-images of the thyroid gland are obtained after oral or intravenous administration of a small dose of radioactive iodine
-is used to identify such pathologies as nodules and tumors, or to determine the cause of an overactive thyroid
-may also be performed with a radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) to check thyroid gland function

antidiuretic

reduce or control excretion of urine

antithyroids

-treat hyperthyroidism by impeding the formation of T3 and T4 hormone
-are administered in preparation for a thyroidectomy and in thyrotoxic crisis

corticosteroids

-replaces hormones lost in adrenal insufficiency
(Addison Disease)
-are also widely used to suppress inflammation, control allergic reactions, reduce rejection in transplantation, and treat some cancers

growth hormone replacement

-increase skeletal growth in children and growth hormone deficiencies in adults
-will increase spinal bone density and help manage growth failure in children

insulins

-lower blood glucose levels by promoting its entrance into the body cells and converting glucose to glycogen
(a starch- storage form of glucose)
-Type 1 diabetes must always be treated with insulin which can be administered through an implanted pump that infuses the drug continuously
-Type 2 diabetes that cannot be controlled with oral antidiabetics may require insulin to maintain a normal level of glucose in the blood

oral antidiabetics

-treat type 2 diabetes mellitus by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin and decrease peripheral resistance to insulin
-is not insulin and is not used in treating type1 diabetes mellitus

thyroid supplements

-replace or supplement thyroid hormones
-contains T3, T4, or a combination of both
-are used to treat some types of thyroid cancer

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