Medical Terminology Systems;Chapter 13;Male Reproductive System flashcards |

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andr/o

male

androgenic

-pertaining to maleness
-the most common androgenic hormone is testosterone

balan/o

glans penis

balanoplasty

surgical repair of the glans penis

crypt/o

hidden

cryptorchidism

-condition of hidden testes; also called cryptorchism
-failure of the testes to descend into the scrotum and its usually a congenital disorder

epididym/o

epididymis

epididymotomy

incision of the epididymis

genit/o

genitalia

genitourinary

pertaining to the genitalia and urinary tract

gonad/o

gonads, sex glands

gonadopathy

disease of the sex glands

olig/o

scanty

oligospermia

scanty (decreased production) of sperm

orch/o
orchi/o
orchid/o
test/o

testis (plural testes)

Orchitis

-Inflammation of testes
-common cause in young boys is a mumps infection

Orchialgia

Pain in the testes

Testalgia

Pain of a testis

Orchidoptosis

Downward displacement of the testes

perine/o

perineum (area between scrotum [or vulva in female] and anus)

Perineal

Pertaining to the perineum

prostat/o

prostate gland

Prostatomegaly

Enlargement of the prostate gland

spermat/o
sperm/o

spermatozoa, sperm cells

Spermatocele

-Swelling containing spermatozoa
-usually an epididymal cyst,commonly containing a sperm

Spermic

Pertaining to spermatozoa cells

varic/o

dilated vein

Varicocele

-Swelling of a dilated vein
-is the dilation of the veins of the spermatic cord, the structure that supports the testes

vas/o

vessel; vas deferens; duct

Vasectomy

-Removal (of all or part of) the vas deferens
- bilateral vasactomy is a surgical procedure to produce sterility in the male

vesicul/o

seminal vesicle

Vesiculitis

Inflammation of the seminal vesicle

-cide

killing

Spermicide

-(Agents that) kill sperm
-also called spermaticide

-genesis

forming, producing, origin

spermatogenesis

forming or producing sperm

-ism

condition

anorchism

-condition without testes
- is the congenital or acquired absence of one or both testes

-spadias

slit, fissure

hypospadias

-a fissure under (the penis)
- congenital defect in which the urethra opens on the underside of the glans penis instead of the tip

brachy-

short

brachytherapy

-treatment from a short (distance)
-treatment where radioactive seeds are implanted directly into the malignant tissue

epi-

above, upon

epispadias

fissure upon (dorsum of penis)

Urology

branch of medicine concerned with male reproductive system and urinary disorders in males & females

Urologist

physician who specializes in diagnosis and treatment of genitourinary disorders

sexually transmitted disease (STD)

-contagious diseases, such as syphilis, gonorrhea, HIV, chalmydia, genital warts,chomoniasis,AIDS, and genital herpes
- transmitted during sexual contract

gonorrhea

contagious, inflammatory sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterium(Neisseria gonorrhoeae)that affects the mucous membranes of the genitourinary system

leukorrhea

white discharge

dysuria

pain upon urination

cystitis

inflammation of the bladder

arthritis

inflammation of joints

pelvic inflammatory disease(PID)

inflammation of pelvis that may cause scars that close the reproductive tubes of both sexes, that may cause sterility

chlamydia

-caused by bacterium: chlamydia trachomatis. most prevalent & most damaging STIs in U.S.
-also called "silent disease" because symptoms are mild or absent. men produce whitish discharge from penis
- women discharge mucopurulent and inflammation of cervix, uteri (cervicitis)
- both sexes, disease eventually affect reproductive structures, leading to sterility
-can be transmitted to newborn during birth process and cause conjunctivitis or pneumonia
-men, women and babies treated with antibiotics

cervicitis

infammation of the cervix

syphilis

-less common than gonorrhea, but more serious of two diseases
- caused by bacterium: Treponema pallidum
-untreated, become chronic, infectious, multisystemic disease characterized by 3 distinct phases. first phase: primary sore (chancre) develops where organism enters body ,chancre ulcerated sore with hard edges that contains infectious organisms; second phase: produces symptoms that make diagnosis difficult; third phase: latent phase where disease remain dormant for years. although no symptoms during this time, patient is infectious
-symptoms of latent stage: blindness, mental disorders, and eventual death. treatment with antibiotic

genital herpes

-cause red, blisterlike, painful lesions in genital area that resembles fever blisters or cold sores on lips or mouth
-both diseases caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV), genital herpes assoc. with type 2 (HSV-2) and oral herpes assoc. with type 1 (HSV-1)
- both forms cause oral and genital infections thru oral-genital activity
- fluid in blisters highly infectious and contains active virus. disease assoc
- with phenomenon called [viral shedding].

genital warts

-Genital warts(condylomata, condylomas) caused by human papillomavirus (HPV)
-warts are very small and almost unnoticeable or large and appear in clusters

trichomoniasis

caused by protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. affects males & females, but symptoms more common in females. symptoms in males: irritation inside penis, mild discharge or slight burning after urination (dysuria) or ejaculation.

benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

-also called benign prostatic hypertrophy. assoc. with aging process.
- bladder infection (cystitis) and ultimately, kidney infection (nephritis) result.

cryptorchidism

-failure of testes to descend into scrotal sac prior to birth
-correction involves surgical suspension of testes (orchiopexy) in scrotum
- done before child reaches age 2.inguinal hernia commonly accompanies, hernia may be sutured (herniorrhaphy) at same time

prostate cancer

-rarely found in men younger than 50
- symptoms: difficulty starting urination (hesitancy) and stopping urinary stream, dysuria, urinary frquency and hematuria
- presymptomatic tests: blood test for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and periodic digital rectal exam (DRE)

Radical prostatectomy

removal of entire prostate

brachytherapy

also called internal radiation therapy, radioactive "seeds" are placed directly in the malignant tissue

external beam radiation(EBR)

-also called external beam therapy(EBT) or teletherapy
-high energy x-ray beams are generated by a machine and directed at the tumor from outside the body to destroy prostate tissue

cryosurgery

extreme cold treatment that destroys prostate cancer

combined hormonal therapy

administering antiandrogenic agents as well as hormones that deplete the body of testicular hormones

bilateral orchiectomy

-also called castration
-removal of testes

gynecomastia

enlargement of breast tissue

balanitis (DC)

inflammation and infection of the glans penis

erectile dysfunction(ED)
(DC)

-inability to achieve or sustain an erection
- any disorders that causes injury to the nerves or impairs blood flow in the penis has the potential to cause ED

Hypogonadism(DC)

Decrease or lack of hormones(testosterone, which plays a key role in masculine growth and development) normally produced by the gonads

Hypospadias(DC)

Congenital abnormality where the opening of the male urethra is on the under-surface of the penis, instead of at its tip

phimosis(DC)

Stenosis or narrowing of foreskin so that it cannot be retracted over the glans penis

priapism(DC)

-Prolonged and often painful erection of the penis, which occurs without sexual stimulation
-Ass. with sickle cell disease,leukemia, or spinal cord injury

prostatitis(DC)

-Acute or chronic inflammation of the prostate gland
-commonly caused by UTI or sexually transmitted disease

Testicular abnormalities(DC)

Any of the various disorders that affects the testes

anorchism testicular abnormalities(DC)

-absence of 1 or both testes
-also called anorchia or anorchidism

epididymitis testicular abnormalities(DC)

-inflammation of an epididymis
-most commonly found in males between 14-35 and its ass. with STI's

hydrocele testicular abnormalities(DC)

scrotal swelling caused by a collection of fluid that is typically harmless

orchitis testicular abnormalities(DC)

-Painful swelling of 1 or both testes, commonly ass. with mumps that develop after puberty
-other causes include infection of the epididymis or STI's

Spermatocele testicular abnormalities(DC)

Abnormal, fluid filled that develops in the epididymis and may or may not contain; also called spermatic cyst

testicular mass testicular abnormalities(DC)

New tissue growth that appears on 1 or both testes and may be malignant or benign

testicular torsion testicular abnormalities(DC)

Spontaneous twisting of a testicle within the scrotum, leading to a decrease in blood flow to the affected testicle

varicocele testicular abnormalities(DC)

-Swelling and distension of veins of the spermatic cord, somewhat resembling varicose of the legs
-sometimes causes sterility due to low sperm production or poor sperm quality

Sterility(DC)

Inability to produce offspring; in the male, inability to fertilize the ovum

digital rectal examination (DRE)
(MP)

-Screening test that assesses the rectal wall surface with fingers for lesions or evaluates abnormalities of the pelvic area
- in males, the physician also evaluates the size and consistency of the prostate

orchidotomy (SP)

-Removal of 1 or both testicles; also called castration or orchidectomy
-performed for testicular cancer or to decrease testosterone levels

circumcision(SP)

surgical removal of the prepuce (foreskin), or of skin covering the tip (glans) of the penis

orchidopexy(SP)

-surgical fixation of a testes in the scrotum
-performed for undescended testicles (cryptorchidism), usually before age 2

prostatectomy(SP)

-Removal of all or part of the prostate
-transurethal resection of the prostate(TURP) is the most common type

transurethral resection of the prostate gland (TURP)
(SP)

surgical excision of the prostate gland by inserting a special endoscope( resectoscope) through the urethra and into the bladder to remove small pieces of tissue from the prostate gland-the resectoscope is filled with an electrically activated wire loop that removes tissue when dragged over the site and cauterizes it to minimize bleeding

urethroplasty(SP)

reconstruction of the urethra to relieve stricture or narrowing

vasectomy(SP)

-removal of all or a segment of the vas deferens for male sterilization.
-vasectomy reversal(vasovasostomy) rejoins the 2 segments of the vas deferens.

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
(LP)

-Measurement of the amount of PSA in the blood. Higher-than-normal levels are associated with prostatic enlargement and prostate cancer.
-also called a tumor marker test

Semen analysis(LP)

test that analyzes a semen sample for volume,number, morphology, and motility to evaluate fertility or verity sterilization after a vasectomy

Ultrasound (US) imaging

-high-frequency sound waves are directed at soft tissue and reflected as "echoes" to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure
-also called ultrasound, sonography, and echo

prostate ultrasound (US) imaging

-US using an ultrasound probe inserted through the rectum to evaluate the prostate; also called transrectal ultrasound
- used to detect abnormalities of the prostate, obtain biopsies, and aid in the diagnosis of infertility problems

Scrotal ultrasound (US) imaging

-Us used to assess the contents of the scrotum, including the testicles,epididymis, and vas deferens
- also called testicular ultrasound

Androgens

-Increase testosterone levels
-used to correct hormone deficiency in hypogonadism and area delayed puberty in males

Antiandrogens

-Suppress the production of androgen
-used to treat prostate cancer and stop growth of certain cancer cells

Anti-impotence agents

Treat erectile dysfunction(impotence) by increasing blood flow to the penis, resulting in an erection

Antivirals

Treat viral disorders by inhibiting their development

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