Medical Terminology Systems;Chapter 11;Urinary System flashcards |

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albumin/o

albumin, protein

albuminoid

resembling albumin

azot/o

nitrogenous compounds

azotemia

-nitrogenous compounds in the blood
-(are toxic and death will occur if not removed from the body)

bacteri/o

bacteria (singular, bacterium)

bacteriuria

bacteria in urine

cyst/o
vesic/o

bladder

cystoscope

instrument for examining the bladder

vesicocele

-hernia of the bladder
-also called cystocele

glomerul/o

glomerulus

glomerulopathy

disease of the glomerulus

kal/i

potassium (an electrolyte)

hypokalemia

abnormally low concentration of potassium in the blood

keton/o

ketone bodies (acids and acetones)

ketonuria

-a presence of ketone bodies in the urine
-(commonly found in diabetes mellitus,starvation, and excessive dieting)

lith/o

stone, calculus

Lithotripsy

-crushing of a stone
-(most common method is extracorporeal shock-wavelithotripsy (ESWL),Percutaneous nephrolithotomy or ureteroscopic stone removal are alternatives when stones are large)

meat/o

opening, meatus

meatotomy

-incision of the urinary meatus
-(performed to relieve stenosis of the urethra)

nephr/o
ren/o

kidney

nephropexy

fixation of kidney

renal

pertaining to the kidney

noct/o

night

nocturia

-excessive and frequent urination after going to bed (ass.with prostate disease,UTI, and uncontrolled diabetes)

olig/o

scanty

oliguria

scanty (decreased production) urine

py/o

pus

pyel/o

renal pelvis

pyorrhea

flow or discharge of pus

pyeloplasty

surgical repair of the renal pelvis

ur/o

urine, urinary tract

urolith

stone in the urinary tract

ureter/o

ureter

ureterectasis

dilation of the ureter

urethr/o

urethra

urethrostenosis

narrowing or stricture of the urethra

-genesis

forming, producing, origin

lithogenesis

forming or producing stones

-iasis

abnormal condition (produced by something specified)

lithiasis

abnormal condition of stones or calculi

-uria

urine

polyuria

-much (excertion of) urine
-(is generally considered excretion 2.5L per 24 hrs.)

dia-

through, across

dialysis

-separation across
-(renal dialysis is a procedure that uses a membrane to separate and selectively remove waste products from blood when kidneys are unable to complete this function)

retro-

backward, behind

Retroperitoneal

pertaining to (the area) behind the peritoneum

Urology

Study of urinary disorders and diseases of the male reproductive system

Urologist

Specialist who treat urinary disorders

Nephrology

Study of diseases of the kidneys, electrolyte imbalance, renal transplantation, and dialysis therapy

Nephrologists

Specialist that treats kidney diseases

Pyelonephritis

-Also called kidney infection or nephritis
-Inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis

Nephralgia

Pain in the kidneys

Dysuria

Painful urination

Bacteriuria

bacteria within urine

Pyuria

pus in urine

Hematuria

Blood in urine

Glomerulonephritis

Inflammation of the glomerular membrane in the nephrons, causing it to become '"leaky" (permeable)

Proteinuria

Protein in urine

Hypertension

high blood pressure

Calculi

Stones

Urolithiasis

Stones in the urinary tract

Nephrolithiasis

stones in the kidneys

Colic

Intense pain

Refluxes

Flows backwards

Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy(ESWL)

uses concentrated ultrasound waves (shock waves) directed at the stones from a machine outside the body

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy(PCNL)

-a surgery in which a small incision in the skin that forms an opening in the kidney is performed, then a nephroscope is inserted into the kidney to locate and remove stones
-If stone is large,ultrasonic or electrohydraulic is used to break apart the stones so they can be removed

Ureteroscopic stone removal

procedure in which a thin viewing instrument (ureteroscope)is inserted into the urethra (the tube that leads from the outside of the body to the bladder)
Then the doctor passes the ureteroscope through the bladder and the ureter, to get to where the kidney stone is located.

Acute necrosis (ATN)

Tubular portion of the nephron is injured by a decrease in blood supply(ischemic ATN) or after injeston of toxic chemicals(nephrotoxic ATN)

Ischemic ATN

decrease in blood supply to the nephrons

nephrotoxic ATN

injected toxic chemical

Oliguria

scanty(decrease) urine production

hypercalcemia

increased blood levels of calcium

immunotherapy

stimulate the immune symptom to attack bad cells

Cystectomy

removal of the bladder

Intravenous

substance delivered through a vein

Intravesical

substance delivered directly into the bladder

Teletherapy

uses high energy beams directed at the malignancy from a machine outside the body

Brachytherapy

uses high energy beams directed at the malignancy through "seeds" planted within the tumor

Anuria(D&C)

-without (producing) urine
-Obstructive-blockage proximal to the bladder or unobstructed-severe damage to the nephrons of the kidneys

Bladder neck obstruction(BNO)(D&C)

-blockage at the base of the bladder that reduces or prevents urine from passing into the urethra
-can be caused by benign prostatic hyper-plasia,bladder stones, bladder tumors , or tumors in the pelvic cavity

cystocele(D&C)

-prolapsing or downward displacement of the bladder due to weakening of the supporting tissues between a woman's bladder and vagina
-commonly a result of childbirth, straining with constipation,or heavy lifting

dysuria(D&C)

-difficult or painful urination,commonly described as a "burning sensation"
-commonly caused by UTI

end-stage renal disease(ESRD)(D&C)

-any type of kidney disease in which there is little or no remaining kidney function,requiring the patient to undergo dialysis or kidney transplant for survival
-(2 most common types-diabetes and hypertension)

enuresis(D&C)

involuntary urination;also called incontinence
-occurs at night called nocturnal enuresis
-occurs during the day called diurnal enuresis

Fistula(D&C)

-abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another
-most common type-vesicovaginal fistula(a passage forms between the bladder and vagina)

hydronephrosis (D&C)

-abnormal condition of water in the kidney due from an accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract
-when dilation affects the ureter,it is called hydroureter

interstitial cystitis (D&C)

-a chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder that is not caused by bacterial infection and is not responsive to conventional antibiotic therapy
-also called painful bladder syndrome

nephrotic syndrome(D&C)

-a condition in which very high levels of plasma protein, usually albumin,are lost in the urine due to an increased permeability of the glomerular membrane
-hypoproteinemia,edema,and hyperlipidemia are commonly ass. with this syndrome

neurogenic bladder(D&C)

impairment of bladder control due to brain or nerve conduction

polycystic kidney disease(D&C)

a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys

Urgency(D&C)

Sensation of the need to void immediately(UTI)

Vesicoureteral reflux(VUR)(D&C)

-Disorder caused by the failure of urine to pass through the ureters to the bladder
-VUR may result in hydronephrosis if obstruction is in the proximal portion of ureter or hydroureter and hydronephrosis if obstruction is at the distal end of ureter

Wilms tumor(D&C)

-Rapidly developing a malignant neoplasm of the kidney that occurs in children
-diagnosis is confirmed by an excretory urogram(EU) with tomography

dialysis(SP)

-a procedure to remove waste products from the blood of a patient whose kidneys no longer function
-nitrogenous waste products are collected in a solution called dialysate

hemodialysis dialysis(SP)

an artificial machine receives waste-filled blood,filters the blood,and returns the dialyzed(clean) blood to the patient's bloodstream

peritoneal dialysis(SP)

-Toxic substances are removed from the body by using the perioneal membrane as the filter by perfusing(flushing) the peritoneal cavity with a warm,sterile chemical solution
-the solution remains in the peritoneal cavity for 1-2 hrs. and then removed

Kidney transplant(SP)

Replacement of a diseased kidney with one that is supplied by a compatible donor

nephropexy(SP)

the surgical fixation of a floating or mobile kidney

nephrostomy(SP)

The passage of a tube through the skin and into the renal pelvis to drain urine to a collecting receptacle outside the body when the ureters are unable to do so

Stent placement(SP)

Insertion of a mesh tube into a natural passage conduit in the body to prevent, or counter-react a disease-induced , localized flow constriction

urethral stent placement(SP)

Insertion of thin narrow tube into the ureter to prevent or treat obstruction of urine flow from the kidney

Urethrotomy(SP)

Incision of a urethral stricture

electromyography(EMG)(DP)

Measures the contraction of muscles that control urination using electrodes placed in the rectum and urethra

cystoscopy(DP)

-visual examination of the urinary bladder for evidence of pathology,obtaining biopsies of tumors or other growths, and removal of polyps using a specialized endoscope
- a catheter can be inserted to collect tissue samples

blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
(LP)

-a blood test that measures the amount of nitrogen in blood that comes from urea
- used to determine kidney function
-An increase in this may indicate renal dysfuction

Culture and sensitivity (C&S)
(LP)

lab test the determines the causative organism of an infection and identifies how the organism responds to various antibiotics

Urinalysis(UA)
(LP)

-urine screening test that includes physical observation, chemical tests, and microscopic evaluation
-UA may also be the 1st indicator of diabetes,liver, and gallbladder disaese

Ultrasonography (US)
(IP)

-High frequency waves are directed at soft tissue and reflected as "echos" to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure
- also called ultrasound, sonography, and echo

Bladder Ultrasonography(IP)

US produces images of the bladder to measure pre- and postvoid residual urine, thus determining bladder volume and, potentially, identifying incomplete bladder emptying

Intravenous pyelography (IVP)
(IP)

-radiographic image of the urinary tract (with contrast medium injected intravenously)
-also called excretory urography (EU)
-detects kidney stones,enlarged prostate,internal injuries,tumors in the kidneys,ureters, and bladder

Nuclear scan(IP)

-Technique in which radio-pharmaceutical called tracer is introduced into the body (inhaled, ingested, or injected) and a specialized camera (gamma camera) is used to produce images of organs and structures
-radiation comes from the inside of the body

Renal nuclear scan(IP)

-Nuclear scan of the kidneys used to determine their size, shape, and position
-also used to determine the amount of blood the kidneys are able to filter over time, renal artery hypertension, and evaluate a kidney transplant to identify signs of rejection

Voiding cystourethrography(VCUG)
(IP)

-X-ray imaging of the bladder and urethra performed before, during, and after voiding using a contrast medium to enhance imaging
-To determine cause of repeated infections or stress incontinence and to identify congenital or acquired structural abnormalities of the bladder and urethra

Antibiotics

Treat bacterial infections of the urinary tract by acting on the bacterial membrane or one of its metabolic processes

Antispasmodics

Decrease spasms in the urethra and bladder by relaxing the smooth muscles lining their walls, thus allowing normal emptying of the bladder

Diuretics

Promote and increase the excretion of urine

Potassium Supplements

Replace potassium due to depletion caused by diuretics

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