Medical Terminology Systems;Chapter 10;Musculoskeletal System flashcards |

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Appendage

Any body part attached to a main structure (Ex. include arms and legs)

Articulation

A place of union between 2 or more bones; also called joints

Cancellous

Lattice-like arrangement of bony plates occurring at the ends of long bones

Cruciate ligaments

Ligaments that cross each other, forming an X within the notch between the femoral condyles (help secure and stabilize the knee)

Hematopoiesis

Production and development of blood cells, normally in the bone marrow

Fibers

an elongated contractile cell that forms the muscles of the body

Skeletal muscles


(Also called voluntary or striated muscles)

muscles whose action is under voluntary control.
some examples of vountary muscles are muscles that move the eyeballs,tongue, and bones

Cardiac muscle

Is only found in the heart and forms most of the wall of the heart. It's striated like skeletal muscle, but produces rhythmic involuntary contractions like smooth muscle

Smooth muscle



(Also called involuntary or visceral muscle)

Actions are involuntary. Located principally in the visceral organs,walls of arteries and respiratory passages. and urinary and reproductive ducts. Contractions are controlled by the ANS

Fleshy attchments

muscle fibers that arise directly from the bone. They are weaker than a fibrous attachment.

Fibrous attachments

The CT converges at the end of the muscle to become continuous and indistinguishable from the peritoneum.

Aponeurosis

attachment of fibrous that spans a large area of the bone;strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach muscle to bone

Tendon

When the CT fibers form a strap or cord that attaches muscle to bone

Ligaments

Flexible bands of fibrous tissue that are highly adapted for resisting strains and holds bones close together in a synovial joint

Adduction

Movement toward the body

Abduction

Movement away from the body

Flexion

Decrease the angle at the joint

Extension

Increase the angle at the joint

Rotation

Moves a bone around its own body

Pronation

Turns the palm down

Supination

Turns the palms up

Inversion

Moving the sole of the foot inward

Eversion

Moving the sole of the foot outward

Dorsiflexion

Bending the foot or toes upward

Plantar Flexion

Bending the foot or toes downward

Short bones

-Cube-shaped bones. The core is spongy bone(cancellous bone), enclosed in a thin layer of compact bone
-Ex. wrists, ankles, and toes

Irregular Bones

-Certain bones of the middle ear and the bones of the vertebrae
-Complex shapes

Flat Bones

-Broad surfaces for muscle attach. or protection for internal organs
- Ex. bones of the skull, shoulder blades, and sternum

Long Bones

-Found in the appendages (extremities)
-Ex. fingers, arms and legs. Includes 3 main parts; diaphysis,proximal and distal epiphysis

Diaphysis

-The shaft or central section of a long bone
-Contains compact bone that surrounds the central canal and the medullary cavity(marrow cavity) that contains fatty yellow marrow

Distal Epiphysis
Proximal Epiphysis

-The 2 ends of bones to provide attachments
- Covered with articular cartilage and mostly spongy bone(red bone marrow)covered by a layer of compact bone.

Articular cartilage

-Elastic CT that provides a smooth surface for movement of joints
-Also reduces friction and absorbs shock at the freely movable joints.

Spongy Bone

Surrounded by a layer of compact bone and contains red bone marrow( immature and mature blood cells)

Periosteum

-A dense, white, fibrous membrane structure that covers the bone
-Contains blood, lymph, and nerves

Osteoblasts

-Inner layer of growing bones
-Embryonic cell bone
-(Bone-forming cells)

Skeletal system

-Adult consists of 206 bones
--Divided into the Axial Skeleton and Appendicular skeleton

Axial skeleton

-3 major regions-skull, rib cage, and vertebral column
-Include(skull, maxilla, mandible, sternum,ribs, vertebral column,sacrum, coccyx)

Projections (features of the bone)

1. Non-articulating surfaces (greater trochanter of the femur)
2.Sites for muscle and ligament attachments (Tubercle of the femur and Tuberosity of the humerus)

Articulating surfaces (features of the bone)

Projections that form joints
(Condyle of the humerous and head of the femur)

Depressions and openings (features of the bone)

Sites for blood vessels, nerve, and duct passage(Foramen of the skull, Fissure of the sphenoid bone, External auditory meatus of the temporal bone, Cavity of the frontal sinus)

Cranium(skull) (AX)

Consist of 8 bones that enclose and protect the brain and the organs of hearing and equilibrium

Soft spot (skull) (AX)

-Unossified membrane
-Incomplete bone formation
-Infants skull

Fontanel (skull) (AX)

-a space between the cranial bones of the skull in an infant,will fuse in early childhood
-Allows the bones to move as the fetus passes through the birth canal

Frontal bone (skull) (AX)

Forms the anterior portion of the skull (forehead) and the roof of the cavities that contain eyeball(1)

Parietal bone (skull) (AX)

situated on each side of the skull just behind the frontal bone (2)

Coronal suture (skull) (AX)

attaches the frontal and parietal bones

Occipital bone (skull) (AX)

Forms the back and base of the skull (1)

Temporal bone (skull) (AX)

-Forms part of the lower cranium
- One on each side above the ear (2)

Mastoid process (skull) (AX)

-Provides an attachment for several neck muscles
-Projects downward from the temporal bone

Sphenoid bone (skull) (AX)

-Located in the middle part of the base of the skull
-forms the central wedge that joins with all other cranial bones(2)

Ethmoid bone (skull) (AX)

Forms most of the bony area between the nasal cavity and parts of the orbits of the eyes

Mandible (facial) (AX)

-Lower jaw bone, are joins together with sutures and are immovable
-movement needed for speaking and chewing(mastication)(2)

Maxillae (facial) (AX)

-paired upper jawbones , are fused in the midline by a suture
-They form the upper jaw and hard palate(roof of the mouth)(2)

Cleft plate (facial) (AX)

A congenital defect caused by the maxillary not fusing together properly before birth

Nasal bones (facial) (AX)

forms the shape and bridge of the nose (2)

Lacrimal bones (facial) (AX)

located at the corner of the eye, thin small bones form the groove for the lacrimal sac and canals through which the tear ducts pass into the nasal cavity(2)

Zygomatic bones (facial) (AX)

cheekbone(2)

Vomer (facial) (AX)

forms the lower part of the nasal septum(1)

Paranasal cavities (facial) (AX)

Cavities located within the cranial and facial bones that open into the septum cavities and are lined with ciliary epithelium

Thorax (AX)

chest

Rib cage (Thoracic) (AX)

-Also called thoracic cage
-protect the internal organs

True ribs (Thoracic) (AX)

The 1st- 7 pairs of ribs

False ribs (Thoracic) (AX)

paired ribs 8-12

Coastal cartilage (Thoracic) (AX)

-Cartilage that attaches the true ribs to the sternum
-Costal cartilage does not fasten the false ribs directly to the sternum

Floating ribs (Thoracic) (AX)

-the last 2 pairs of ribs
-does not join to the sternum
-connects posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae

Vertebral column (AX)
regions of bones

-composed of 26 bones called vertebrae(singular,vertebra) in adults
-supports the body and provides a protective bony canal for the spinal canal

Cervical vertebrae (AX)

-The 1st 7 vertebrates
-Form the skeletal framework of the neck
-Curves forward

Atlas (cervical vertebrae) (AX)

-The 1st cervical vertebrae
-supports the skull
-yes motion

Axis (cervical vertebrae) (AX)

-The 2nd cervical vertebrae
-makes rotation possible
-no motion

Thoracic vertebrae (AX)

-12 vertebrates (#8-19)
-support the chest and serve as point of articulation for the ribs

Lumbar vertebrae (AX)

-5 vertebrates (#20-24)
-lower back area and carries most of the weight of the torso

Sacral Vertebrae (AX)

-1 vertebra (#25)
-5 sacral vertebrae fused into 1 bone. Referred to as sacrum in adults

Coccyx vertebrae (AX)

-1 vertebra (#26)
-4 or 5 fragmented fused vertebrae
tail bone

Intervertebral disks (AX)

Flat, rounded structures that separate the vertebrates
composed of fibrocartilaginous substance with a gelatinous mass in the center (nucleus pulposus)

Appendicular Skeleton

the part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle and the upper and lower limbs, which attach to the axial skeleton

Pectoral (shoulder) girdle (AP)

-consists of 2 bones, the anterior clavicle(collar bone)and the posterior scapula(shoulder blade)
-Attaches the bones of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton and provide attachments for muscles hat aid upper limb movements

Humerus (AP)

-upper arm bone
-articulates with radius and ulna at the elbow

Radius and Ulna (AP)

forearm

Carpals(AP)

-Includes 8 carpals
-wrist

Metacarpals(AP)

-Palm
-10 radiating

Phalanges(AP)

-Fingers
-10 radiating

Pelvic(hip) girdle (AP)

-basin shaped structure that attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton
-Supports the trunk of the body and provides protection for the visceral organs of the pelvis

Pelvis(AP)
1. Males
2. Females

1. larger and heavier and possess larger surface markings
2. shallower, but wider,supports the enlarged uterus during pregnancy, provides a large opening to allow for child birth

Innominate (Hip) bone(AP)

Consists of the
1. ilium
2.ischium
3.pubis

Acetabulum (AP)

-deep socket of the hip joint that articulates with the head of the femur
-connects inferiorly to the ilium an medially to the pubis

Symphysis pubis(AP)

-anterior to the bladder
-connects pubis

Rectum(AP)

Located in the curve of the sacrum and coccyx

Femur(AP)

-Thigh
-largest, longest, and strongest bone in the body

Lower limbs(AP)

Consists of 3 parts
1.Thigh
2.leg
3. foot

Tibia and Fibula(AP)

2 parallel bones that form the leg

Patella (AP)

-Kneecap
-located anterior to the knee joint

Tarsals (AP)

-ankle bones
-Consist of 7 bones

Metatarsals(AP)

Consist of of 5 small long bones numbered 1-5 and beginning with the great toe on the medial side of the foot

Phalanges(AP)

Toes

Articulate

points where bones meet

Diathroses

Freely movable joints

Synarthroses

Immovable joints

Amphiarthroses

Slightly movable joints

Synovial joints

joints that allow movement

Joint capsule

sleevelike extension of the peristeum

Synovial membrane

surrounds the inside of the capsule and secretes synovial fluid within the joint capsule

Synovial fluid

fluid that lubricates and reduce friction

Ankyl/o

Stiffness; bent, crooked

Ankylosis

-abnormal condition of stiffness
-Results immobility and stiffness of a joint, commonly occurs from rheumatoid artritis

Arthr/o

Joint

Arthritis

Inflammation of a joint

Kyph/o

humpback

Kyphosis

-abnormal condition of humpback
posture
-Abnormal curvature of the upper portion of the spine
-hunchback or humpback

Lamin/o

Lamina; part of vertebral arch

Lord/o

curve,swayback

Lordosis

abnormal condition of swayback posture

Myel/o

Bone marrow; Spinal cord

Myelocyte

bone marrow cell

Orth/o

Straight

Orthopedist

specialist in treatment of musculoskeletal disorders

Oste/o

Bone

Osteoma

tumor composed of bone

Ped/o
Ped/i

foot;child

Pedograph

-instrument for recording the foot
-imprint of the foot and studying the gait(manner of walking)

Pedicure

care of feet

Scoli/o

crooked,bent

Scoliosis

-abnormal bending of the spine
-lateral curvature of the spine, either to the right or left
-Some rotation of the vertebral column may occur

Thorac/o

chest

Thoracodynia

pain in the chest

Acromi/o

acromion(projection of the scapula)

Acromial

pertaining to the acromion

Brachi/o

arm

Brachialgia

pain in the arm

Calcane/o

Calcaneum (Heel bone)

Calcaneodynia

pain in the heel

Carp/o

Carpus (Wrist bones)

Carpoptosis

-downward displacement of the wrist
- also called wrist drop

Cephal/o

head

Cepalad

toward the head

Cervic/o

Neck; Cervix uteri (Neck of Uterus)

Cephalodynia

Pain in the head

Clavicul/o

clavicle(collar bone)

Clavicular

Pertaining to the clavicle

Cost/o

Ribs

Costectomy

excision of a rib

Crani/o

Cranium (Skull)

Craniotomy

incision of the cranium

Dactyl/o

fingers;toes

Dactylitis

inflammation of fingers and toes

Femor/o

Femur (Thigh bone)

Femoral

pertaining to the femur

Fibul/o

Fibula; smaller outer bone of the lower leg

Fibulocalcaneal

pertaining to the fibula and calcaneus

Humer/o

Humerus (Upper arm bone)

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