Medical Terminology Systems; Chapter 9; Blood, Lymph, and Immune System flashcards |

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aden/o

gland

adenoid

resembling a gland

agglutin/o

clumping, gluing

agglutination

process of clumping

bas/o

-base (alkaline, opposite of acid)
-appear dark blue when stained with a dye used in hematology

basophil

attraction to base (alkaline dyes)

blast/o

embryonic cell

erythroblastosis

-abnormal increase of embryonic red (cells)
-is a potentially fatal disease of newborns occurring when a blood incompatibility exists between the mother and fetus

chrom/o

color

hypochromic

-under (decrease in) color
-are erythrocytes that contain inadequate hemoglobin
-these cells are commonly associated with iron- deficiency anemia

eosin/o

dawn (rose colored)

eosinophil

-attraction for rose colored (dye)
-appear rose- colored when stained with eosin, a dye used in hematology

erythr/o

red

erythrocyte

-red cell
-red blood cell

granul/o

granule

granulocyte

cell (containing) granules

hem/o hemat/o

blood

hemophobia

fear of blood

hematoma

-blood tumor
-usually a clotted blood caused by a break or leak in a blood vessel that may be found in any organ, tissue, or space within the body

immun/o

immune, immunity, safe

immunology

-study of immunity
-includes study of autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, and immune deficiencies

kary/o
nucle/o

nucleus

karyolysis

-destruction of the nucleus
-results in cell death

mononuclear

pertaining to a single nucleus

leuk/o

white

leukemia

-white blood condition
-causes a profoundly elevated white blood cell count and a very low red blood cell count

lymphaden/o

lymph gland (node)

lymphadenopathy

disease of lymph nodes

lymph/o

lymph

lymphoid

resembling lymph

lymphangi/o

lymph vessel

lymphangioma

tumor (composed of) lymph vessels

morph/o

form, shape, structure

morphology

study of form, shape, and structure

myel/o

bone marrow; spinal cord

myelogenic

relating to the origin in bone marrow

neutr/o

neutral, neither

neutrophilic

pertaining to an attraction for neutral dyes

phag/o

swallowing, eating

phagocyte

cell that eats (foreign material)

plas/o

formation, growth

aplastic

pertaining to a failure to form

poikil/o

varied, irregular

poikilocyte

cell that is irregular or varied (in shape)

reticul/o

net, mesh

reticulocyte

cell (that contains a) net or meshwork

ser/o

serum

serology

-study of serum
- includes the study of antigens and antibodies as well as sources other than serum including plasma, saliva, and urine

sider/o

iron

sideropenia

-deficiency of iron
-usually results from inadequate iron uptake or frm hemorrhage

splen/o

spleen

splenorrhagia

bursting forth of the spleen

-rrhagia

bursting forth

thromb/o

blood clot

thrombosis

-abnormal condition of a blood clot
-formation of blood clots in the blood vessel

xen/o

foreign, strange

xenograft (heterograft)

-foreign transplantation
-example is transplant with a pig heart

-blast

embryonic cell

erythroblast

embryonic red cell

-emia

blood condition

anemia

-without blood
-is a condition characterized by a reduction in the number of red blood cells or a deficiency in their hemoglobin

-globin

protein

hemoglobin

-blood protein
- is an iron containing protein found in RBCs that transports oxygen and gives blood its color

-graft

transplantation

autograft

-self transplantation
-transplantation of tissue from one location of the body to another in the same individual

auto-

self, own

-osis

abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)

leukocytosis

abnormal increase in white (blood) cells

-penia

decrease, deficiency

erythropenia

abnormal decrease in red (blood cells)

-phil

attraction for

neutrophil

attraction for a neutral (dye)

-phoresis

carrying, transmission

electrophoresis

-carrying an electric (charge)
-a laboratory technique used to separate proteins based on their electrical charge, size, and shape
-commonly used in DNA testing

electr/o

electricity

-phylaxis

protection

anaphylaxis

against protection

ana-

against, up, back

-poiesis

formation, production

hemopoiesis

formation of blood

-stasis

standing still

hemostasis

standing still of blood

a-

without, not

amorphic

without a (definite) form

allo-

other, different from the normal

allograft (homograft)

-transplantation from another
-transplantation between two individuals who are genetically compatible

aniso-

unequal, dissimilar

anisocytosis

abnormal increase in cells that are unequal

iso-

same, equal

isochromic

pertaining to the same color

macro-

large

macrocyte

large (red) cell

micro-

small

microcyte

small (red) cell

mono-

one

mononucleosis

abnormal increase of mononuclear (cells)

poly-

many, much

polymorphic

pertaining to many forms or shapes

hematology

physician who studies blood disorders

hematologist

physician who specializes in treating blood disorders

allergy and immunology

branch of medicine involving disorders of immune systems, including asthma and anaphalaxis, adverse reactions to drugs, autoimmune disorders, organ transplantation, and malignancies of the immune system

allergists and immunologist

specialist who treats immune system disorders

anemia

is a deficiency of erythrocytes or hemoglobin in the blood

hemorrhagic anemia

anemia caused from excessive blood loss

hemolyze

breaking down of red blood cells

sickle cell crisis

-tissue distal to the blockage undergoes ischemia, resulting in severe pain that can last from several hours to several days
-affects those who have inherited the trait from both parents
-treatment includes folic acid

tachycardia

rapid heart rate

dyspnea

difficulty breathing

pallor

paleness

hypotension

low blood presure

Aplastic (hypoplastic) anemia

serious form of anemia associated with bone marrow failure and resulting in erythropenia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia

Folic- acid deficiency anemia

inability to produce sufficient red blood cells (RBCs) due to the lack of folic acid, a B vitamin essential for erythropoiesis

hemolytic

destruction of RBCs, commonly resulting in jaudice

iron- deficiency anemia

lack of sufficient ion in RBCs

Pernicious anemia

chronic, progressive anemia found mostly in people older than age 50 due to lack of sufficient vitamin, B12 needed for blood cell development

sickle cell anemia

inherited anemia that causes RBCs to become crescent- shaped o sickle - shaped when oxygen levels are low

acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)

is an infectious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which slowly destroys the immune system

immunicompromised

immune system becomes weak

opportunistic infections

infections that occur more in people who have weakened immune system

kaposi sarcoma and pneumocystis pneumonia

are two diseases closely associated with AIDS ans are considered AIDS- defining diseases

allergy

is an acquired abnormal immune response

sensitization

initial exposure

antigen

exposure to an allergen

urticaria

an allergic reaction that causes hives

anaphylactic shock

an extreme allergic life threatening condition

indurated

hardened

allergy shots

an immunotherapy treatment that reduces the reaction of the allergen

autoimmunity

is the failure of the body to distinguish accurately between self and non-self in which the immune system attacks antigens in ts own cells to such an extent that tissue injury occurs

multisystemic

affects many organs and tissues

myasthenia gravis

is a chronic. progressive autoimmune neuromuscular disease that causes muscle weakness

exacerbations

increased severity of symptoms or disease

remissions

latency

edema

fluid within tissues

hypoproteinemia

decrease in the blood protein level

localized

affects specific area

diuretics

medications that promote urination

hemophilia (bleeder's disorder)

is a hereditary disorder in which the blood- clotting mechanism is impaired

hemophilia A

is a deficiency in clotting factor VIII

hemophilia B

is a deficiency in clotting factor IX

hematomas

collection of blood

hemarthrosis

blood within joints

infectious mononucleosis

-is one of the acute infections caused by the Epstein- Barr virus (EBV)
-spreads through saliva and respiratory usecretions

gingivitis

gum infection

anorexia

loss of appetite

hepatomegaly

enlargement of the liver

splenomegaly

enlargement of the spleen

leukemia

is an oncological disorder of the blood forming organs that causes overgrowth of blood cells

proliferation

over- growth

myelogenous

granulocytic leukemia

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