Medical Terminology Systems; Chapter 6; Digestive System flashcards |

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or/o
stomat/o

Mouth

oral

Pertaining to the mouth

stomatitis

Inflammation of the mouth

gloss/o
lingu/o

Tongue

glossectomy

removal of all or part of the tongue

lingual

pertaining to the tongue

bucc/o

cheek

buccal

pertaining to the cheek

cheil/o
labi/o

lip

cheiloplasty

surgical repair of a defective lip

labial

pertaining to the lips, particularly the lips of the mouth

dent/o
odont/o

teeth

dentist

specialist who treats disorders of teeth

orthodontist

dentist who specializes in correcting and preventing irregularities of abnormally positioned or aligned teeth

orth/o

straight

gingiv/o

gum(s)

gingivectomy

excision of diseased gingival tissue

sial/o

saliva, salivary gland

esophag/o

esophagus

esophagoscope

instrument for examining the esophagus

-scope

instrument for examining

pharyng/o

pharynx (throat)

pharyngotonsillitis

inflammation of the pharynx and tonsils

tonsill/o

tonsils

gastr/o

stomach

gastralgia

pain in the stomach; also called stomachache

-algia

pain

pylor/o

pylorus

pylorospasm

involuntary contraction of the pyloric sphincter of the stomach, as in pyloric stenosis

-spasm

involuntary contraction, twitching

duoden/o

duodenum (first part of small intestine)

duodenoscopy

visual examination of the duodenum

enter/o

intestine (usually small intestine)

enteropathy

disease of the intestine

jejun/o

jejunum (second part of the small intestine)

jejunorrhaphy

suture of the jejunum

-rrhaphy

suture

ile/o

ileum (third part of small intestine)

append/o
appendic/o

appendix

appendectomy

excision of the appendix

appendicitis

inflammation of the appendix

col/o
colon/o

colon

colostomy

creation of an opening between the colon and the abdominal wall

colonoscopy

visual examination of the colon

sigmoid/o

sigmoid colon

sigmoidotomy

incision of the sigmoid colon

rect/o

rectum

rectocele

herniation or protrusion of the rectum; also called protocele

proct/o

anus, rectum

proctologist

physician who specializes in treating disorders of the colon, rectum, and anus

an/o

anus

perianal

pertaining to the area around the anus

hepat/o

liver

hepatomegaly

-enlargement of the liver
-may be caused by hepatitis or infection, fatty infiltration(as in alcoholism), biliary obstruction, or malignancy

pancreat/o

pancreas

pancreatolysis

destruction of the pancreas

cholangi/o

bile vessel

cholangiole

small terminal portion of the bile duct

-ole

small, minute

chol/e

bile, gall

cholelith

gallstone

-lith

calculus, stone

cholecyst/o

gallbladder

cholecystectomy

removal of the gallbladder

choledoch/o

bile duct

choledochoplasty

surgical repair of the bile duct

-emesis

vomit

hyperemesis

excessive vomiting

-iasis

abnormal condition (produced by something specified)

cholelithiasis

-abnormal condition of gallstones
-called choledocholithiasis when formed in the common bile duct

-megaly

enlargement

-orexia

appetite

anorexia

without appetite

-pepsia

digestion

dyspepsia

difficult or painful digestion; also called indigestion

-phagia

swallowing, eating

aerophagia

swallowing air

aer/o

air

-prandial

meal

postprandial

after a meal

-rrhea

discharge, flow

steatorrhea

discharge of fat in fecal matter

dia-

through, across

diarrhea

discharge or flow of fluid fecal matter through the bowel

peri-

around

sub-

under, below

sublingual

pertaining to the area under the tongue

asymptomatic

without symptoms

Gastroenterology

branch of medicine concerned with digestive disorders

gastroenterologist

specialist who diagnosis and treats digestive disorders

ulcer

a circumscribed open sore

H. pylori

bacteria that causes an infection which results in a peptic ulcer disease

perforation

produces a hole

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneum

Ulcerative colitis

a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon

stoma

creation of an opening

hernia

is a protrusion of any organ, tissue, or structure through the wall of the cavity in which it is naturally contained

viscera

internal abdominal organs

inguinal hernia

protrusion of an organ that develops in the groin

strangulated hernia

protrusion of an organ that causes the blood supply to be cut off

umbilical hernia

protrusion of a part of the intestine at the navel

congenital hernia

develops in newborns or infants

hernioplasty

surgical repair of the hernia

herniorrhaphy

suture of the hernia

diaphragmatic hernia

congenital disorder in which a hernia develops in the diaphragm

hiatal hernia

in which the lower part of the esophagus and the top of the stomach slides through an opening in the diaphragm into the thorax

mechanical intestinal obstruction

occurs when intestinal contents are prevented from moving forward due to an obstacle or barrier that blocks the lumen

nonmechanical intestinal obstruction

occurs when peristalsis is impaired and the intestinal contents cannot be propelled through the bowel

adhesions

fibrous band that holds or binds together tissues that are normally separated such as scar tissue

volvolus

intestinal twisting

intussusceptions

a portion of the intestine slips into another part beneath it

hemorroids

enlarged vein of the anal canal

internal hemorrhoids

develop inside the rectal area

external hemorrhoids

develop outside the rectal area

hemorrhoidectomy

surgical removal of hemorroids

hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis)

common causes include ingestion of contaminated food, water, or milk

hepatitis B (serum hepatitis)

-usually does not occur through the mouth passageways
-occurs from blood transfusions and sexual contact
-vaccine is available to provide immunity

hepatitis C

-usually does not occur through the mouth passageways
-occurs from blood transfusions and sexual contact
--there is no vaccine available
-patients may remain asymptomatic for years or the disease may produce mild, flu-like symptoms
-treatment includes antiviral medications or liver transplantation

jaundice (icterus)

-condition caused from the hepatitis virus
-occurs because the liver is no longer able to remove bilirubin or because the bile duct is blocked, causing bile to enter the bloodstream

bilirubin

-condition caused from the hepatitis virus
-a yellow compound formed when erythrocytes are destroyed

diverticulosis

a condition in which small, blister-like pockets (diverticula) develop in the inner lining of the large intestine and may balloon through the intestinal wall

diverticulitis

small blister like pockets within the large intestine becomes inflamed

obstipation

extreme constipation

gastric adenocarcinoma

cancerous glandular tumor within the stomach

hepatocellular carcinomas

carcinomas within the liver

esophageal carcinomas

carcinomas within the esophagus

pancreatic carcinomas

carcinomas within the pancreas

colorectal cancer

-one of the most common type of intestinal cancer in the US
-it originates in the epithelial lining of the colon or rectum and can occur anywhere in the large intestine

anorexia

lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the ability to eat

appendicitis

inflammation of the appendix, usually due to obstuction or infection

ascites

abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, most commonly as a result of chronic live disease.

borborygmus

rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance and caused by passage of as through the liquid contents of the intestine

cachexia

physical wasting that includes loss of wight and muscle mass and is comonly associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cancer

cholelithiasis

presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct

cirrhosis

-scarring and dysfunction of the liver cause by chronic liver disease
-most commonly caused from chronic alcoholism
-may also be caused by toxins, infectious agents, metabolic diseases, and circulatory disorders

colic

spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ, especially in the colon, accompanied by pain

crohn disease (regional enteritis)

-form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), usually of the ileum but possibly affecting any portion of the intestinal tract
-may cause fever, cramping, diarrhea, and weight loss

dysentary

inflammation of the intestne, especially the colon, that may be caused by ingesting water or food containing chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites and results in bloody diarrhea

dysphagia (aphagia)

inability or difficulty in swallowing

eructation (belching)

producing gas from the stomah, usually with a characteristic sound

fecalith

fecal concretion

flatus

gas in the GI tract; expelling of air from a body orifice, especially the anus

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus duue to a malfunction of the sphincter muscle at the inferior portion of the esophagus

halitosis

foul-smelling breath

hematemesis

vomiting of blood from bleeding inthe stomach or esophagus

irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
(spastic colon)

symptom complex marked by abdominal pain and altered bowel function (typically constipation, diarrhea, or alternation constipation and diarrhea) for which no organic cause can be determined

malabsorption syndrome

symptom complex of the small intestine characterized by the impaired passage of nutrients, minerals, or fluids through intestinal villi into the blood or lymph

melena

passage of dark-colored, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices

obesity

excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight

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