Medical Terminology Systems; Chapter 4; Body Structures flashcards |

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chromatin

-Structural component of the nucleus, composed of nucleic acids and proteins.
-Chromatin condenses to form chromosomes during cell division.

chromosome

-threadlike structures within the nucleus composed of deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA) that carries hereditary information encoded in genes
-each sperm and egg has 23 unpaired chromosomes. After fertilization, each cell of the embryo then has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

Molecule that holds genetic information capable of replicating and producing an exact copy whenever the cell divides

diaphragm

-Muscular wall that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity.
-Alternating contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm is essential to the breathing process.

metabolism

-Sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism.
-Includes anabolism and catabolism

anabolism

The building up of body constituents

catabolism

The breaking down of body constituents

organelles

-Cellular structure that provides a specialized function, such as the nucleus (reproduction), ribosomes (protein synthesis), Golgi apparatus (removal of material from the cell), and lysosomes (digestion)
-The membranes of many of these act as sites of chemical reactions

cell tissue organ system organism

The levels of organization from least to most complex
-cell
-tissue
-organ
-system
-organism

cells

-The smallest structural and functional unit of life
-includes cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus

cell activities

utilizing food, eliminating waste, reproducing

cytology

The study of the body at the cellular level

Cell membrane

Acts as a barrier that supports and protects the intracellular contents

cytoplasm

jellylike matrix of proteins, salts, water, dissolved gases, and nutrients within the cell membrane

organelles

perform specific functions of the cell, such as reproduction and movement

nucleus

-The largest cell organelle that directs the cell's activities and contains chromosomes
-responsible for metabolism, growth, and reproduction
-carries the DNA

tissues

groups of cells that perform a specialized activity

histology

the study of tissues

types of tissue

-epithelial
-connective
-muscle
-nervous

epithelial tissue

-covers surfaces of organs, lines cavities and canals, forms tubes and ducts, provides the secreting portions of glands, and makes up the epidermis of the skin
-It is composed of cells arranged in a continuous sheet consisting of one or more layers

connective tissue

-supports and connects other tissues and organs
-It is made up of diverse cell types, including fibroblasts, fat cells, and blood

muscle tissue

provides the contractile tissue of the body, which is responsible for movement

nervous tissue

transmits electrical impulses as it relays information throughout the entire body

organs

-body structures that perform specialized functions
-Composed of two or more tissue types

systems

composed of varying numbers of organs and accessory structures that have similar or related functions

organisms

-highest level of organization
-a complete living entity capable of independent existence
-are made up of several body systems that work together to sustain life

anatomical position

-is a body posture to locate anatomical parts or divisions
-the body is standing erect and the face forward, arms are to the sides with palms facing foward

plane

-imaginary flat surface that divides the body into two sections
- serve as points of reference to identify the different sections of the body

the most common planes are

-midsagittal (median)
-coronal(frontal)
- transverse (horizontal)

computed tomography

CT

body cavities

-spaces within the body that help protect, separate, and support internal organs
-used by clinicians to locate structures and also to identify abnormalities within them

dorsal/posterior body cavities

-cranial (brain)
- spinal (spinal cord)

ventral/anterior body cavities

-thoracic (heart, lungs, and associated structures)
-abdominopelvic (digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs and structures)

midsagittal (median)

divides body into right and left halves

coronal (frontal)

divides body into anterior(ventral) and posterior(dorsal) aspects

transverse (horizontal)

divides into superior(upper) and inferior(lower) aspects

quadrants

-provide a means of locating specific sites of the abdomen for descriptive and diagnostic purposes
-includes RUQ,LUQ,RLQ,LLQ

Right upper (RUQ)

-right lobe of the liver
-gallbladder
-part of the small and large intestines

Left upper (LUR)

-left lobe of the liver
-stomach
-spleen
-part of the pancreas
-part of the small and large intestine

Right lower (RLQ)

-part of the small and large intestine
-appendix
-right ovary
-right fallopian tube
-right ureter

Left lower (LLQ)

-part of the small and large intestine
-left ovary
-left fallopian tube
-left ureter

abdominopelvic regions

-used primarily to identify the location of underlying body structures and visceral organs
-includes right hypochondriac region, epigastric region, left hypochondriac region, right lumbar region, umbilical region, left lumbar region, right inguinal (iliac) region, hypogastric region, left inguinal (iliac) region

right hypochondriac

upper right lateral region beneath the ribs

epigastric

upper middle region

left hypochondriac

upper left lateral region beneath the ribs

right lumbar

middle right lateral region

umbilical

region of the navel

left lumbar

middle left lateral region

right inguinal iliac

lower right lateral region

hypogastric

lower middle region

left inguinal iliac

lower left lateral region

abduction

movement away from the midsagittal (median) plane of the body or one of its parts

adduction

movement toward the midsagittal (median) plane of the body

medial

pertaining to the midline of the body or structure

lateral

pertaining to a side

superior (cephalad)

toward the head or upper portion of a structure

inferior (caudal)

away from the head, or toward the tail or lower part of a structure

proximal

nearer to the center (trunk of the body) or to the point of attachment to the body

distal

further from the center (trunk of the body) or from the point of attachment to the body

anterior (ventral)

front of the body

posterior (dorsal)

back of the body

parietal

pertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity

visceral

pertaining to the viscera, or internal organs, especially the abdominal organs

prone

lying on the abdomen, face down, palms down

supine

lying horizontally on the back, face up, palms facing up

inversion

turning inward or inside out

eversion

turning outward

palmar

pertaining to the palm of the hand

plantar

pertaining to the sole of the foot

superficial

toward the surface of the body (external)

deep

Away from the surface of the body (internal)

spine

vertebral column or backbone

sections of the spine

-cervical (neck)
- thoracic (chest)
-lumbar (loin)
-sacral (lower back)
- coccyx (tailbone)

cyt/o

cell

cytologist

specialist in the study of cells

hist/o

tissue

histology

study of tissues

kary/o
nucle/o

nucleus

karyolysis

-destruction of the nucleus
-results in death of a cell

nuclear

pertaining to the nucleus

anter/o

anterior, front

anterior

pertaining to the front

caud/o

tail

caudad

toward the tail

cephal/o

head

caphalad

toward the head

dist/o

far, farthest

distal

pertaining to the farthest (point of attachment)

dors/o

back (of body)

dorsal

pertaining to the back (of the body)

infer/o

lower, below

inferior

pertaining to a lower (structure or surface)

later/o

side, to one side

lateral

pertaining to a side

medi/o

middle

mediad

toward the middle

poster/o

back (of body), behind, posterior

posterior

pertaining to the back (of the body)

proxim/o

near, nearest

proximal

pertaining to the nearest (point of attachment)

ventr/o

belly, belly side

ventral

pertaining to the belly side (front of the body)

abdomin/o

abdomen

abdominal

pertaining the the abdomen

cervic/o

neck; cervix uteri (neck of uterus)

cervical

pertaining to the neck

crani/o

cranium (skull)

cranial

pertaining to the cranium

gastr/o

stomach

hypogastric

pertaining to (the area) below the stomach

ili/o

ilium (lateral, flaring portion of the hip bone)

iliac

pertaining to the ilium

inguin/o

groin

inguinal

pertaining to the groin

lumb/o

loins (lower back)

lumbar

pertaining to the loins (lower back)

pelv/i
pelv/o

pelvis

pelvimeter

instrument for measuring the pelvis

pelvic

pertaining to the pelvis

spin/o

spine

spinal

pertaining to the spine

thorac/o

chest

thoracic

pertaining to the chest

umbilic/o

umbilicus, navel

umbilical

pertaining to the navel

albin/o
leuk/o

white

albinism

condition of whiteness

leukocyte

white cell

chlor/o

green

chloropia

green vision

chrom/o

color

heterochromic

pertaining to different colors

cirrh/o
jaund/o
xanth/o

yellow

cirrhosis

-abnormal yellowing
-may be associated with alcoholism or chronic hepatitis

jaudice

-yellowing
-associated with obstruction of bile passageways causing bile to back flow into the liver

xanthosis

-abnormal condition of yellow(ness)
-commonly associated with cancerous tumors

cyan/o

blue

cyanotic

-pertaining to blueness
- is associated with lack of oxygen in the blood

erythr/o

red

erythrocyte

-red cell
-Is a red blood cell

melan/o

black

melanoma

-black tumor
-is a malignancy that arises from melanocytes

poli/o

gray; gray matter (of brain or spinal cord)

polimyelitis

inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord

acr/o

extremity

acrocyanosis

abnormal condition in which the extremities are blue

eti/o

cause

etiology

study of causes of disease

idi/o

unknown, peculiar

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