Medical Terminology Systems Ch 7 Respiratory System flashcards |

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nas/o
rhin/o

nose

sept/o

septum

sinus/o

sinus, cavity

adenoid/o

adenoids

tonsill/o

tonsils

pharyng/o

pharynx (throat)

epiglott/o

epiglottis

laryng/o

larynx (voice box)

trache/o

trachea (windpipe)

bronchi/o
bronch/o

bronchus (plural, bronchi)

bronchiol/o

bronchiole

alveol/o

alveolus; air sac

pleur/o

pleura

pneum/o
pneumon/o

air, lung

pulmon/o

lung

anthrac/o

coal, coal dust

atel/o

incomplete, imperfect

coni/o

dust

cyan/o

blue

lob/o

lobe

orth/o

straight

ox/i
ox/o

oxygen (O2)

pector/o
steth/o
thorac/o

chest

phren/o

diaphragm; mind

spir/o

breathe

py/o

pus

-capnia

carbon dioxide (CO2)

-osmia

smell

-phonia

voice

-pnea

breathing

-ptysis

spitting

-thorax

chest

-ar

pertaining to

-ectasis

dilation, expansion

-centesis

surgical puncture

-ia

condition

-osis

abnormal condition

-spasm

involuntary contraction, twitching

-plegia

paralysis

-sphyxia

pulse

brady-

slow

dys-

bad; painful; difficult

eu-

good

tachy-

rapid

peri-

around

nasal

pertaining to the nose

rhinoplasty

surgical repair of the nose

septoplasty

surgical repair of the septum

sinusotomy

incision of any of the sinuses

adenoidectomy

excision of the adenoids

peritonsillar

pertaining to the area around the tonsils

tonsillectomy

excision of the tonsils

pharyngoscope

instrument for examining the pharynx

epiglottitis

inflammation of the epiglottis

laryngoplegia

paralysis of the (vocal cords and) larynx

tracheoplasty

surgical repair of the trachea

bronchiectasis

dilation of the bronchi

bronchoscope

instrument for examining the bronchus or bronchi

bronchiolitis

inflammation of the bronchioles

alveolar

pertaining to the alveoli

pleurocentesis (thoracocentesis or thoracentesis)

surgical puncture of the pleural cavity

pneumectomy

excision of (all or part of) a lung

pneumonia

condition of the lungs (usual causes are infections due to bacteria, viruses, or other pathogenic organisms)

pulmonologist

specialist in the study (and treatment) of lungs (and respiratory diseases)

anthracosis (black lung disease)

abnormal condition of coal dust (in the lungs)

pneumoconiosis

-condition of dust in the lungs
-includes silicosis, asbestosis, and anthracosis

atelectasis (airless lung or collapsed lung)

incomplete expansion of the lung

cyanosis

abnormal condition of blueness

lobectomy

excision of a lobe

orthopnea

breathing is a straight (or upright position)

oximeter

instrument used for measuring O2

hypoxemia

deficiency of O2 in blood

pectoralgia (thoracalgia or thoracodynia)

pain in the chest

stethoscope

instrument used for examining the chest

thoracopathy

disease of the chest

phrenospasm

involuntary contraction of the diaphragm

spirometer

instrument for measuring breathing

hypercapnia

excessive CO2

anosmia

without (the sense of) smell

dysphonia

bad (impaired) voice (quality)

apnea

not breathing

hemoptysis

(coughing up or) spitting of blood

pyothorax (empyema)

pus in the chest (cavity)

bradypnea

slow breathing

dyspnea

difficult breathing

eupnea

normal breathing

tachypnea

rapid breathing

asphyxia

condition caused by insufficient intake of O2

pulmonology

medical specialty cornered with disorders of the respiratory system

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

includes respiratory disorders that produce a chronic partial obstruction of the passageways

asthma

produces spasm in the bronchial passages (bronchospasms) that may be sudden and violent (paroxysmal)and lead to dyspnea

bronchospasms

spasms in the bronchial passageways

paroxysmal

a sudden and violent symptom

productive cough

coughing up large amounts of mucus

exacerbations

increase strength of symptoms

mucolytics

treatment that loosens and break down mucus

bronchodilators

treatment that expands the bronchi by relaxing the smooth muscles

status asthmaticus

-a life-threatening asthma condition that may require hospitalization
-results from medications being ineffective

chronic bronchitis

-is a inflammation of the bronchi caused mainly by smoking and air pollution
-may be caused by viruses and bacteria as well

experctorants

treatment that aids in removal of mucus

emphysema

-is characterized by decreased elasticity of the alveoli (air sac in the lungs) which causes air to remain trapped in the chest and results in a characteristic "barrel- chested" appearance
-commonly occurs with another respiratory disorder, such as asthma, tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis or with heavy smokers

influenza (flu)

-is and acute infectious respiratory viral disease
- includes type A,B, and C viral types
-is contagious
- symptoms include fever, chills, headache, generalized muscle pain (myalgia), and loss of appetite
-lats between 7-10 days

pandemics

-world wide epidemic
- occurs in Type A influenza

virulent

-highly infectious
-occurs in Type A influenza

myalgia

muscle pain

pleural effusions

abnormal fluid in the pleural cavity, the space between the visceral and parietal pleura

percussion

gentle tapping on the chest with the fingers and listening to the sounds to determine the position, size, or consistency of the underlying structures

auscultation

is listening to sounds made by organs of the body using stethoscope

transudate

is a noninflammatory fluid that resembles serum but with slightly less protein

exudate

fluid that is usually high in protein and commonly contains blood and immune cells

hydrothorax

-serum within the chest
-is a type of pleural effusions

empyema or pyothorax

pus pleural effusions

hemothorax

blood within the chest

pneumothorax

air within the pleural space

thoracocentesis, thoracentesis

surgical puncture to the chest

tuberculosis (TB), (acid- fast bacillus)

is a communicable disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis

droplet nuclei

TB spread by droplets of respiratory secretions

viable

alive

primary tuberculosis

the first time TB enters the body

granulomas (tubercles)

inflammatory nodules

immunocompromised

when the immune system becomes impaired

combination therapy

treatment that includes several antibiotics

pneumonia

-inflammatory disease of the lungs
-may be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, chemicals, or other agents

aspiration pneumonias

pneumonia that results from food or liquid inhalation that may be fatal

lobar pneumonia

pneumonia that affects only one lobe of the lung

bronchopneumonia

pneumonia caused from inflammation of the bronchi

hemoptysis

spitting of blood

consolidation

lung tissue becomes swollen and engorged

pneumocystis pneumonia

is a type of pneumonia closely associated with Aids

normal flora

organisms that reside in or on most people

opportunistic

when the immune system is weakened, the greater chance of infections

lavage

bronchial washings

cystic fibrosis

is a hereditary disorder of the exocrine glands that causes the body to secrete extremely thick (viscous) mucus

viscous

extremely thick

aerosols

medications in a form of a mist

sweat test

test that measures the amount of salt excreted in sweat

acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

is a condition in which the lungs no longer function effectively, threatening the life of the patient

systemic infections

the entire body is affected

sepsis

bacteria within the blood

edema

fluid within tissues

hyaline membrane disease (HMD), infant respiratory distress

-is a form of respiratory distress syndrome
-commonly seen in preterm infants or infants born to diabetic mothers
-caused by insufficient surfactant

surfactant

a phospholipid substance that helps keep alveoli open

cyanosis

abnormal condition of blueness of the skin

nares

nostrils

tachypnea

rapid breathing

hyaline membrane

membrane that has a ground- glass appearance

lung cancer (bronchogenic carcinoma)

is a malignancy that arises from the epithelium of the bronchial tree

metastasize

spreading

acidosis

Excessive acidity of body fluids

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