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  • Abboccato

    Medium-sweet
    Full-bodied
    Italy

    Accolage

    Tying the vine branches to the horizontal wires

    Acetic Acid

    The acid component of vinegar
    Excessive amounts result in vinegary nose and taste.

    Aerobic

    Requiring oxygen to operate

    Alcoholic Fermentation

    Conversion of sugar to ETOH by yeast operating in anaerobic conditions

    Anaerobic

    Able to operate without Oxygen

    Aspersion

    Method of protection against Spring frosts
    Vines sprayed with water which freezes
    Coating buds with ice
    Buds saved b/c latent heat of freezing

    Assemblage

    Blending a number of different parcels of wine
    Bordeaux, Champagne

    Ausbruch

    Austria
    Quality category for sweet wines
    Minimum weight required between:
    *Beerenauslese and Trockenbeerenauslese

    Barrique

    Case 225 Liters

    Battonage

    Lees stirring
    France

    Beerenauslese

    Pradikat wine category
    Made w/o chaptalisation
    Grapes within specific range of must weights
    Botrytis

    Blended Whiskey: Scotland

    Blend of grain whiskey and malt whiskey

    Blended Whiskey: US

    Blend of stgraight whiskey and neutral spirit

    Bonne Chauffe

    The second distillation in Cognac
    Converts the Brouillis to eau-de-vie

    Brouillis

    The product of the first distillation in Cognac

    Bordeaux Mixture

    Solution of copper sulfate and lime in water
    Used to spray against fungal disease

    Botrytis Cinerea

    Fungs attacks grape
    Can form unwanted grey rot or noble rot

    Botte

    Italy
    Traditional large barrels up to 160 HL

    Brettanomyces

    Genus of yeast
    Results in distinctive savoury flavours
    Considered a fault

    Bush training

    Training of vines as free-standing plants
    Not needing support of trellis

    Buttage

    French
    Earthing up the bases of the vines
    Protect the graft union against frost

    Cane

    One year old wood on vine
    Pruned to between 8 and 15 buds

    Carbonic Maceration

    Fermentation of whole bunches of black grapes
    Berries initially intact
    Intracellular fermentation
    =well-coloured, fruity red wines
    Low tannins

    Cask Strength

    Malt whiskies
    Spirit that has not been watered down to 40%ABV
    Not filtered
    V high ETOH

    Casse

    Unwated haze in wine
    Caused by instability

    Chalk

    Type of limestone
    Pure calcium carbonate

    Chaptalisation

    Must enrichment
    Using beet or cane surgar

    Charmat Method

    Another name for tank method

    Clay

    Extremely fine-grained soil type
    Retain large amounts of water
    Keeps the soil cool

    Climat

    Vineyard site

    Clonal selection

    Selection and propagation of plants
    From particular variety
    Desirable features

    Clone

    Descendants of a single individual
    Propagated by vegetative means
    Has features identical to parent plant

    Clos

    Walled vineyard
    Though walls may no longer exist

    Congeners

    Organic compounds
    Give flavour and aroma in ETOH beverages
    Products of:
    *fermentation
    *distillation
    *maturation process

    Examples of Congeners

    Ketones, Esters, Aldehydes

    Continentality

    Difference between summer and winter temp

    Cordon

    Horizontal extension of vine trunk

    Cote

    Hillside

    Coteaux

    Slopes

    Crianza

    Has satisfied requirements for aging in cask and bottle

    Crossing

    Breeding of varieties
    Cross-pollination of two different varities of same species

    Cru

    A single 'growth'
    Quality
    Village or vineyard

    Cru Artisan

    Rank of Bordeaux chateaux
    Below Cru Bourgeois

    Cru Bourgeois

    Rank of Bordeaux chateaux
    Below Cru Classe

    Cru Classe

    Classifed growth
    Normally Bordeaux

    Cryo-extraction

    Concentrating the sugar in grape must
    Chilled until ice crystals form
    Can then be easily removed
    Replicates conditions needed for Eiswein

    Cuve

    Vat or tank

    Cuve close

    Another term for tank method

    Cuvee

    *Juice resulting from first pressing of Champagne
    *A blend

    Debuttage

    Removing earth that was placed on vine during buttage

    Degorgement

    Removal of sediment from bottle
    Traditional method only

    Degorgement Tardive

    Champagne that has been disgorged after:
    * long period of yeast autolysis or
    * after ageing sur pointe

    Diurnal Range

    Difference btw daytime and nighttime temp
    Wide range=retention of fruit aromas/acid

    Effect of warm nights

    Encourages sugar build-up

    Dosage

    Adjustment of sugar level in sparkling wines
    Addition of liqueur d'expedition after degorgement

    Eau-de-vie

    Spirit distilled to a maximum of 96%ABV

    Edelfaule

    Noble rot

    Eleve en futs de chene

    Aged in oak barrels

    Erste Lage

    Top vineyards in Germany

    Erzeugerabfullung

    Estate-bottled

    Estate

    Make wines from grapes on their property only

    Estufagem

    Madeira
    Heating process
    Accelerate the develpment and maturation

    Fattoria

    Italian
    Estate

    Feints

    The tails
    Production of malt whiskey

    Fermentation

    Chemical reaction
    Action of yeast or bacteria

    Most important fermentations

    Alcholic and MLF

    Filtration

    Physically removing particles
    From large grape fragments
    To individual yeast cells

    Fining

    Removal of matter in suspension in the wine

    Fining agent

    Acts as a coagulant

    Fixed acidity

    The acidity in wine detectable only on the palate
    Tartaric, malic, lactic

    Foreshots

    The heads
    Production of malt whiskey

    Fractions

    During distillation
    A wash can be separated into different fractions as the parts boil at different temps

    Pot still

    Used to separate a liquid into three fractions
    *heads
    *hearts
    *tails

    Rectifier (re: Fractions)

    Can separtate a liquid into a larger number of precisely-separated fractions

    Geographical Indication

    Defined by WTO
    Facilitates multi-national trade agreemetns
    Wine has quality, reputation or other characteristics determined by where it comes from

    Governo

    Used in production of Chianti
    Small quantity of dried grapes or must added to wine after fermentation
    Increases glycerine content in wine

    Graft

    Union of small piece of one plant onto a rootstock
    To protect against phylloxera

    Grain Whiskey

    Scottish Whiskey
    Made from malt and other grains

    Grains Nobles

    Alsace
    Botrytis-affected gapes

    Gran Reserva

    Certain minimum requirements for ageing in cake and bottle

    Granvas

    Spain
    Tank-fermented sparkling wine

    Green malt

    Grains of barley
    Soaked and starting to germinate
    Modifying the starch into soluble form
    Enzymes break down into fermentable sugars
    Green malt dried in kiln=malt

    Grey rot

    Bad form of botrytis cinerea
    Affects unripe berries or black grapes
    =off flavours, lack of colour

    Habillage

    The dressing on sparkling wine

    Halbtrocken

    half-dry

    Head grafting

    Allows a variety to be grafted over to another, more profitable variety
    No need to grub up and replant

    Heads

    The first fraction to be collected
    during pot still distillation.
    Not suitable for human consumption

    What heads contain

    Ethanol, volatile and potentially toxic levels of compounds such as methonal

    Hearts

    Second fractions to be collected during post distillation
    Suitable for consumption

    Imbottigilato all'origine

    Estate-bottled

    Invecchiato

    Aged

    Irrigation

    Aritfical canals, flooding, overhead sprays
    drip systems for individual vines

    Kabinett

    Pradikat category
    No chaptalisation
    Grapes fall within specific range of must weights

    Lees

    Sediment of dead yeast cells
    Bottom of tank once fermentation complete

    Lees stirring

    Mixing the lees with the wine
    Usually in cask
    Extract components that give extra flavour/body

    Lieu dit

    Named vineyard site not of Premier Cru or Grand Cru status

    Limestone

    Sedimentary rock
    Calcium carbonate
    Good drainage and water-retention

    Benefits of calcium carbonate

    Calcium inhibits uptaked of acid-neutralising potassium
    Helps grapes retain their acid

    Liqueur d'expedition

    Mix of wine and sugar
    Used to make final adjustment to sparkling wine prior to corking

    Liqueur de tirage

    Mixture of wine, sugar and yeast
    Added to still wine
    To promote a secondary fermentation in sparkling wine production

    Liquroeaux

    Very sweet
    Botrytis-effected wines

    Liquoroso

    Strong
    Often fortified wines

    Lutte raisonee

    Avoids unnecessary use of synthetic chemicals

    Maceration

    Skins are in contact with the fermenting must
    During red wine vinification

    MLF

    Addition of lactic acid bacteria
    =conversion of harsh malic acid into softer lactic acid

    Malt

    Barley that has undergone the malting process
    The insoluable starch has been modified into soluable starch

    Malting process

    Soaking, germination and kilning of barley

    Malt whisky

    Double distilled
    Scotch
    Only malt

    Manipulant

    Grape-grower who also makes wine
    Champagne

    Pomace

    The residue of skins, pips and stalks left in press
    Post extraction of juice

    Marc

    The distillate made from pomace

    Mash bill

    Mix of grains used to make whisky

    Mesoclimate

    Site climate

    Micro-climate

    *Climate within the canopy of the vine
    *Used to refer to the mesoclimate

    Millesime

    Vintage date

    Moelleux

    Medium-sweet

    Mosto cotto

    Italian
    Reduced, concentrated grape must

    Must

    Unfermented grape juice that becomes wine

    Must enrichment

    Addition of sugar or RCGM to grape juice
    Prior to fermentation
    Increases the final ETOH content of wine

    Must weight

    Density of grape juice prior to fermentation
    Enables winemaker to estimate ETOH

    Overproof

    Any spirit that is higher in ETOH than proof spirit
    Usually rum

    Passito

    Italian
    Sweet wine
    Dried grapes
    High ETOH

    PDO

    Higher grade of GI

    Petit Chateau

    One of the many brands that fall outside the classifications in Bordeaux

    PGI

    Lower grade of GI

    Photosynthesis

    Plants convert carbon dioxide and water to sugar
    Using light energy absorgbed by chlorophyll

    Pipe

    Tradition cask
    Douro
    For Port

    Pot still

    Copper
    Wash needs to be distilled twice to create useable spirit
    Can only be used to separate a liquid into 3 fractions

    Pradikat

    Various subcategories of German and Austrian PDO wines

    German and PDO wines

    Kabinett
    Spatlese
    Auslese
    Beerenauslese
    Trockenbeerenauslese
    Eiswein

    Primary aromas

    Aromas that arise directly from the fruit

    Pupitre

    Rack with holes to hold necks of sparkling wine
    During remuage

    Racking

    Drawing off clear wine from a cask/vat
    Moving it to another
    Leaves sediment behind

    Recioto

    Similar to passito
    Part-dried grapes

    Rectifier

    Second column of a Coffey or patent still
    ETOH rich vapour from the anayser is separated into fractions

    Remuage

    'Riddling'
    Moving the sediment to the neck of the bottle Prior to degorgement
    Traditional method only

    Residual sugar

    Unfermented sugar remaining in wine after bottling

    Riserva

    Italian
    HIgher ABV
    Extended period of ageing

    Scion

    Section of plant material grafted on to rootstock

    Secondary aromas

    Aromas in a wine that arise from the winemaking
    By products of
    *alcoholic fermentation
    *MLF
    *oak

    Selection (German)

    Quality dry wines from single vienard sites

    Selection de Grains Nobles

    Sweet wines that made from heavily botryitised grapes

    Site Climate

    The climate of a plot of vines, vineyard or part of a vineyard

    Smaragd

    Wachau
    Rich, full-bodied, dry
    Late-harvested grapes

    Solera

    Fractional blending
    Older wine is refreshed by the addition of younger wine

    Spur

    One year old wood pruned short
    To retain only 2-3 buds

    Steinfeder

    Wachau
    Lightest bodied wine category for dry wines

    Straight whiskey

    US
    Made from at least 51% of one grain
    Distilled to no more than 80% ABV
    Aged for a minimum of 2 years
    New oak casks

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