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WSET 3 Advanced Sommelier Program flashcards |

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  • Name the 6 Principal Districts in Bordeaux

    Entre Deux Mers

    What are the 2 primary grape varieties used in Red Wines from Libourne?

    Cabernet Franc

    Name the 4 APPEARANCE Categories for Tasting

    Clarity - Intenisty - Color - Other Observations

    Name the 4 NOSE Categories for Tasting

    Condition - Intensity - Aroma Characteristics - Development

    Name the 8 PALATE Categories for Tasting

    Flavor Intensity
    Flavor Characteristics
    Other Observations - Finish

    Name the 2 CONCLUSION Categories for Tasting

    Quality Level
    Level of Readiness for Drinking/Potential for Aging

    Name the 5 PREMIERS CRUS Red Producers in Bordeaux

    Chateau Margeaux (Maurgaux)
    Chateau Lafite-Rothschild (Pauillac)
    Chateau Latour (Pauillac)
    Chateau Mouton-Rothschild (Pauillac)
    Chateau Haut-Brion (Pessac-Leognan, Graves)

    Name the 1 red Premiers Cru Chateau outside Medoc

    Chateau Haut-Brion

    Name the 7 AOC sub-regions of Haut-Medoc

    Haut Medoc
    Saint Julien
    Moulis en Medoc
    Listrac Medoc


    What is the typical soil of Left Bank Bordeaux?

    Gravelly, Excellent Drainage, Heat Retaining Stone

    What is the typical soil of Right Bank Bordeaux?

    Clay Soils, poor drainage, limited heat retention

    What are the main aspects of wine STRUCTURE?

    Fruit Concentration

    Define ISINGLASS

    Fish oil used in fining wine

    White Wine Fermentation Temperature

    Helps maintain Fruit Characteristics

    Red Wine Fermentation Temperature


    Service Temp for Medium/Full-bodied Whites, Oaked Whites

    Lightly Chilled 10-13ºC

    Service Temp for Light-Medium Bodied White

    Chilled 7-10ºC

    Service Temp for Sweet Wines

    Well Chilled 6-8ºC

    Service Temp for Sparkling Wines

    Well Chilled 6-8ºC

    Service Temp for Light Bodied Red

    Lightly Chilled 13ºC

    Service Temp for Full Bodied Red

    Room Temperature 15-18ºC

    What is the species of grape used in Wine?

    Vitis Vinifera

    What are the 3 species of grapes used in root stock.

    Vitis Riparia
    Vitis Berlandia
    Vitis Rupestris

    What are the 4 price categories?

    <$10 - Inexpensive
    $10-$20 - Mid Priced
    $20-$40 - High Priced
    >$40 - Premium

    What is the appropriate wine storage temp?

    10º-15ºC, or 55ºF

    What is Diurnal Range?

    Temperature difference between day and night.

    What are the two main acids in Wine?

    Malic - Becomes Lactic through Malolactic fermentation

    What 5 factors effect wine style?


    What is Bloom?

    The waxy film around the grape that contains natural yeast

    What aspects does skin impart on wine?


    What aspects does Pulp impart on wine?


    What is Chaptalization?

    Adding of sugars to grape must.

    What is Enrichment?

    Adding concentrated grape must.

    What is acidification?

    Addition of synthetic acid to wine.

    What are 5 synthetic adjustments wine makers use on wine?


    What is the most important yeast in wine making?

    Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    What are lees?

    Left over lees and sediments

    More Free Run Juice...

    Makes for higher quality wine.

    What is the climate of Bordeaux?

    wet, mild climate

    What does AC stand for in France?

    Appelation Controlee

    Name the 4 main Red Grape Varieties in Bordeaux

    Cabernet Sauvignon
    Cabernet Franc
    Petite Verdot (doesn't always ripen and small quantity)

    Name the 3 main white grape varieties in Bordeaux

    Sauvignon Blanc
    Muscadelle (used in Semillion and Balsac)

    What are the 2 primary rivers in Bordeaux?

    They come together in the 'Gironde Estuary'

    What are the three levels of Bordeaux Appellation?

    Generic: AC Bordeaux, AC Bordeaux Superieure...
    District: AC Medoc, AC Entre Deux Mers, AC Libornais...
    Commune: AC Saint-Estephe, AC Saint-Julien, AC Pauillac...

    What is the significance of 1855

    The year the Medoc Red and Sauternes White Crus was created.
    Based off the excessive 1855 market price for these wines

    How often does AC Semillion review its Crus?

    Every 10 years

    What is the structure of the St. Emillion cru system

    Review of producers every 10 years,
    enter system as a grand cru
    after 10 years consistent G. Cru performance can become a Grand Cru Classé
    Top tier is Premier G. Cru Classe

    Describe the Graves (Pessac Leognan) Classification System

    There is no ranking! All listed wines may call themselves Crus Classé. All lie within the Pessac Leognan AC.
    Chateau Haut-Brion is the only exception in that it is part of the 1855 Premiers Crus Classification.

    What is Libourne?

    The Right Bank of Bordeaux

    What is the Garonne river famous for?

    Cool water that affects FOG and thus perfect BOTRYTIS conditions in Southern Bordeaux

    How many Ranks Are There in the Medoc Classifications?


    How many Ranks Are There in the Sauternes Classification?

    Chattea d'Yquem occupies the Premiers Rating Slot

    How is Cru Borgeouis Classification Awarded in Medoc?

    By a panel, not to the chateaux but to each individual vintage. Done yearly.

    What is Sale en Primeur?

    Futures sales of early rated vintages from top producers in Bordeaux

    What are THREE Regions just outside (SW France) that replicate Bordeaux Wines?

    AC Bergerac - Both Red and White
    AC Monbazzillac - Sweet Whites (botrytis)
    AC Montravel - Dry Whites

    What is the principle wine of Cahors AC in SW France?

    Malbec (Auxerrois)
    Minimum of 70% in any blend

    Also plant tannat and merlot

    What kind of wine is Cotes de Gascogne, SE of Bordeaux, Famous for?

    Crisp, Light whites made from Armagnac.

    What style wines come from Madiran AC, South of Bordeaux?

    Highly structured reds from Tannat Grapes

    What are the differences between Cane and Spur Training?

    Cane leaves only a piece of cane and the first few buds after pruning.

    Spur leaves a permanent cordon with spurs and a bud on each every year.



    What is a farmer controlling with different training solutions?


    What are the 4 main Grape varieties of Burgundy?

    Pinot Noir

    What are the main characteristics of the Aligoté varietal?

    Thin high acid wines. Generally two-dimensional flavor.
    Used in sparkling burgundies, blended to add acidity.

    Name the 7 most important Burgundy Districts from North to South.

    Chablis - White Chardonay-Centric wines
    Cote d'Or
    -Cote de Nuits - Top Full Bodied Reds
    -Cote de Beaune - Top Whites (excluding Musigny Blanc)
    Cote Chalonnais

    What is the soil composition of the Cote d'Or

    Limestone and Marl Clay

    What are the Key Grand Cru Villages from Cote de Nuits? (north to south)

    Gevrey Chambertin AC
    Vougeot AC
    Vosne-Romanée AC
    Nuits-Saint-Georges AC

    What are the 7 important villages on the Cote de Beaune?

    Aloxe-Corton AC
    Beaune AC
    Pommard AC
    Volnay AC
    Meursault AC
    Puligny-Montrachet AC
    Chassagne-Montrachet AC

    Describe the Burgundy Cru System

    Regional AC's - Aligoté, Rouge (P. Noir), Blanc (Chard)
    Commune AC's - Chablis, Beaune, Gevrey Chambertin
    Single Vineyard AC's - Premier and Grand Crus - Vineyards individually owned unlike Bordeaux Chateaux

    What is the major climactic issue in Chablis?


    What is the soil type of Chablis?

    Limestone under Kimmeridigan Clay (Marine fossil clay)

    What are the 4 main commune appellations in Cote Chalonnaise, Burgundy?

    Rully AC - White and Red
    Mercurey AC - Best Reds from Chalonnaise
    Givry AC - Smallest
    Mantagny AC - Only Whites

    What is the most famous communal appellation in Mâconnais?

    Pouilly-Fuissé AC - Amphitheater hills that produce the richest white wines in Burgundy (up to 14% abv).
    Characteristics of ripe Peach, Melon with savory or nutty flavors of new oak.

    How are Gamay grapes generally trained in Beaujolais?


    What are some typical Beaujolais flavor profiles?

    Bubble Gum
    Cinnamon spices

    What is the typical soil profile of Beaujolais?

    Granite Schist
    Gamay loves Granite

    What are the 3 top Beaujolais Crus?

    Moulin-a-vent AC - Powerful and full bodied
    Morgon AC - Powerful and full bodied
    Brouilly AC - Most common and large production

    How is the Beaujolais system composed?

    Beaujolais AC - Lowest Quality, Can produce Nouveau or Premieur
    Beaujolais Villages AC - Can produce Nouveau or Premieur
    Beaujolais Crus - Ten Crus

    What are basic Gamay Flavors without Carbonic Maceration?


    What is a unique aspect about the general composition of Alsace Soils?

    There are many varying geologies!
    Slopes of Granite, Limestone, Clay, Sandstone, Volcanic, and Loam
    The plains are largely alluvial

    What are the 7 Main Grape Varieties of Alsace?

    Pinot Gris
    Pinot Blanc
    Pinot Noir

    What are the 2 AC's for still wine in Alsace?

    Alsace AC -70% of Prod. Mostly White.
    Alsace Grand Cru AC - 51 Vineyards, Single Noble Grape Varieties, Many problems with system

    What is Vendange Tardive? (VT)

    Late harvest in Alsace
    Must be one of the 4 Noble Grape varieties
    Minimum of 14% alcohol potential
    Dry to medium sweet wines, no sweetness regulation

    What is Sélection de Grains Nobles? (SGN)

    Alsace only
    selection of botrytis affected grapes
    minimum of 16.4-18.2% alcohol potential
    noble grapes only
    not produced every year
    always sweet

    Describe an Alsace style Riesling

    Full bodied
    Dry, medium/medium+ alcohol
    High acidity and flinty minerality
    Unlike the light german style

    Describe a common profile for Geruztraminer in Alsace.

    Spicy nose
    Lychee, Baking Spices
    Golden Color
    Oily Texture
    High Alcohol
    Medium to low acidity

    Describe the Climate of the Loire Valley

    Varying among subregions
    Central Vineyards - Cool continental
    Anjou and Nantais - Western with more maritime influence

    Name the Major Regions and Subregions in the Loire Valley (East to West)

    Central Vineyards
    -Pouilly-Fume - Sauvignon Blanc
    -Sancerre - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
    -Menetou-Salon - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
    -Tourraine - Generic AC, Many styles
    -Vouvray - Chenin Blanc
    -Bourgueil - Cab Franc
    -Chinnon - Cab Franc
    -Sanmur - Chenin Blanc & Cab Franc
    -Anjou - Chenin Blanc, Cab Franc, And some Rosé
    -Coteaux du Layon - Chenin Blanc
    -Savennieres - Chenin Blanc
    -Muscadet - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Main - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Marine Sur Lie - Melon Blanc

    What are the 3 subregions of the Loire Central Valley?

    -Pouilly-Fume - Sauvignon Blanc
    -Sancerre - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
    -Menetou-Salon - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc

    What are the 4 subregions of the Tourraine Region in Loire?

    -Tourraine - Generic AC, Many styles
    -Vouvray - Chenin Blanc
    -Bourgueil - Cab Franc
    -Chinnon - Cab Franc

    What are the 4 subregions of the Anjou-Sanmur in Loire?

    -Sanmur - Chenin Blanc & Cab Franc
    -Anjou - Chenin Blanc, Cab Franc, And some Rosé
    -Coteaux du Layon - Chenin Blanc
    -Savennieres - Chenin Blanc

    What are the 3 subregions of the Nantais in Loire?

    -Muscadet - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Main - Melon Blanc
    -Muscadet de Svre et Marine Sur Lie - Melon Blanc

    What are the characteristics of Melon Blanc?

    Often referred to as Muscadet
    Neutral, green apple, grassy aroma
    food friendly

    What defines a Loire style Sauvignon Blanc?

    Avoidance of excessive grassiness or fruitiness
    Fermentation in old oak
    restrained style unlike new world

    What effect will Sweet food have on wine?

    More drying, bitter, and acidic.
    Less Fruity & less sweet.

    Use sweeter or more fruity wines

    What effect will Umami food have on wine?

    More drying, bitter, acidic. Will firm tannins.
    Less sweet & less fruity.

    Pair with more fruity wines, limit tannins

    What effect will Salty food have on wine?

    Less drying and bitter, less acidic.
    Makes wine smoother and richer.

    Eases Tannins.

    What effect will Acidic food have on wine?

    Less bitter and acidic.
    Increases Fruit, Sweetness, and Richness.

    Pair with High acid wines.

    What effect will highly flavored food have on wine?

    Wine can be overwhelmed.
    Pair with wine of similar flavor intensity.

    How does chili heat affect wine?

    Firms tannins, increases bitterness, astringency, acidity, and alcohol burn.

    Pair with low alcohol sweet or fruity whites.

    What is the most maritime region in Loire?


    What two-named region is in between Nantais and Tourraine?


    What 2 regions define Northern Rhone?

    Vienne in the North
    Valence in the South

    What is the geography of the Rhone Valley?

    Narrow and steep following the river
    Granitic soil
    Plantings on the Southern facing aspects
    Continental with warm summers

    How many cru apellations are in Northern Rhone?


    What is the only black grape variety allowed in Northern Rhone?


    What are the typical characteristics of Syrah?

    High tannin
    Black Fruit, Black Pepper, Floral
    Develop Gamey aromas

    What are some typical Viognier characteristics in Northern Rhone?

    Exotic- Apricot, spice, floral
    rich mouthfeel
    Low acidity, high alcohol

    picked late at high sugar ripeness

    What are the 4 Main Varietals of Northern Rhone?

    Syrah, Viognier, Marsanne, and Roussanne

    What are the characteristics of Rousanne Grape?

    High acidity and perfumed fruit
    Develop honeyed aromas

    -used for blending in northern rhone

    What are the Characteristics of the Marsanne grape?

    Richness and weight
    Develop honeyed aromas

    -More dominant in Rhone as Rousanne is temperamental to weather

    What is the central town of Cote-Rotie AC?

    Ampuis, in the north of Northern Rhone

    What are typical characteristics of Cote-Rotie AC?

    Elegant, Deep color, full bodied, spicy

    the best have floral aromas and textural elegance

    What are the eight AC styles of Northern Rhone?

    Cote-Rotie AC - Red Syrah
    Condrieu AC - White Viognier
    Chateau Grillet AC- Similar to Condrieu
    Saint Joseph AC - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussanne
    Hermitage AC - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussanne
    Crozes-Hermitage - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussanne
    Cornas - Syrah

    What are the characteristics of Hermitage?

    Fullest body in Northern Rhone
    Age for a long time, some to 50+ years

    What are the characteristics of Saint-Joseph AC Syrah?

    Varying from Hermitage intensity to light bodied carbonically macerated wines with raspberry and pepper perfumes.

    What Northern Rhone Cru must be made of 100% Syrah?

    Cornas AC - Southern most Cru in Northern Rhone

    Most under valued!

    What are the primary grapes used in the Southern Rhone?

    Grenache - Red
    Syrah & Mourvedre - Red
    Cinsault - Red

    Whites are a minority product
    Clairette, Grenache Blanc, Bourboulec, Viognier, Marsanne, Roussanne

    What distinguishes the Southern Rhone Style from The Northern?

    The Southern Rhone tends to blend more varying varietals while the north sticks with Syrah, Viognier, and Marsanne/Roussanne

    What distinguishes the geography of the Southern Rhone from the north?

    The Rhone Valley opens up much more South of Valence the terrain is much flatter, Soil with large "Galet" stones that help hold heat.

    What are the climates that distinguish Northern from Southern Rhone?

    Northern is more Continental
    Southern is Mediteranean

    What is the dominant varietal of the southern Rhone?

    -Heat/drought resistant, wind resistant. Develops concentrated spicy red fruit flavor. in hot years it can become baked and jammy

    What are the 2 supporting red grapes in the southern rhone?

    Syrah - Color and Tannin - South can be too hot
    Mourvedre - Deep color intense tannin, Northern limit of ripening in Rhone. Gamey, savoury aromas.

    What is the style of the southern Rhone?

    Trick question: Wines can have huge range from light/med bodied fruity fresh to high tannin full bodied red.
    All producers must manage tannin levels in the hot rhone valley!

    What are the 8 essential AC's in the southern Rhone?

    Cotes Du Rhone
    Cotes Du Rhone Villages
    Rhone Satellites

    Describe a typical Cotes Du Rhone AC

    Medium Bodied, Fruity, and Simple
    Many use carbonic maceration to limit tannins

    Describe a typical Cotes Du Rhone Villages AC

    Higher min. alcohol/percentage of Grenache, Mourvedre, and Syrah, lower yeilds.
    18 Villages may add their names

    Describe a typical Chateauneuf-du-Pape AC

    Largest Cru in S. Rhone, Diverse Terroir, typically Grenache and Mourvedre.
    Full bodied, rich texture, spiced red fruit, high alcohol.

    What are the typical styles of the Tavel and Lirac AC's?

    Rosés from Grenache and Cinsault
    Full bodied and intense flavor.

    What are the style of the 4 New S. Rhone Crus? (Gigondas, Vacqeyras, Beaume de Venise, Vinsorbes)

    Chateauneuf-du-Pape style.
    Full bodied spicy wines

    What is the most common black grape in Southern France?

    Grenache - thrives on the hot weather

    What are the most common white varietals used in Southern France?

    Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc

    What does VSP stand for?


    What are the 6 key AC's in Languedoc-Roussillon?

    Languedoc AC
    Minervois AC
    Corbieres AC
    Fitou AC
    Cotes du Roussillon AC
    Cotes du Roussillon Villages AC
    Pay d'Oc IGP

    What is typical of Pays d'OC IGP styles

    They often resemble new-world styles with international varietals.

    What are the 2 important Provence AC's?

    Cotes de Provence AC - Rosés,
    Bandol AC - Mourvedre Red $$$

    Describe the Badol AC style from Provence.

    Mourvedre Based
    Dark, full bodied, powerful tannin, require bottle age
    Bramble, gamey, meat, licorice

    What is an Ambaugebiet?

    A region distinguished by a PDO or Denomination in Germany. There are 13 in Germany.

    What is a Bereich?

    A district within an Ambaugebiet. Often a famous village within a great PDO region.

    What is an Einzellage?

    An Einzellage is an individual vineyard. Only PDO producers may mention the Einzellage on Label.

    What is a Grosslage?

    A group of Vineyards, only producers of PDO wines may label the vineyards on label

    What is the meaning of Qualitatswein bestimter Anbaugebiete(QbA)?

    Produced from grapes exclusively grown within one of the 13 Anbaugabiete.
    May undergo must enrichment.

    What is Pradikatswein?

    Indicates quality wine with special attributes from a single Bereich within an Anbaugebiete.
    May not receive enrichment but can be sweetened post fermentation with Süssreserve.

    Also must label which of the 6 Pradikat levels it belongs to.

    What are the 6 Pradikatswein Denominations?


    Define Kabinett Pradikat

    Most delicate pradikatswein style
    Ideal aperatif
    Reislings Light in body, High acidity, with green apple, citrus, and some residual sugars.

    Varying sugar levels.

    Define the Spälese Pradikat

    "Late Harvest"
    More concentrated flavor than Kabinett
    More ripe Riesling flavors, no green apple, more citrus and stone fruit (peach & Apricot)

    Define the Auslese Pradikatt

    Made from selected super ripe bunches
    Huge style range for Riesling
    Can be from a bit more concentrated than Spätlese up to full botrytis effect.

    Highest category allowed to be dry wine.

    Define the Beerenauslese Pradikatt

    Rare expensive sweet style with Botrytis (noble rot). Don't require noble rot, just need to meet minimum must weight.

    Define the Eiswein Pradikatt

    "Ice-Wine" left until they meet -8ºC temp
    Crushed, frozen water skimmed off
    Intense Fruit and Acidity

    Define the Trockenbeerenauslese Pradikatt

    Minute quantities produced
    Undergo noble rot until absolutely shriveled
    very high residual sugar and acidity.
    Very $$

    What are the requirements for Landwein (German PGI)

    Either Trocken of Hab-Trocken (dry or off dry), higher must weight than Deutscher Wein (table wine)

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