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  1. Red Wine Making ProcessGrape Reception: First does of S02, grapes sorted.
    Destemming and Crushing: Optional. Crushing breaks skins and liberates free run juice, but crushed pips release bitter oils.
    Pressing: Separates the liquid and solid and solid parts of the grape. For white wines, before fermentation, for roses and reds, skin contact is allowed.

          

  2. Pre-Fermentation ExtractionOptional for winemakers to let the grapes macerate at a low temp before fermentation starts. Increases extraction of color and flavor aromas. Can also do this at higher temps, but this can reduce fruit aromas.

          

  3. ChapitalizationLevel of sugar in the must.

          

  4. Must WeightWhen sugar from non-grape sources is added to the must.

          

  5. Changing Sugar Levels in WinemakingMust enrichment is the winemaking adjustment that occurs when there is not enough sugar in the grapes, so sugar is added. This then allows the wine to have more alcohol if before fermentation. Can make the wine boozy and thin-tasting.

          

  6. Changing Tannin Levels in WinemakingTannin levels can be raised by adding tannin powder, stems or wooden staves to the fermentation vat. Or, some of the juice can be removed to make a rose.
    Too much tannin is handled by avoiding too much extraction.

          

  7. Temperature Control during Alcoholic Fermentation...

          

  8. Extraction During Fermentation...

          

  9. Wild Yeast vs Cultivated Yeast StrainsAmbient yeasts were traditionally used, but now winemakers control them with S02 and introduce cultivated yeasts to control the outcome of fermentation.

          

  10. Malolactic Fermentation (MLF)...

          

  11. Changing Acid Levels in WinemakingTannin levels can be raised by adding tannin powder, stems or wooden staves to the fermentation vat. Or, some of the juice can be removed to make a rose.
    Too much tannin is handled by avoiding too much extraction.

          

  12. Four Parts of the Grape and What They ContainPulp: Water containing sugar, tartaric and malic acids.
    Skins: Flavor compounds, tannins.
    Pips & Stems: Tannins, but pips have bitter oils.
    Bloom: The waxy surface covering skins, contains yeasts.

          

  13. Three Phases of Grape ProcessingGrape Selection
    Destemming
    Crush (must to make rose)
    Cold Maceration (add sugars or tannins)
    Alcoholic Fermentation
    Post-Fermentation Maceration
    Drain
    IF FREE RUN, then MLF to New Made Wine
    If SKINS AND LEES, Press, Press Wine, MLF, Press Wine