NAME

Question types


Start with


Question limit

of 32 available terms

Print test

32 True/False questions

  1. Spring FrostsOccur when air below 0C collects at ground level, freezing water vapor and killing newly-burst buds and shoots, impacting yields significantly.

          

  2. Soil CompositionThe timing and the amount of rainfall is important. Flowering and Fruit Set can be disrupted by heavy rainfall, reducing the number of grapes formed. Damp conditions encourage fungal infections. Pre-Harvest rains cause the grape swelling, diluting the flavors and sometime splitting the berries.

          

  3. Not Enough WaterCan cause transpiration to stop, photosynthesis to stop, leaves to wilt, grapes to not ripen, and even kill a vine.

          

  4. PrecipitationSoil sits on bedrock, and may be CM or 5+M in depth. Soil particle size is critical, as small ones (like Clay) hold water much better than large ones (like Sand).
    Ideal soil has few nutrients, is well drained, and is able to store enough water to support the vine during the growing season.

          

  5. Four Types of Spring Frost ProtectionBurners: Generating heat through combustion, creates movement in the air and prevents frost. Smudge pots create smoke that stays on the ground and acts as insulation.
    Wind Machines: Large fans that draw warm air from above and moves it to the ground.
    Sprinklers: Water sprayed onto vines releases hit as it freezes, protecting the plant.
    Vineyard Design: Avoid slopes and depressions, plant on slopes, train vines high.

          

  6. Moderate ContinentalSummers are hot enough to ripen grapes like Cabernet Sauvignon in a relatively short growing season. The high temperatures could require irrigation.

          

  7. Maritime ClimateLow continentality with warm, dry summers. The dryness and warmth leads to fuller-bodied wines with ripe tannins, high alcohol and low acid. Low rainfall can make healthy grapes but also lead to drought. Examples include the Mediterranean, Coastal California, Chile, South Easter Australia and the Cape Winelands.

          

  8. High Temperature SummersIdeal average growing temperature is between 16 and 21 Celsius. Vines go dormant at 10C and begin to die over 22C. Temperature dictates which varietals to grow -- Riesling thrives in cool locations, while Grenache needs it to be hot.

          

  9. Characteristics of Wines from High and Low Diurnal Range RegionsHigh Diurnal Range Wines: Fresher and More Aromatic
    Low Diurnal Range Wines: Fuller-Bodied

          

  10. WaterWater is used for photosynthesis, to give rigidity to shoots and leaves, to regulate temperature and to swell grapes. It travels through the vine via transpiration. The amount of water required a vine is determined by the temperature.

          

  11. Cool Continental ClimateThere is a danger of spring frosts, and low temperatures can affect fruit set, flowering and ripening. Better-suited to varieties that bud late and ripen early. Germany and Champagne are examples.

          

  12. Soil and Plant NutrientsSoil sits on bedrock, and may be CM or 5+M in depth. Soil particle size is critical, as small ones (like Clay) hold water much better than large ones (like Sand).
    Ideal soil has few nutrients, is well drained, and is able to store enough water to support the vine during the growing season.

          

  13. Climate ClassificationsClimate is the pattern of rainfail, temperature and sunlight averaged out over several years, and it can change over decades. Weather is the annual variation in those averages. In Bourdeaux, there is great variation in rainfall from year to year, while in California's Central Valley, it is always dry and hot.

          

  14. Mediterranean ClimateLow continentality with warm, dry summers. The dryness and warmth leads to fuller-bodied wines with ripe tannins, high alcohol and low acid. Low rainfall can make healthy grapes but also lead to drought. Examples include the Mediterranean, Coastal California, Chile, South Easter Australia and the Cape Winelands.

          

  15. Continental ClimateRegions with this climate have the greatest difference in temperature between hottest and coldest months. They generally experience short summers with a large, rapid temperature drop in autumn, low rainfall and high sun.

          

  16. Mild WintersWater is used for photosynthesis, to give rigidity to shoots and leaves, to regulate temperature and to swell grapes. It travels through the vine via transpiration. The amount of water required a vine is determined by the temperature.

          

  17. Three Techniques of IrrigationDrip: Most advanced and expensive, each vine has a computer-controlled dripper dispensing water.
    Spinklers: Inexpensive and widely-used, they waste a lot of water and create damp conditions. Can be used as frost protection.
    Flood: Very cheap, only possible in flat vineyards with lots of water, like Argentina and Chile.

          

  18. Vine TemperaturesAccelerate the ripening of grapes, altering the composition of the grape and the style of the wine. There is also drought risk, which would cause the vine to shed leaves and even die.

          

  19. Factors Affecting ContinentalityThe variation between summer and winter temps is mitigated by large bodies of water. Inland areas suffer larger swings. Niagara viticulture would not be possible without Lake Ontario.

          

  20. TerroirThe ensemble of environmental influences that give a wine a sense of place. The combined effects of aspect, slope, climate, weather and grape variety.

          

  21. CoulureSoil element made up of decomposing plant and animal matter, rich in nutrients with excellent water-retention properties.

          

  22. HumusSoil element made up of decomposing plant and animal matter, rich in nutrients with excellent water-retention properties.

          

  23. Sunlight - Importance and HazardsAccelerate the ripening of grapes, altering the composition of the grape and the style of the wine. There is also drought risk, which would cause the vine to shed leaves and even die.

          

  24. Factors Affecting SunlightSeas And Lakes: Bodies of water create cloud cover. Landlocked regions are sunnier. Some bodies of water will reflect sunlight.
    Latitude: Day length during the growing season is longer when the vineyard is further from the equator. Important for Riesling in Germany and Cabernet Sauvignon in Washington State.
    Aspect: Steep Slopes and Slope Direction affect sunlight levels. The best is steep slopes facing the equator.

          

  25. Temperature's Affect on Vine GrowthSeas And Lakes: Bodies of water create cloud cover. Landlocked regions are sunnier. Some bodies of water will reflect sunlight.
    Latitude: Day length during the growing season is longer when the vineyard is further from the equator. Important for Riesling in Germany and Cabernet Sauvignon in Washington State.
    Aspect: Steep Slopes and Slope Direction affect sunlight levels. The best is steep slopes facing the equator.

          

  26. Too Much WaterCan cause transpiration to stop, photosynthesis to stop, leaves to wilt, grapes to not ripen, and even kill a vine.

          

  27. Factors Affecting Diurnal RangeSeas And Lakes: Bodies of water create cloud cover. Landlocked regions are sunnier. Some bodies of water will reflect sunlight.
    Latitude: Day length during the growing season is longer when the vineyard is further from the equator. Important for Riesling in Germany and Cabernet Sauvignon in Washington State.
    Aspect: Steep Slopes and Slope Direction affect sunlight levels. The best is steep slopes facing the equator.

          

  28. Factors Affecting Annual TemperatureWater: Seas and lakes are the biggest factors that limit the temperature change between day and night, but rivers and streams also have an impact.
    Cloud Cover: Temperatures drop more quickly on clear nights and rise more slowly on cloudy days.

          

  29. Importance of Diurnal RangeWater: Seas and lakes are the biggest factors that limit the temperature change between day and night, but rivers and streams also have an impact.
    Cloud Cover: Temperatures drop more quickly on clear nights and rise more slowly on cloudy days.

          

  30. Climate and WeatherClimate is the pattern of rainfail, temperature and sunlight averaged out over several years, and it can change over decades. Weather is the annual variation in those averages. In Bourdeaux, there is great variation in rainfall from year to year, while in California's Central Valley, it is always dry and hot.

          

  31. Summer HailCan damage grapes and the vines themselves. Nets are used to protect vines in Mendoza, and aircrafts and rockets are used to seed storm clouds with chemicals to prevent hail formation.

          

  32. Winter FreezeIf the temp falls below -20C, vines can be seriously damaged or killed, particularly the Graft Callus. One solution is to bury the callus, or the whole vine.