32 Multiple choice questions
sits on bedrock, and may be CM or 5+M in depth. Soil particle size is
critical, as small ones (like Clay) hold water much better than large
ones (like Sand).
Ideal soil has few nutrients, is well drained, and is able to store enough water to support the vine during the growing season.
Later budburst, shorter growing season for grapes to ripen, flowering
and fruit set can be disrupted, higher acid / lower sugar production.
Black grapes may produce bitter/astringent flavors. Better for whites.
Warmer: Early budburst, longer growing season, accelerated ripening, loss of acidity, ripening of tannins. Better for reds.
when air below 0C collects at ground level, freezing water vapor and
killing newly-burst buds and shoots, impacting yields significantly.
- Can cause transpiration to stop, photosynthesis to stop, leaves to wilt, grapes to not ripen, and even kill a vine.
is used for photosynthesis, to give rigidity to shoots and leaves, to
regulate temperature and to swell grapes. It travels through the vine
via transpiration. The amount of water required a vine is determined by
- The most important elements are Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium. They are dissolved in the soil.
Too much nitrogen can result in overgrowth of canopy and too much shading.
Too few nutrients can lead to chlorosis, when the leaves turning yellow and losing chlorophyll, affecting quality and yield. Generally caused by lack of iron in the soil, typical of the limestone in Burgundy, Barolo and Rioja. It can be addressed through lime-resistant rootstock.
- Seas And Lakes: Bodies of water create cloud cover. Landlocked regions are sunnier. Some bodies of water will reflect sunlight.
Latitude: Day length during the growing season is longer when the vineyard is further from the equator. Important for Riesling in Germany and Cabernet Sauvignon in Washington State.
Aspect: Steep Slopes and Slope Direction affect sunlight levels. The best is steep slopes facing the equator.
damage grapes and the vines themselves. Nets are used to protect vines
in Mendoza, and aircrafts and rockets are used to seed storm clouds with
chemicals to prevent hail formation.
- Cool Nights help the vine rest and extend the growing season. They also help slow the loss of volatile aromas during ripening.
Warm Nights accelerate ripening, particularly sugar production.
average growing temperature is between 16 and 21 Celsius. Vines go
dormant at 10C and begin to die over 22C. Temperature dictates which
varietals to grow -- Riesling thrives in cool locations, while Grenache
needs it to be hot.
called shatter, coulure is a viticultural hazard that is the result of
metabolic reactions to weather conditions that causes a failure of
grapes to develop after flowering. Coulure is triggered by periods of
cold, cloudy, rainy weather or very high out-of-season temperatures. The
condition is most often manifested in the spring. Flowers stay closed
and are not fertilized. Thus the vines are not pollinated as the grape
fails to develop and falls off. Coulure can also cause irregular bunches
of grapes which are less compact than normal.
are hot enough to ripen grapes like Cabernet Sauvignon in a relatively
short growing season. The high temperatures could require irrigation.
Winters can prevent vine dormancy, resulting in multiple low-quality
crops per year. The vine's life will be shortened and vineyard pests
will multiply year-round.
with this climate have the greatest difference in temperature between
hottest and coldest months. They generally experience short summers with
a large, rapid temperature drop in autumn, low rainfall and high sun.
- Latitude: Vines grow between 30 and 50 degrees latitude, North and South of the equator.
Altitude: Temperature drops .6C for every 100M of altitude.
Ocean Currents: Large volumes of warm and cool water affect air temperatures. The Humbolt off Chile and the Benguela off South Africa cool regions, while the Gulf Stream off NW Europe warms it.
Fog: Fog Cools, like in Napa and Casablanca (Chile)
Soil: Dark, rocky and dry soils absorb and radiate heat.
Aspect: Facing the equator gives the most heat, and steeper slopes benefit more.
Sunlight is needed for photosynthesis, and the more of it there is, the
more glucose is generated.Grapes ripen better if exposed to direct
Hazards: Grapes can be sunburned, leading to dark patches, bitterness, and reduced wine quality. Shaded buds are less fruitful. Too much cloud cover can stop ripening, leading to low alcohol levels, unripe flavors and tannins, low yields the next year and may suffer coulure.
- Cool: Avg Growing Season Temp at or Below 16.5C
Moderate: Avg Growing Season Temp at 16.5C-18.5C
Warm: Avg Growing Season Temp at 18.5C-12C
Hot: Avg Growing Season Temp at or Above 21C
too much vegetative growth causes shading for grapes and grapes won't
ripen. Late, it creates dampness and rot, makes berries burst, leading
to fungal and bacterial infection.
continentality with warm, dry summers. The dryness and warmth leads to
fuller-bodied wines with ripe tannins, high alcohol and low acid. Low
rainfall can make healthy grapes but also lead to drought. Examples
include the Mediterranean, Coastal California, Chile, South Easter
Australia and the Cape Winelands.
the temp falls below -20C, vines can be seriously damaged or killed,
particularly the Graft Callus. One solution is to bury the callus, or
the whole vine.
Generating heat through combustion, creates movement in the air and
prevents frost. Smudge pots create smoke that stays on the ground and
acts as insulation.
Wind Machines: Large fans that draw warm air from above and moves it to the ground.
Sprinklers: Water sprayed onto vines releases hit as it freezes, protecting the plant.
Vineyard Design: Avoid slopes and depressions, plant on slopes, train vines high.
- Soil element made up of decomposing plant and animal matter, rich in nutrients with excellent water-retention properties.
is a danger of spring frosts, and low temperatures can affect fruit
set, flowering and ripening. Better-suited to varieties that bud late
and ripen early. Germany and Champagne are examples.
temperatures, low continentality, cloudiness, and evenly-spaced,
significant rainfall. Spring and Summer rain threaten flowering, fruit
set, and grape health at harvest. However, the warmth, for Bourdeaux,
this extends the growing season well into autumn.
the ripening of grapes, altering the composition of the grape and the
style of the wine. There is also drought risk, which would cause the
vine to shed leaves and even die.
timing and the amount of rainfall is important. Flowering and Fruit Set
can be disrupted by heavy rainfall, reducing the number of grapes
formed. Damp conditions encourage fungal infections. Pre-Harvest rains
cause the grape swelling, diluting the flavors and sometime splitting
- Drip: Most advanced and expensive, each vine has a computer-controlled dripper dispensing water.
Spinklers: Inexpensive and widely-used, they waste a lot of water and create damp conditions. Can be used as frost protection.
Flood: Very cheap, only possible in flat vineyards with lots of water, like Argentina and Chile.
Seas and lakes are the biggest factors that limit the temperature
change between day and night, but rivers and streams also have an
Cloud Cover: Temperatures drop more quickly on clear nights and rise more slowly on cloudy days.
- High Diurnal Range Wines: Fresher and More Aromatic
Low Diurnal Range Wines: Fuller-Bodied
ensemble of environmental influences that give a wine a sense of place.
The combined effects of aspect, slope, climate, weather and grape
variation between summer and winter temps is mitigated by large bodies
of water. Inland areas suffer larger swings. Niagara viticulture would
not be possible without Lake Ontario.
is the pattern of rainfail, temperature and sunlight averaged out over
several years, and it can change over decades. Weather is the annual
variation in those averages. In Bourdeaux, there is great variation in
rainfall from year to year, while in California's Central Valley, it is
always dry and hot.